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Volume XLll. (1897-98) 



The authors of the several papers contained in this 
volume are themselves accountable for all the statements 
and r-easonings which they have offered. In these par- 
ticulars the Society must not be considered as in any 
way responsible. 



I. Notes on a Collection of Hymenopteia from Greymouth, New 
Zealand, with descriptions of New Species. By Peter 
Cameron pp. i — 53 

II. Description of two new species of Mutilla from South Africa. 

By Peter Cameron pp. 1—3 

III. On Waves in a medium having a Periodic Discontinuity of 

Structure. By Horace Lame, M.A., F.R.S pp. 1—20 

— IV. Further Investigations into the Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian 
Sea, Persian Gulf, and Sea of Oman. (Addendum : Descrip- 
tion of a New Strombus from the Mekran Coast of Beluchistan.) 
By James Cosmo Melvill, M.y\., F.L.S. Plates i and 2. 

pp. 1—40 

V. On a Method of Determining the Thermal Conductivities of 
Salts, with some results of its application. By Charles H. 
Lees, D.Sc. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... pp. i — 4 

VI. On the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat. By Osuorne Rey- 
nolds, M.A., F.R.S., and W. H. Moorbv, M.Sc. ... pp. i — 54 

VII. On the Instantaneous Pressures produced on the Collision of 
Two E.xplosion Waves. By R. H. Jones, B.Sc, and J. 

Bower, B,Sc. Plates PP. i — 7 

VIII. On a General Method of determining the Form of the Velocity- 
Potential of Fluid- Motion in Two Dimensions across a 

Channel with Straight Sides. By R. F, Gwyther, M.A. pp. i — 6 

IX, On the Velocity of Sound in a Tube, as affected by the 
elasticity of the Walls. By Horace Lamb, M.A., F.R.S. 

pp. I — 16 

X. The New (iold Discoveries. By Eduard .Suess, of Vienna, pp. i — 9 

XI. Ilymenoptera Orientalia, or Contributions to a Knowledge of 
the Ilymenoptera of the Oriental Zoological Region. Part 
VII. By Pi-.ter Cameron. Plate 4 pp. 1—84 

XII. On the Physical Basis of Psychical Events. (The Wilde Lecture.) 

By Professor Michael Foster, Sec. R.S. pp. i - 46 

XIII. Contributions to our Knowledge of the Marine Fauna of the 

Falkland Islands. By Edith M, Prat'J', B.Sc. Plate 5. pp. 1—26 




Allen, J. F. — Exhibit of specimens of chromium and an alloy of 
manganese and tin 

Exhibit of manganese alloys which had recovered from severe 

strain after lapse of time 

Exhibit of an alloy of manganese and silver ... xxvii 

AsHWORTH, J. J.— On a paper by Mr. J. Smith anticipating recent 

discoveries of the colour-phenomena with a rapidly rotating 
black and white disc ... ... ... ... ... ... xviii 

Bailey, Charles, F.L.S.— Exhibit of specimens of Salvinia natans 

Willd. ... XXV 

Exhibit of living plants of Jacquin's oxlip ... ... ... ... xxxv 

BoLTO.v, H., F.R.S. E. — The palaeontology of the slates of the Isle of 

Man... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xxxiii 

Broadbent, G. H., M.R.C.S. — Description of Sarcina ... .. xxvii 

Description of observations on Vorticelloe ... ... ... ... xxviii 

Brothers, A., F.R. A. S.... Exhibition of latest form of Ives' Photo- 

chromoscope ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xxi 

Notes on stereoscopic and pseudoscopic vision ... .. ... xxxiii 

BUTTERWORTH, JOHN, F.R. M.S. — Apparatus for observing low forms 

of aquatic life ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xxviii 

Dawkins, W. Boyd, F.R.S. — Exhibit of spruce trunk hollowed by 

fungus ... viii 

Exhibit of section of Fardel coal ... ... .. .. ... ix 

Dixon, H.B., F.R S. — Description of experiments in obtaining photo- 
graphs of ex plosion -flames ix 

Farauay, F. J., P\L.S. — On the economic importance of duration of 

the gold supply ... ... ... ... ... .,, ... i 

On relative merits of cane and beet sugar ... ... ... ... xxiii 

Hoyle, W. E., M.A. — Description of bone supposed to belong to a 

whale xxxiii 

Hyde, Henry. —Exhibit of specimens of 6'wj//'/<!/;;'mw stridisswium L. 

viii & xiii 

Joyce, Samuel. —Exhibit of pocket form of volt-meter x 

Lees, C. H., D.Sc— On Zeeman's researches on the effect of a 

magnetic field on light i 

Mflvill, y. Cosmo, M. A.— Exhibit of specimens of Stachys alpina L... xiii 
Exhibit of alpine plants collected in the Ampezzo Thai xiv 


Melvill, J. Cosmo, M.A. — Exhibit of specimens of ALgilopSy 

Triticnm, and Agropyrum ... ... ... ... ... xviii 

Exhibit of series of distortions and deformities of Planorbis 

spirorhis L — ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xxii 

Rogers, Thomas. — Exhibit of collection of Bryozoa from S. Australia. xvi 

Exhibit of Endodonta luaterhottsia from Lord Howe Island and 

land shells from Trinidad... ... ... ... ... ... xxvi 

On the geographical distribution of /^(r//a/z;/rt! «f?V«/a xxvi 

Exhibit of fresh-water shells from Loando xxviii 

Stirrup, Mark, E.G. S.— Address on Finland xiii 

Exhibit of specimens of silicified wood from Egypt ... ... xxiv 

The composition and structure of spore-coal and bogheads ... xxvii 

Exhibit of zircons, garnets and sapphires from volcanic rocks in 

France ... ... ... ... ... . .. ... xxviii 

Sykes, Mark. — P^xhibit of Termites from Sierra Leone xxv 

On mimetic forms among lepidopterous insects ... .. ... xxvii 

Thorp, Thomas. — A mechanical device lot the solution of problems in 

refraction and polarization ... ... ... ... ... ii 

Exhibit of copies of dififraction-gratings on celluloid films... ... xxii 

Wetss, F. E., F.L.S. — Exhibit of some flowering specimens of Dog's 

Mercury ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... vii 

¥,x\\\\y\\. oi ^\>&c\mtxx oi Plowrightia ?norlwsa ... ... ... ix 

Y^\\nh\i o{ h\.\c\\^C2L\.\on oi Peziza ai-tiginosa ... ... ... ix 

General Meetings vii, x, xvii, xxi 

Special Meeting for the delivery of the Wilde Lecture xxix 

Annual General Meeting xxxiv 

Meetings of the Microscopical and Natural History Section : — 

Ordinary... ... ... ... ... ... xiii, xiv, xxiv, xxv, xxvi 

Annual xxvii 

Report of Council, April, 1898, with Obituary Notices of Francesco 
Brioschi, Victor Meyer, Julius von Sachs, Edward James 
Stone, George Henry Greville Anson, Thomas Ashton, 
William Brockbank, William, Peter Hart, James 

Heelis, James Hey wood, and John Ramsl)ottom ... ... xxxvi 

Treasurer's Accounts... ... ... ... ... ... ... Ixiii 

Report of the Microscopical and Natural History Section ... ... Ixvi 

List of the Council and Members of the Society ... .. ... ... Ixvii 

List of the Awards of the Wilde and Dalton Medals and of the 

J^remium ... ... ... ... .,. ... ... ... Ixxx 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii (1898), No. 1, 

I, Notes on a Collection of Hymenoptera from Grey- 
mouth, New Zealand, with descriptions of New 

By Peter Cameeon. 

{Communicated by J. Cosmo Melvill^ M.A., F.L.S.] 

Received October 12th. Read October igth, iSg'j. 

The species of Hymenoptera enumerated and described 
in this paper were collected in the vicinity of Greymouth, 
New Zealand, by the late Mr. Richard Helms, whose 
assiduous labours have added so much to our knowledge 
of the Insect Fauna of New Zealand, and who, after his 
departure therefrom, did equally good work in investiga- 
ting the Natural History of Australia. 

Our earliest information on the Hymenoptera we owe 
to Fabricius, whose types are now in the Banksian Cabinet 
in the British Museum ; then, at a long interval, followed 
Francis Walker, who described some Chalcididcs collected 
by Darwin during the memorable voyage of the " Beagle," 
in his " Monographia Chalciditum," 1839; F. Smith, in 
his Catalogue of Hymenoptera in the British Museum ; 
and Mayr and Sichel in "Reiseder Novara," 1867. Then 
in 1876 came F. Smith's important papers, " Descriptions 
of New Species of Hymenopterous Insects of New Zea- 
land, collected by C. M. Wakefield, Esq., principally in the 
neighbourhood of Canterbury" {Trans. Entom. Soc. 1876, 
pp. 473-487) ; " Descriptions of Three New Species of 
Hymenoptera {Formicidos) from New Zealand," l.c, pp. 489- 

February 4th, i8g8. 

2 Cameron, Hymenoptera^ fro^n Greyniouth. 

492 ; followed in the same Transactions^ 1878, pp. 1-7, by 
" Descriptions of New Species of Hymenopterous Insects 
from New Zealand, collected by Prof. Hutton, at Otago." 
Mr. W. F. Kirby {Trans. Entom. Soc. 1881, pp. 35-50) con- 
tinued Mr. Smith's work with " A list of the. Hymen- 
optera of New Zealand," and, I.e. 1883, pp. 199-202, 
contributed " Notes on New or little-known Species of 
Hymenoptera, chiefly from New Zealand." 

In Bull. Soc. Entom. Ital, xvi., 1884, Signor Gribodo 
described Agenia Brouni \ in Trans. New Zealand Inst.., 
xvii., pp. 158 and 159, Mr. Colenso described Rhyssa 
clavula and Lissonota multicolor \ in Manchester Memoirs^ 
1887-8-9, I described five new species from Greymouth ; 
in Entom. Mon. Mag., iii (2), p. 275, the Rev. T. A. Marshall 
described Tanyzonus bolitophilce [ = Betyla fulva Cam.] 
which, with a Diapria described by Mr. Maskell (Trans. 
New Zealand Inst., xi., p. 230), the catalogue of Captain 
Hutton, and the descriptions of Hubertia, &c., by Prof. 
Forel in C. R. Soc. Entom. Belg, 1890, completes our 
narrative of the history of the literature of New Zealand 

Mr. Kirby in his list enumerated 81 species, from 
which two may safely be deducted — one Ophion luteus Fab., 
a common European species recorded by Fabricius, doubt- 
less in error, one of the native species having been 
probably mistaken for it ; and Blennocampa adumbrata 
Klug, the common European slug-worm, described by Mr. 
Kirby as Monostegia antipoda. This leaves 79 as the 
total number known as inhabitants of the islands in 1881 ; 
add thereto five (one species, Priocnemis Pascoei Kirby, 
was described in error) recorded in Kirby's paper of 1883, 
Gribodo's Agenia Brouni, Colenso's Rhyssa and Lissonota, 
my three specimens described in 1888, the two in 1889, 
and the 34 new species now described give us a total of 
121 species known from New Zealand. 

Mafichester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1. 3 

This undoubtedly marks a gratifying increase of 
knowledge since 1881 ; but I am certain that, if the islands 
were to be again explored by a naturalist of the calibre 
of Mr. Helms, the list might easily be doubled, particularly 
if unworked localities were investigated. 

It is more than probable that many of the species are 
very local in their distribution, as is the case with 
Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. On this point the following 
remarks of Mr. E. Meyrick (Proc. Entoin. Soc. 1883, p. 29) 
throw some light on the peculiarities of the New Zealand 
Insect Fauna. " The islands were composed partly of 
bare mountain ranges, partly of low-lying forest. The 
mountains, although very bleak and shelterless, had an 
extensive and varied fauna, fresh species of insects 
occurring on every mountain visited ; the genus Crambus, 
for example, was represented by a variety of species, for 
which there seemed to be no special reason. On the other 
hand, the forests, which comprised a remarkable number 
of trees and shrubs apparently well suited for food, were 
strangely deficient in insects, and further, the same species 
occurred nearly throughout the islands. It appeared, in 
fact, that a vast number of situations suitable for insects 
was not utilised. This was the case with the Lepidoptera 
and Coleoptera and probably with other insects." The 
parasitic species are probably not very numerous, their 
places being taken by the parasitic Diptera. At present 
the Diptera slightly exceed the Hymenoptera in number 
of species. 

As regards the aflfinities of the New Zealand species 
the relationship to Australia is not very great. It is 
indicated on the one hand by the presence of the 
Australian genera Lauiprocolletes, Dasycolletes, Leioproctiis 
and Rhagigaster ; and by species common alike to the 
Islands and to Australia or Tasmania. These species are 
LeioproctiLs iniitatus Sm. found in Australia, Lainprocolletes 

4 Cameron, Hymenoptera.from Grey mouth. 

obscurus Sm. in Tasmania, Frosopis vicina Sichel in 
Tasmania, and the Ichneumon " Rhyssa " semipiincta 
Kirby, which seems to be a common Australian species. 

Of the Aculeates, the Bees and PompilidcB are the 
most numerous in species. The latter appear to be, 
judging from the collecting of Mr. Helms, the most 
numerous in individuals, as they are the most striking in 
size, form, and coloration. Their great abundance would 
seem to indicate a rich and varied arachnid Fauna ; for 
the Poinpilidce store their nests with spiders. Next to 
the Poinpilidce, the family most numerous in species is 
the Larridce, which prey on Orthoptera. Among the 
parasitic forms the genus Zf/^;^^^/^^/? possesses the greatest 
number of species, some of which are very large and 
handsome creatures. 

Although, of course, there can be no genetic relation- 
ship between the Hymenopterous Fauna of New Zealand 
and the Hawaiian Islands, yet a comparison between the 
two brings out some very interesting features. Pison is 
not a large genus, but it is very widely spread over the 
globe. It is not uncommon in Australia, is represented 
in the Malay Archipelago, by one species in Tahiti, and by 
two in Hawaii. Prosopis, a bee genus, has twelve species 
in Hawaii, as against seven in New Zealand, it is common 
in Australia and is of almost world-wide distribution. 
The LarridcB are fairly well represented in New Zealand, 
but are quite absent from Hawaii. The Crabronidce again 
are much more numerous in the last mentioned locality- 
ten species as against four in New Zealand, the two latter 
belonging to a group {Rhopalum) not found in Hawaii 
at all. It is, however, in the dominant group in each of the 
localities where we find the most remarkable distinction. 
The characteristic family in New Zealand is the Pom- 
pilidcBy in Hawaii the Vespidce, neither being represented 
in the other islands ; both families, moreover, being common 

Manchester Memoirs, Vclxlii. (1898), No. 1. 5 

in Australia and Tasmania — why this should be so it is 
difficult to understand. The absence of PompilidcE in 
Hawaii may be owing to the scarcity of spiders there : but 
on this point I have no information. The absence of the 
OdyneridcB in New Zealand cannot be owing to the 
absence there of their food, for it is as common as, if not 
more abundant than, it is in the Sandwich Islands. The 
absence of Tachytes, &c., in the Hawaii Islands may be 
caused by there being no crickets living there. 

The paucity of FormicidcB in species is remarkable. 
All the species are endemic, two of the genera being 
peculiar. I cannot, however, understand how, while in 
the Sandwich Islands there are at least five ants of almost 
world-wide distribution, e.g., Ponera contractu, Prenolepis 
longicornis, Tetramorium guineense, none of them should 
have been recorded from New Zealand, where one would 
think the environment is eminently suitable and the 
commercial intercourse with other regions even more 

As respects the species added by Mr. Helms to the 
Fauna, the most noteworthy are those belonging to the 
genera Dicoelotus, Hemiteles, Chorinceus, Bassus, Ascogaster, 
Meteorus, and Alysia, those genera not having been 
previously recorded. Of the species, Ichneumon hersilia, 
which differs markedly from the others in structure, is 
perhaps the most interesting. 


No native species of this family is known ; but the 
common European slug-worm of the pear {Blennocampa 
adumbrata) has been introduced, and recorded by Captain 
Hutton in his list as Blennocampa cerasi ; by Mr. F. Smith 
{Trans. Entom.Soc.iZj^, p. 474) as Blennocampa adumbrata 
Klug ; and it has been described by Mr. W. F. Kirby 
{Trans. Entom. Soc, 1881, p. 50) as a new species under the 

6 Cameron, Hymenoptera, from Greymouth. 

name of Monostegia antipoda. Monostegia is not a valid 
genus, being founded on a character which is not constant 
even in the same species. Thus Eriocampa adumbrata is 
frequently found with only one median cellule in the hind 
wings, instead of the normal two. Mr. Helms sends it 
from Greymouth. 



Derecyrta deceptiis Sm., Trans. Entom. Soc.^ 1876, p. 
474, pi. 4, f 6. 

Xiphidria flavopicta Sm., Lc. 1878, p. I. 

As figured by Smith this species is shown of a much 
too uniform colour ; the eye orbits, the lines on vertex, 
the face and edge of the pronotum are clear pale yellow ; 
the mesonotum dark ferruginous, suffused with black ; the 
basal four segments of the abdomen clear reddish, and the 
legs bright pale yellow. On the other hand, the thorax 
above frequently wants the yellow marks found in the 
type, the scutella, for example, not being differently 
coloured from the mesonotum, while again the wings are 
clear, not fulvo-hyaline. I suspect, however, that my 
three examples are immature, a circumstance which makes 
wood-feeding insects have the markings and colour less 
distinct ; although it must be said that the yellow on the 
head and the rufous colour on the abdomen are bright 
enough in my two males, the ? being coloured more as in 
Smith's figure. 



A. Scutellum largely elevated, oblique, Its top 
depressed in the middle, the sides rounded; the 
tubercles largely projecting, much larger than usual, 
somewhat triangular, but with the apex rounded ; the 
median segment not tuberculate nor spined. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vo/.x/zi. (iSgS), No. t. 7 

Ichneumon hersilia, sj?. nov. 

RufuSy thorace 7iigro et albo-maculato ; pedibus rufis ; 
alls fulvo-hyalinisy stigmate nigro. $ . Long. 1 1 mm. 

Head rufous ; the inner orbits narrowly below, broadly 
above, and the sides of the clypeus, yellow ; the ocellar 
region, the front, and the occiput, black ; the vertex bare ; 
the face covered with short fuscous hair ; the mandibles 
rufous, the teeth black ; the face roundly projecting in the 
middle, strongly but not closely punctured ; the hollowed 
front finely transversely striated ; the palpi rufous. Pro- 
thorax black, broadly rufous above ; the mesonotum has 
the sides and base, broadly in the middle, black ; the rest 
rufous, with a large yellow mark at the apex. The scu- 
tellum yellow, a rufous splash at the base ; its height is 
nearly equal to its width at the bottom ; the basal keels 
are curved and reach to the middle ; the top is irregularly 
divided, one lobe being wider than the other. The 
median segment is gradually rounded to the apex ; the 
areae distinct ; the supramedian widely separated from 
the base of the segment, longer than broad, a little 
narrowed towards the base, which is rounded ; the 
sides straight ; the posterior median black, transversely 
striated ; the other areae smooth and shining ; the 
base of the segments broadly black ; the sides are 
also edged with black ; and, in front of the coxae, 
there is a large yellow mark touching the keel. The 
propleurse broadly black in the middle ; the meso- 
pleurse at and including the tubercles white, the lower 
part rufous, with a large white mark in the centre, and 
the sternum is rufous ; there is a broad black oblique band 
in the middle ; and the apex is black, narrowly so on the 
lower side ; the breast black in front. Legs entirely 
rufous, as is also the abdomen. The stigma and nervures 
black ; the areolet almost triangular, the nervures being 

8 Cameron, Hymenoptera.from Greymoiith. 

narrowed at the top, where it is in width less than the 
space bounded by the recurrent and the second transverse 
cubital nervures ; the transverse median nervure is inter- 
stitial. Abdomen smooth, shining, impunctate ; the 
gastrocoeli are indicated by a shallow depression. 

The scutellum in this species might refer it to Hoplis- 
menus, but it differs from that in having no spines on the 
median segment. The shape of the scutellum is quite 
similar to what it is in some Mexican species of Ichneumon, 
e.g. I. aztecus. 

B. Scutellum flat, normal. 

Ichneumon actista, sp. nov. 

Niger, thorace coxisque albo-maculatis ; pedibus rufis ; 
alts fere hyalinis, stigmate nervisque nigris, $ . Long. 14 mm. 

Antennae black ; the scape with a yellow mark in the 
middle on the lower side. Head : the face below the 
antennae, the mandibles except the teeth, the palpi, a 
mark on the vertex touching the eyes, and a larger mark 
behind lower down, yellow ; almost impunctate, the front 
and vertex thickly covered with short blackish hair, the 
labrum fringed with longish fulvous hair ; behind, it is as 
long as the eyes and sharply oblique. Thorax oblique in 
front ; the sides of the pronotum widely, a large square 
mark on the mesonotum in the middle, the scutellum, post- 
scutellum, the supramedian area of the metanotum, two 
large marks on the mesopleurae, the anterior slightly the 
larger, and a large oblique mark on the metapleurae, 
yellow. Metanotal areae well developed ; the keels acute, 
the supramedian rounded at the base ; the sides straight, 
gradually narrowed to the apex, which is transverse ; the 
apex has an oblique slope. The four anterior coxae are 
white beneath ; the hinder have a large white mark at the 
base above and beneath ; the trochanters are black. The 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No.\. 9 

alar nervures and stigma are deep black ; the trans- 
verse basal nervure is interstitial ; the areolet is narrowed 
at the top, being there in length less than the space 
bounded by the recurrent and the second transverse 
cubital nervures. Abdomen deep black, very smooth, 
shining ; the gastrocoeli shallow, smooth, indistinct. 

Ichneumon helmsii, sp. nov. 

Niger, abdomine pedibusque rufis ; scutello flavo ; alls 
fidvo-hyalmis, stigmate fulvo. ^ . Long. 1 5 mm. 

Antennae black ; the scape with a yellow mark in the 
middle beneath; the apical joints dilated on the lower side, 
the scape thickly covered with longish black hair. Face 
with clypeus strongly punctured, thickly covered with 
short white hair ; the sides of the clypeus, a broad mark 
on the cheeks close to the eyes, with its top obliquely 
truncated and narrow, projecting obliquely from the base 
of the truncated part into a pear-shaped mark, which 
extends in the middle beyond the base of the antennae, 
but not uniting there, the labrum and palpi, yellow ; the 
tips of the mandibles piceous ; their basal half strongly 
punctured. Behind the eyes the head is obliquely 
narrowed ; the hinder part rather deeply and roundly 
narrowed inwardly and margined ; mesonotum and 
upper part of the pronotum closely and strongly 
punctured ; the lower part of the propleurae smooth 
and shining ; the prosternum closely punctured. Scu- 
tellum entirely yellow, smooth, shining, flat ; the post- 
scutellum punctured. Median segment coarsely and 
irregularly punctured ; the supramedian area almost 
square, but slightly narrowed towards the apex ; the base 
and apex transverse ; the apex of the segment with an 
oblique slope ; coarsely, irregularly, transversely striolated 
and reticulated ; its centre deeply furrowed at the base ; 
the keels bordering it distinct, curved ; the lateral keels 

lo Cameron, Hymenoptera, from Greymouth. 

on the top stout, ending in the middle in a stout, flat, tri- 
angular tooth. Meso- and meta-pleurae strongly punctured, 
the latter on the lower side with a curved keel. The coxae 
and base of the trochanters are black ; the hinder coxae 
have a reddish mark on the apex behind ; the extreme apex 
of the hinder femora black ; the apices of the hinder tibiae 
and of the tarsal joints infuscated. The wing nervures to 
the stigma, and the stigma itself, fulvous, the apical 
nervures black ; the areolet narrowed at the top, being 
there distinctly less in length than the space bounded by 
the recurrent and the second transverse cubital nervures. 
The apex of the petiole closely, longitudinally striated, 
and marked with yellow at the sides ; down the sides 
from the base is a narrow black line which is continued 
down the middle to opposite the spiracles, becoming 
thickened towards the apex ; the spiracles are bordered 
with black ; the other segments are closely punctured ; 
the second and third have the sides at the apex yellowish ; 
the gastrocoeli deep, wide at the apex, being somewhat 
triangular seen from the outer side ; smooth, shining, the 
middle at the apex with a few striae. 

This is the largest and stoutest-looking species of the 
New Zealand species of Ichneiinion^ and is very distinct 
from any of them. 

Ichneumon deceptus Sm. 

Smith {Trans. E^ttom. Soc, 1876, p. 477) only describes 
the ? of this species, so I now describe the ^ . 

Scape of the antennae beneath, the face below the 
antennae, the mandibles except the teeth, the palpi, a 
broad line on the outer orbits of the eyes on the lower 
side, the pronotum broadly, a squarish mark in the centre 
of the mesonotum, the scutellum, post-scutellum, a square 
mark on the median segment, a mark on the base of the 
mesopleurae, a smaller one at the apex lower down, a 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1. ii 

small one on the apex of the propleurse and a large one at 
the apex of the metapleurae, yellow ; the four anterior 
coxae are yellow as are also the trochanters, the rest of the 
legs having also a yellowish hue ; the hinder coxae and 
trochanters are black, the former with a large yellow mark 
behind. On the abdomen above, the fifth and sixth 
segments are more or less black. The wings vary in tint. 

Ichneumon lotatorius Fab. 

Ichneumon lotatorius Fab. has been described by 
Mr. W. F. Kirby {Trans. Entom. Soc, 1883, p. 200) as an 
aculeate under the name of Priocnemis Pascoei. I have 
examined the type in the British Museum. It agrees 
with Ichneumon insidiator Sm., and differs from the other 
species in having the petiole black ; but /. insidiator has the 
extreme apex of it yellowish, while /. lotatorius differs 
from it in having the apex of the hinder femora and of 
the hinder tibiae black ; the mesonotum not distinctly 
punctured, and only the second abdominal segment is 
red, while in /. insidiator the second and third are entirely 

Smith {Trans. Entom. Soc, 1876, p. 476) remarks that 
his /. insidiator is probably the ^ of /. lotatorius 
Fab., but Mr. Kirby treats it as distinct. 

As /. lotatorius has not been properly described I give 
a description of both sexes here. 

S Black ; the scutellum and tubercles yellow ; the 
legs and second abdominal segment reddish-fulvous, the 
front legs with a more yellowish tinge ; the coxae, anterior 
trochanters, the base of the posterior, the apex of the 
hinder femora broadly, and the apex of the hinder tibiae 
more narrowly, black ; the wings fulvous or more or less 
deeply smoky ; the stigma testaceous. 

$ Antennae short, thick, involute; pruinose towards the 
apex, the base with short black hair. Head strongly 

12 Cameron, Hymenoptera^from Greymouth. 

punctured, much more closely in the centre below the 
antennae ; the oral region with the punctures much more 
widely separated and covered with longish fulvous hair ; 
the palpi testaceous ; the eyes margined distinctly. Pro- 
notum closely punctured ; the mesonotum with the punc- 
tures more widely separated ; the scutellum almost 
impunctate ; median segment closely punctured ; the 
arese all distinctly defined ; the supramedian longer than 
broad ; the apex is closely and somewhat coarsely trans- 
versely striated. Meso- and meta-pleurae closely and 
strongly punctured. Coxae strongly punctured. Abdo- 
men smooth and shining, impunctate ; the gastrocoeli 
impunctate. The areolet at the top narrowed, being there 
a little less than the space bounded by the recurrent and 
the second transverse cubital nervures ; the recurrent 
nervure is bent towards the apex of the wing near the 
middle, and has there a minute branch. 

Ichneumon insidiator Sm. 

Smith's description, which only relates to coloration, 
may be supplemented as regards other points. 

Comparing it with the $ of /. sollicitorius, it may be 
known from it by the petiole being black, only yellow at 
the apex, whereas in /. sollicitorius it is entirely yellow ; the 
face is black in the middle, the thorax above and at the 
sides is much more strongly punctured, as are also the 
the coxae ; the thorax is broader in front at the tegulae ; 
the post-scutellum black ; the median segment strongly 
aciculated ; the transverse cubital nervure at the base in 
the middle, is angled with a short branch issuing back- 
wards from the middle of the angle, whereas in I. sollicitorius 
it is rounded ; and the stigma is testaceous, not blackish. 

Ichneumon sollicitorius Fab. 

Apparently a common species. I have only seen the 

Manchester Metnoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1, 13 

Ichneumon Artaxidia, sp. nov. 

Capite thoraceqite ferrugineis ; scutello flavo^ abdomine 
nigro, basi late rufo-flavo ; pedibiis rufo-fulvis^ coxis tro- 
chanteribusque nigris; alls cum nervis flavis. $ . Long. 8 mm. 

Scape of antennae dark-rufous, blackish above ; the 
flagellum absent. Head closely, but not strongly punc- 
tured ; covered rather closely with pale hair ; the clypeus 
with the hair longer and paler, and only with a few 
scattered punctures ; the labrum fringed with longer hair ; 
the mandibles strongly punctured ; their teeth black 
Thorax dark-ferruginous ; the prosternum, a large oblique, 
mark on the propleurae, a large oblique mark on the 
mesopleurae extending from the base to the apex, a mark 
on either side of the mesosternum at the apex, the meta- 
pleurae except the apex above and the sides of the median 
segment, black. Mesonotum closely punctured ; the 
scutellum, post-scutellum and the centre of the median 
segment at the base, yellow. The pro- and meso-pleurse 
closely punctured ; the propleurae with a few distinct 
striae at the apex in the middle ; the top of the 
mesopleurai at the apex and the metapleurse smooth 
and shining ; the base of the metapleurai with a wide, 
deep, crenulated furrow at the base. The median 
segment has no arese, and the only keel is one bordering 
the apex above ; the sides at the apex between this 
keel and the lateral at the apex is irregularly crenulated. 
Abdomen smooth and shining ; the third and following 
segments black ; the gastrocoeli indistinct. 

Ichneumon ixia, sp. nov. 

Rufus, abdominis apice late nigro, scutello flavo ; alls 
hyaliniSy stigmate flavo, nervis fuscis. ?. Long. 7-5 mm. 
Antennse stout, involute, bare, obscure-rufous, the 

14 Cameron, Hymenoptera, from Greymoiith. 

flagellum darker above ; the scape with a few punctures 
on the under side. Head dark-rufous ; the front and two 
large marks on the sides above the clypeus, black ; the 
vertex strongly punctured ; the face and clypeus with the 
punctures much fewer and more widely separated ; the 
face in the middle with a few fine transverse striations ; the 
front largely excavated, smooth and shining. The eyes 
distinctly margined ; the inner orbits narrowly lined with 
yellow. Mesonotum rufous, a broad black band down the 
centre and a narrower one down the sides ; closely, but 
not strongly, punctured. Scutellum rufous, the apex broadly 
yellow ; the apex almost impunctate ; the remainder bear- 
ing clearly separated, moderately large, punctures ; the post- 
scutellum for the greater part yellow. At the base of the 
scutellum is a wide, deep curved furrow. The median 
segment has a gradually rounded slope to the apex, which 
is oblique ; it is smooth and shining, almost bare ; the 
supramedian area is large, somewhat wider than long, 
rounded at the base, the sides straight, oblique ; the apex 
rounded on its inside ; the supra-external area^ are finely 
punctured ; the posterior median area is roundly ex- 
cavated, not much narrowed towards the apex, and 
finely and closely punctured ; the posterior intermedian 
arese are not so closely, but much more strongly, punctured ; 
and, at the top, is a yellowish mark ; the pro- and meso- 
pleurse are strongly punctured, the former obscurely 
striated at the apex ; the mesopleurae black, except a 
large rufous mark in the middle at the base and a larger 
one lower down at the apex ; the sternum for the most part 
black ; the metapleurse very smooth, shining, impunctate, 
black, except over the coxse. Legs dark rufous ; the 
anterior brighter in tint ; the hinder femora much darker, 
abdomen smooth and shining, the three basal segments 
red ; the apical black. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol.xliz. (1898), No. 1. 15 

Ichneumon colensii, sp. nov, 
Ruflis ; orbitis ociUorum, liiiea pronoti, lineis 2 mesonoti, 
scutello, post-sciLtelloque flavis ; abdorninis apice late nigro ; 
alls fulvo-hyalinis, stigrnate flavo. ?. Long. 7 mm. 

Scape of the antennae dark-ferruginous, finely 
punctured, thickly covered with short dark hair, the 
flagellum black, paler on the lower side. Head rufous ; 
the vertex in the centre darker ; the inner orbits, broad 
at the top, narrow at the bottom, a curved line at the top, 
and the outer side beneath, lemon-yellow ; the face and 
vertex punctured, but not strongly, their sides almost 
impunctate ; the clypeus with a few scattered punctures ; 
the mandibles punctured, suffused with yellow at the base ; 
the apex black ; the palpi pale-yellow. Thorax rufous ; a 
broad line on the pronotum, the scutellum, post-scutellum, 
the lower side of the propleurae and of the mesopleurae 
broadly, two narrow lines on the centre of the 
mesonotum and the apex of the metapleurae below, 
lemon-yellow. The mesonotum is punctured ; there is a 
central and two large lateral black marks, the latter 
bordered on the inner side by the yellow lines ; the apex 
of the scutellum is rufous, and it has a few shallow punc- 
tures. The median segment has an almost gradually 
rounded slope and is strongly punctured at the sides ; the 
arese complete, the supramedian longer than broad, 
rounded at the base ; the pro- and meso-pleurae closely 
punctured ; the propleurae broadly black in the middle ; 
the mesopleurae broadly black above and at the apex ; 
the metapleurae very smooth and shining, impunctate. 
Legs uniformly rufous ; the fore coxae pale-yellow ; there 
is a lemon-yellow mark over the hinder pair above at the 
base. Alar nervures dark fuscous, the stigma pale testa- 
ceous ; the areolet narrowed at the top. Abdomen 
smooth and shining ; the apical three segments black ; 
the gastrocceli indistinct, finely and closely punctured. 

1 6 Cameron, Hymenoptera.from Grey mouth. 

Ichneumon Ursula, sp. nov. 

Ferritgineus^ thorace nigro-maculato ; orbitis oculorum^ 
linea pronoii, lineis 2 inesonoti scutelloque flavis ; alls fiilvis 
stigmate nervisque fulvis. ?. Long. 9 mm. 

Head : the inner orbits to the hinder edge of the eyes 
above and a mark, longer than broad, on the outer edge 
beneath, yellow ; the vertex with shallow, widely separated 
punctures ; the front shining, impunctate, the middle with 
a few transverse striations ; the mandibles and palpi pallid- 
yellow ; the apex of the mandibles black ; the clypeus is 
very shining, with a few widely separated punctures. An- 
tennae broken off. Thorax : the edge of the pronotum, a 
line on the lower edge of the propleurae, two lines in the 
middle of the mesonotum, the scutellum, post-scutellum, a 
mark over, and in front of, the middle and a smaller one 
over the hinder coxae, lemon-yellow ; a mark at the 
base of the mesonotum in the centre, its apex being 
triangular, two broad lines down its sides outside 
the yellow ones and the scutellum and post-scutellum, 
lemon-yellow. The scutellum is broader than long, 
smooth, impunctate, the depression at its base 
black. The median segment strongly shagreened, more 
strongly on the sides at the apex ; the arese complete ; 
the supramedian bluntly rounded at the base, the sides 
straight, a little narrowed towards the apex ; the posterior 
median of nearly equal width, not much hollowed in the 
centre, its apex with a few transverse striae, the middle 
almost smooth, hardly shagreened. In the centre of the 
propleurse is a large, somewhat triangular mark ; the 
mesopleurae under the wings broadly, the mesosternum 
and the basal three-fourths of the metapleurse, black. 
Legs uniformly ferruginous. Wings hyaline, but with a 
decided fulvous tinge ; the stigma narrowed at the top, 
being there narrower than the space bounded by the 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1. 17 

recurrent and the second transverse cubital nervures ; the 
latter is received shortly beyond the middle of the areolet. 
Abdomen smooth, shining, impunctate ; the fifth and 
sixth segments broadly black ; the gastrocceli shallow, not 
very distinct, finely aciculated. The ventral segments 
are pallid-yellow in the middle. 

Ichneumon brouni, sp. nov. 

Long. 7 mm. c^. 

A very similar species to I.falsus, but is smaller ; the 
sternum is black ; the hinder coxae are without any 
black ; the petiole is smooth, not shagreened ; the gastrocceli 
are deeper and more clearly defined ; and the recurrent 
nervure is broadly curved, while in /. falsus it is slightly 
angled in the middle and emits there a short branch. 

Antennae black, the scape yellow beneath ; the apical 
joints of the flagellum dilated on lower side. Head pale- 
yellow ; the occiput, and the vertex and front broadly in 
the centre, black ; the tips of the mandibles black ; 
the face sparsely pilose ; the clypeus with longish pale, 
the vertex thickly covered with black hair ; shagreened ; 
the hollowed front smooth and shining. Thorax black ; 
a broad line of equal width on the pronotum, two 
lines on the mesonotum, scutellum, post-scutellum, the 
median segment, the lower edge of the pronotum, 
a short line opposite the tegulse, the scutellar keels at the 
base, the scutellum, post-scutellum, two large marks on 
the apex of the median segment, the tubercles, the lower 
half of the mesopleurae, and a line on the lower side of 
the propleurse, lemon-yellow. The mesonotum has the 
punctures somewhat close together, those on the scutellum 
are larger and more widely separated ; the median seg- 
ment has only a few minute punctures at the base. The 
propleurse have the punctures shallow and widely 

1 8 Cameron, Hymenoptera, from Greymouth. 

separated ; the mesopleurse are more strongly and closely 
punctured, except the usual smooth spot on the apex ; the 
metapleurae smooth, impunctate. The base of the 
median segment, the supra and the posterior median areae 
are blood-coloured ; the supramedian is not much wider 
than long. The median segment has a gradually rounded 
slope ; at the base of the median segment below the wings 
is a yellow and rufous spot. The areolet is triangular at 
the top, the nervures being almost united there. The four 
anterior coxae, trochanters and lower side of the femora 
are lemon-yellow ; the rest fulvous ; the hinder legs dark 
rufous, the tarsi paler ; the hinder coxae black above, and 
to near the middle, the rest of the sides and their lower 
side fulvous ; at their base is a large, somewhat triangular 
lemon-yellow mark. The petiole is, towards the apex, 
roughly irregularly shagreened ; the other segments are 
closely punctured ; the gastrocoeli shallow, at the base 
closely longitudinally striated. 

Ichneumon falsus, sp. nov. 

Niger ; ore^ sterno, lima pronoti^ scutcllo^ Uneis 2 
mesonoti metanotoque flavis ; abdoinine ferrugineo^ apice 
late nigro; pedibiis anterioribus rufis, coxis trochanteribusjue 
flavis, pedibus posticisfusco-ferrugineis; alls fere hyalinis, 
stigmate nigro. $. Long. 10 mm. 

Antennae black, slightly brownish beneath ; the scape 
lemon-yellow on the under side. The face from below 
the antennae, including the oral region, the mandibles 
and the palpi, the inner orbits narrowly to shortly below 
the ocelli, and the lower orbits — broadly beneath, 
narrowly ab6ve — lemon-yellow. The face strongly punc- 
tured, the clypeus with a few scattered punctures ; the 
frontal depression deep, shining, the edges aciculated. 
The line on the pronotum is broad and dilated at the 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1. 19 

base ; the two lines on the pronotum are also dilated at 
the base and extend to near the scutellum ; a mark on 
the lower half of the mesopleurse and the sternum, lemon- 
yellow. The propleurae impunctate ; the upper parts of 
the mesopleurae at the base strongly punctured, the apical 
impunctate in the middle, and the metapleurae impunc- 
tate. The base of the median segment reddish (perhaps 
through discoloration) : the supramedian area a little 
broader than long, rounded at the base ; the posterior 
median complete ; the others obsolete. The alar stigma 
and nervures black ; the areolet at the top a little less 
in width than the space bounded by the recurrent and 
the second transverse cubital nervures. Legs fulvous ; 
the four anterior coxae and trochanters lemon-yellow ; the 
hinder coxae fulvous like the femora and yellow at the base 
above and in the middle, the rest of them black. Abdo- 
men reddish ; the apical three segments black above ; the 
base of the second segments shagreened ; the gastrocoeli 
moderately wide, deep. 

Ichneumon leodacus, sp. mv. 

Ferrugineiis, scutello flavo ; metapleicris, cox is trochan- 
teribusque posticis nigris, alis flavis. $ . Long. 8 mm. 

Scape of antennae rufous, punctured, thickly covered 
with pale hair ; the flagellum fuscous. Head : the face 
strongly punctured ; the clypeus shining, impunctate ; the 
face covered closely with short white hair ; the clypeus 
has the hair longer, sparser and darker in colour ; the 
vertex and occiput more closely punctured than the face ; 
the tips of mandibles black ; the palpi pale-testaceous ; 
the inner and outer orbits above reddish-yellow. Meso- 
notum shining, the sides finely and closely punctured, the 
middle almost impunctate. Scutellum and post-scutellum 
shining, impunctate, orange-yellow. The base of the 

20 Cameron, Hyinenoptera^ from Greyinouth. 

median segment rounded, the rest of it sharply oblique ; 
the sides at the base shagreened ; the apex in the middle 
transversely striated ; the rest coarsely shagreened. There 
are no areae, and only a stout curved keel over the oblique 
keel. The propleurae impunctate ; in the centre is a large 
somewhat triangular black mark ; the mesopleurae slightly 
punctured ; in the centre at the apex is a black mark, 
narrowed towards the apex ; immediately in front of the 
middle coxae is a larger, somewhat similarly shaped, black 
mark ; the metapleurse smooth, impunctate, black, except 
an elongate mark at the top, and a shorter, broader and 
more irregularly-shaped one over the coxae. The legs 
are uniformly coloured, except the hind coxae and the 
basal joint of the hinder trochanters, which are black. The 
areolet is narrowed at the top, being there a little less than 
the space bounded by the transverse cubital and the 
recurrent nervures, the latter being received almost in the 
centre of the cellule. Abdomen smooth, shining, im- 
punctate ; the gastrocoeli indistinct, closely punctured. 

Ichneumon machimia, sp. mv. 

Niger, orbitis oculorum^ linea pronotz, tegulisque scutelli 
flavis ; abdomine rufo; pedibus anticis riifis ; tibiis tarsisqiie 
posterioribus sordide rufis ; alls fusco-hyalinis, stigniate 
riifo-testaceo. ?. Long. 8 mm. 

Front strongly punctured ; the clypeus shining and 
bearing a few scattered punctures ; the vertex shagreened, 
the ocellar region rough, the inner orbits and round the 
top to opposite the tegulae, as w^ell as a line at the foot, 
yellow ; the clypeus and labrum rufous (perhaps a dis- 
coloured yellow) ; the mandibles a dirty yellow, the teeth 
black ; the palpi yellow ; the face and clypeus have a few 
white hairs. Antennae black, the scape shining, and 
bearing a few punctures. Thorax shining, the mesonotum 
impunctate ; the median segment coarsely aciculated 

Manchester Memoirs, VoLxlii. (1898), iV^. 1. 21 

The edge of the pronotum, tegulse, two longitudinal lines 
on the mesonotum, the scutellum and post-scutellum, 
yellow. Median segment thickly covered with longish 
pale hair, coarsely aciculated, the areae distinct except the 
posterior median, the keels of which are obliterated. The 
propleurse, except at the base, closely obliquely striated, 
the striae coarser on the lower side, the mesopleurae 
rather strongly and distinctly punctured, the base of 
the median segment punctured, the rest longitudinally 
shagreened, running into striations on the lower side. All 
the coxae and trochanters are black ; the fore femora, 
tibiae and tarsi rufous, as are also the four posterior, but 
these are darker in tint, this being especially the case 
with the femora. Abdomen shining ; the apex of petiole 
closely punctured, the gastrocoeli shallow, indistinct ; the 
sheaths of the ovipositor black. 

Has the look and form of a Cryptus, but is a true 

Ichneumon utetes, sp. nov. 

Rufus, pleuris nigris ; femoribiis posticis fuscis ; alts 
hyalints, stigmateflavo, nervis fuscis. 9- Long. 5 mm. 

Antennae short, stout, almost bare, if anything thick- 
ened beyond the middle, uniformly rufous. Head rufous, 
the vertex darker, the excavated front black ; the face 
strongly punctured ; the clypeus with only a few shallow 
punctures ; the front transversely striated in the middle; 
the vertex and occiput closely and rather strongly punc- 
tured ; the outer orbits, except at the top, very smooth, 
and shining, and with only a few shallow scattered 
punctures ; the mandibles rufous, their teeth black ; the 
palpi testaceous. Thorax rufous ; the mesonotum in front 
infuscated ; the propleurae black, except above and 
beneath ; the base indistinctly striated ; the mesopleurae 
black, except a pale testaceous mark on the apex above 

22 Cameron, Hymenoptera^ frofu Greymouth. 

the middle coxae, the extreme base being rufous ; closely 
punctured ; the apex over the coxae indistinctly and 
irregularly striolated ; the metapleurae above very smooth 
and shining ; the lower part finely longitudinally strio- 
lated. The scutellum is, if anything, more strongly 
punctured than the mesonot-um. The median segment 
has the arese complete; the supramedian area is trans- 
verse at the apex ; the top obliquely narrowed, the middle 
itself being transverse ; the apex of the segment has an 
oblique slope ; the middle is slightly hollowed, closely 
punctured ; the top almost smooth, the bottom obscurely 
transversely striated ; the posterior median area with 
straight sides ; the legs rufous ; the base of the middle 
coxae and the hinder coxae above, black ; the latter 
strongly punctured. Abdomen rufo-ferruginous, smooth 
and shining, glabrous except for a few hairs on the apex 
and sides ; the sides of the 2-5 segments blackish. The 
alar areolet narrowed at the top, being there in width very 
little less than the space bounded by the second 
transverse cubital and the recurrent nervures. 

Ichneumon thyellma, jt/. ;^^'z/. 

Long. 5-5 mm. 

Comes near to /. iitetes, with which it has a close 
resemblance in coloration, but differs in having the areas 
on the median segment and the nervures all distinctly 

Scape of the antennae black above, yellowish beneath. 
Head pallid-yellow, suffused with testaceous above ; the 
occiput, the vertex and front broadly in the middle, black ; 
the vertex strongly and closely punctured ; the face not 
quite so strongly ; the front finely punctured in the 
middle, the sides very smooth and shining ; the man- 
dibles and palpi pallid-yellow ; the tips of the mandibles 
piceous. Prothorax black, edged above and beneath with 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1. 23 

pallid-yellow, shining, impunctate. Mesonotum finely 
punctured, its centre broadly rufo-testaceous, darker in 
the middle, the sides black; the scutellum probably 
testaceous, but the pin goes through it. Median segment 
with a rounded slope ; its base black ; the areae all 
distinctly defined ; the supramedian slightly narrowed 
towards the base ; truncated at base and apex ; the pos- 
terior median area obscu rely transversely striated. Except 
at the top behind the mesopleurse, closely punctured ; the 
upper part to the middle, black ; immediately below the 
black part, rufous, followed by a pale-yellow band ; the 
sternum rufous. Metapleurse black, with a broad rufous 
mark in the middle on the apical three-fourths, the rufous 
turning into clear pale-yellow at the apex. Wings hyaline, 
the stigma and nervures fuscous. Areolet at the top 
nearly the length of the space bounded by the recurrent 
and the second transverse cubital nervures ; the recurrent 
nervure received shortly beyond the middle. Legs fulvous ; 
the four anterior coxae for the greater part pallid-yellow. 
Abdomen rufous, closely punctured ; the basal three- 
fourths of the petiole black ; its apex closely punctured. 
Gastrocoeli shallow, indistinct, closely punctured. 

Ichneumon nova-zealandicus, sp. nov, 

Niger, pedibits abdoinineque riifis, capite thoraceque rufo- 
et flavo-variegatis ; alis Jiyatinis, nervis stigmateque flavo- 
testaceis. ?. Long, fere 5 mm. 

Scape of antennae rufous, black above, the flagellum 
absent. Head rufous, the orbits on the inner side and 
above and beneath on the outer side, as well as the base of 
the mandibles, yellow ; the front deeply excavated, black ; 
the vertex blackish, broadly so in the centre ; the face 
minutely punctured, the vertex aciculated. The meso- 
notum minutely punctured ; down the centre are two 

24 Cameron, Hymenoptera^from Greymouth. 

rather broad rufo-testaceous lines, the scutellum and post- 
scutellum are yellow, suffused with rufous. Median 
segment sharply oblique, the middle slightly hollowed ; 
the sides broadly rufo-testaceous ; there are no keels 
except the curved lateral ones, and on the apex the 
testaceous part is bordered on the inner side by a lateral 
keel. The propleurse above and beneath bordered with 
yellow; obscurely striolated ; the mesopleurse black above, 
bordered with rufous ; the middle broadly yellow, the 
sternum rufous ; the base above finely longitudinally 
striated, the rest punctured ; the metapleurse smooth, 
shining ; a short, wide, deep, oblique furrow at the base 
above. The coxae and trochanters are rufous, suffused 
with yellow. Areolet narrowed at the top, being there 
not much less in width than the space bounded by the 
recurrent and the second transverse cubital nervures. 
Abdomen uniformly ferruginous, shining ; the basal 
three-fourths of the petiole black above ; the sheaths of 
the ovipositor rufous, black at the apex ; the ventral 
surface tinged with yellow. 

Comes nearest to /. utetes, but that species has the 
pleurae and sternum blackish and the mesopleurae strongly 


Rufus, antennis nigris ; orbitis oculorum^ tegulis^ liuea 
pronoti^ lineis 2 mesonoti scutelloque flavis ; nietapleuris 
striolatis; alis hyalznis, stigmate testaceo. 9. Long. 6 mm. 

Antennae black ; the scape and the basal half of the 
flagellum brownish beneath ; the flagellum almost bare, 
the scape with a few hairs on the under side. Head 
shining, the face and clypeus with longish pale hairs ; the 
vertex punctured, except at the sides ; the antennal 
depression closely transversely striated ; the front with a 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1. 25 

shallow longitudinal furrow over the depression ; the 
clypeus obliquely depressed in the middle at the centre, 
the depression almost semicircular ; the top with a few 
punctures ; the centre below the antennae broadly, roundly 
and distinctly raised ; the mandibles rufo-testaceous ; the 
tips black ; the palpi pale-testaceous. The frontal 
depression black ; the vertex blackish at the ocelli ; the 
inner orbits narrowly at the bottom, broadly at the top, and 
narrowly again behind the eyes, yellow. Prothorax in front, 
the edge of the pronotum, two lines in the centre of the 
mesonotum, the scutellum except at the apex, the pro- 
pleurae and the mesopleurae over the coxae, lemon-yellow ; 
the propleurae almost entirely black, as is also the sternum ; 
the upper half of the mesopleurae, and the metapleurae, 
black ; the mesopleurae strongly punctured, except the usual 
smooth space behind; the base above almost longitudinally 
striated ; the metapleurae very finely and closely longitu- 
dinally striated ; a red and yellow mark over the coxse. 
Scutellum flat, large, not much narrowed towards the apex, 
the post-scutellum rufous, very smooth, and having two 
large, deep, oval depressions at the base. Median segment 
shagreened, almost striated in the middle ; the supra- 
median area longer than broad ; bluntly rounded at the 
base. The four anterior coxae coloured like the femora ; 
the hinder broadly black at the base beneath, and with 
a yellow mark at the base behind. Abdomen shining, 
the apex of the fourth, the fifth and the sixth, black. In 
the fore wings the transverse median nervure is interstitial; 
the areolet is much narrowed at the top, being there less 
in length than the space bounded by the recurrent and 
the second transverse cubital ncrvures. 

Appears to be a true Dicoelotiis, the first species of the 
genus recorded, I believe, out of Europe, The foveae at 
the base of the post-scutellum are large and deep, more so, 
in fact, than in most species of the genus. 

26 Cameron, Hymenoptera, from Grey mouth. 


Mesostenus albo-pictus Sm. 
Smith, Trans. Entom. Soc, 1876, p. 477, pi. IV. f. i. 
One ?. A large and handsome species. 

Hemiteles DESTRUCTIVUS, Sp. nov. 

Niger^ pedzbus abdomineque rufo-testaceis,petiolo nigro ; 
alls hyalijizs, stigmatefusco. ?. Long. 5 mm. ; terebra i mm. 

Head absent. Thorax entirely black, shining ; the 
pro- and meso-thorax thickly covered with short pale hair, 
almost impunctate, the lower part of the pro- and 
meso-pleurse strongly longitudinally striated, except the 
usual impunctate spot on the apex of the latter ; the 
part of the metapleurse below the keel obliquely striated, 
that above it rugose. The median segment rugosely 
punctured ; the arese all distinctly defined ; the sides with 
a distinct tooth near the top of the apical part Legs 
rufo-testaceous ; the trochanters paler ; the hinder coxae 
black, except at the apex. Wings clear hyaline, the 
stigma and the nervures paler ; the recurrent nervure is 
received in the apical third of the cellule, the tegulae pallid- 
testaceous. Petiole black, finely and closely longitudinally 
striated ; apical segments of abdomen thickly covered 
with short pale hair. 

Rhyssa semipunctata. 

The species described by Wx.YsXxhy {Trans. Entom. 
Soc, 1883, p. 202) cannot be referred to Rhyssa. I am 
not quite certain to which genus it belongs ; assuredly 
not to Rhyssa, which inter alia differs in having the 
mesonotum transversely striolated. 

Compared with Pimpla the face is longer, the eyes 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. 1. 27 

beings separated from the base of the mandibles ; the 
clypeus is much larger, more elongate and narrowed 
gradually towards the apex ; the mandibles have two 
teeth at the apex ; the eyes are distinctly margined on the 
inner side ; the centre of the mesonotum at the base is 
separated by deep crenulated furrows into a cone-shaped 
lobe, the sides of the pronotum being raised at the base of 
the furrows, which are produced as one a short distance 
beyond the apex of the lobe ; the scutellum is narrowed 
towards the apex, curved at the base ; the keels are 
large and acute. The median segment is strongly and 
uniformly transversely striated ; the centre flatly raised ; 
the sides stoutly keeled ; the keels ending in a stout blunt 
tooth ; the apex with an oblique slope and with the sides 
keeled. The top and base of the mesopleurse are depressed ; 
the edges of the depression crenulated ; in the middle and 
reaching near to the apex is a wide, deep, slightly 
oblique furrow ; the hinder edge has a wide, flat, slightly 
oblique, crenulated furrow ; and, in front of this on the 
lower side, is a short, wide, oblique depression. The legs 
are stout ; the hinder femora have, shortly beyond the 
middle, a short, somewhat triangular tooth ; the tibise are 
spined, especially the hinder, the middle pair having only 
a few and the anterior none at all ; the tarsi are spined ; 
the claws long, curved, simple. The abdomen smooth, 
shining and impunctate throughout ; the base oblique, 
not hollowed ; the sides of the second and third obliquely 
furrowed, the furrows being more distinctly defined than 
in Pinipla. The fore tarsi are twice the length of the 
tibiae ; the middle segments of the abdomen broader than 
long ; the ovipo.sitor issues from a ventral cleft. 

The $ ofters no noteworthy generic character wherein 
it difl"ers from the $. 

The toothed posterior femora, spined tibise, elongated 
face, deeply lobed mesonotum, furrowed mesopleurae 

28 Cameron, Hy^nenoptera^ from Greymouth. 

and median segment form a combination of dis- 
tinctive characters which warrants a new genus being 
formed for this species, which I would name Xenopimpla. 
The c^ is not described by Kirby. It agrees generally 
in coloration with the ? ; but the scutellar keels, the 
apex of the scutellum, the post-scutellum, the edges 
of the apex of the mesonotum, and the metanotal spines 
are yellow ; the furrow on the mesopleurae and the apex 
of the mesopleurae, are black, but the extreme apex of 
the latter is yellow ; the petiole is bordered with yellow, 
the yellow band being narrowed in the middle ; the yellow 
marks on the abdomen extend to the fifth segment ; one, 
two, or three of the apical segments may be red ; the 
hinder tibise may be for the greater part blackish and they 
are less strongly spined. In both sexes the quantity of 
black on the antennae varies, as does also the amount of 
violaceous colour in the wings. 


Rufa ; an tennis nigris ; thorace albo-maculato ; alls 
fere flavo-hyalinis. ?. Long. lo mm. 

Antennae entirely black, covered with a microscopic 
down ; the scape slightly black-haired. Head shining, the 
vertex closely punctured, almost glabrous ; the face 
sparsely covered with short white hair; the orbits all 
round, but more narrowly at the top, and the mandibles, 
white ; the mandibular teeth blackish ; the mandibles at 
their base piceous ; the palpi pale-rufous. Thorax dark- 
rufous ; the middle of the mesonotum broadly, the sides 
less distinctly, the lower part of the propleurae, the sides 
and top of the mesopleurae, the hinder part of the meso- 
sternum and the edges of the metathorax, black ; the 
base of the pronotum, a somewhat triangular large mark 
on either side of the mesonotum at the base, two elongate 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1. 29 

marks, dilated at the middle, at its apex, the scutellum, 
the post-scutellum, a large somewhat oval mark at the 
base of the mesopleurse, and a large oblique one on the 
metapleurse, white. The median segment transversely 
aciculated, less strongly so at the base ; before the apex 
is a stout transverse curved keel ; and in the centre are a 
few transverse strise. Legs entirely rufous ; the fore pair 
slightly paler in tint. Abdomen smooth, shining, im- 
punctate. Wings hyaline, iridescent, and with a slight 
fuscous tinge ; the stigma and nervures fuscous ; the 
areolet oblique. 

Allied to L. flavo-picta Sm., but that has only two 
yellow marks on the mesonotum, no yellow on the meta- 
pleuras, and the coxae are yellow. L. albo-picta Sm., has 
the head black. 


ChORIN^US (?) FORTIPES, Sp. nov. 

Long : 5 mm. ?. 

The specimen of this species unfortunately wants the 
head, but it differs so much from C. nigripes that there 
can be no doubt of their distinctness. It differs from 
C. nigripes in the petiole having two strong keels down 
its centre, which is, further, much more distinctly raised 
and separated from the sides. 

Pro- and meso-notum shining, closely and strongly 
punctured, thickly covered with black hair ; the scutellum 
with large distinctly separated punctures. Median seg- 
ment depressed and distinctly margined at the base, 
rough, indistinctly punctured, thickly covered with greyish 
hair ; the two keels in the centre much stronger than they 
are in C. nigripes, and are continued round the sides of 
the apex. All the pleurae smooth and shining, sparsely 
haired ; the sternum thickly covered with fuscous hair. 
Wings fusco-hyaline ; the stigma and nervures dark- 

30 Cameron, Hymenoptera, from GreynioutJi. 

fuscous ; the transverse cubital nervures united at the top ; 
the recurrent nervure is received in the apical third of the 
cellule. Legs black, thickly covered with longish white 
hair ; the base and apex of the anterior tibiae and the fore 
tarsi for the greater part testaceous. Abdomen strongly 
punctured, thickly covered with short pale hair ; the 
petiole strongly keeled down the centre to shortly beyond 
the middle ; the base not much depressed in the centre. 

The two species I have here referred to Chorinceus 
agree better with that genus than with any other. The 
keels on the second and third abdominal segments charac- 
teristic of Chorinceus can hardly be said to exist ; the 
femora and the legs generally are stouter than they are in 
e.g. the European C. fitnebris ; while both species differ in 
the areolet being complete. 


Niger ^ tibiis tar sis que antic is testaceis ; a lis fere 
hyalinis. ?. 

Long, fere 6 mm. * 

Face at the sides finely and closely transversely 
striated, in the centre irregularly rugose ; covered with 
long, soft white hair ; the front and vertex shining, im- 
punctate ; more thickly covered with shorter hair than on 
the face ; the palpi dark-testaceous. Thorax shining, 
impunctate ; the pro- and meso-notum thickly covered 
with short dark hair ; the median segment coarsely 
shagreened, except in the middle at the apex where it is 
shining and impunctate ; down the centre are two distinct 
keels which slightly diverge at the apex. Pleura shining, 
impunctate ; the metapleurse on the lower side bordered 
by a stout keel. Legs black ; the front knees, tibiae and 
tarsi, testaceous ; the four hinder tarsi of a darker testa- 
ceous colour, the metatarsus being almost fuscous. Wings 
hyaline, very slightly infuscated ; the stigma almost black ; 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1. 31 

the nervurcs testaceous ; the areolet narrow, longish ; the 
recurrent nervures united at the top ; the first transverse 
cubital nervure thick, the second narrow, faint on lower 
side ; the recurrent nervure received near the apex of the 
areolet and largely bullated at the top ; the first transverse 
cubital nervure bulges out backwards, forming a triangle. 
The basal three segments of the abdomen strongly 
punctured, the others impunctate, thickly covered with 
longish pale hair. 

Bassus GENEROSUS, sp. nov. 

Niger, orbitis ocidorinn, ore, palpis, linea pronoti, scutello, 
tegulis, lineaque tibianun posticaruni albis ; pedibus rufis ; 
tarsis posticis nigris ; alis hyalinis, siiginate fusco. 9. 

Long. 6 mm. 

Head black ; the face punctured, sparsely covered 
with short fuscous hair ; the mouth, the base of the 
mandibles, palpi and inner orbits, white ; the mandibular 
teeth piceous and black. Thorax black ; a large broad 
mark on the side of the mesonotum at the base, reaching 
to the tegulae, the tegulae, tubercles, a triangular mark 
on the pleurae below the base of the hind wings, the 
greater part of the scutellum and the post-scutellum, 
yellowish-white. Median segment closely punctured ; the 
keels stout ; the supramedian area wider than long ; the 
large median area rounded on each side at the top ; 
stoutly transversely striolated. Propleurae distinctly punc- 
tured ; the mesopleurse almost impunctate, especially 
in the middle behind ; the metapleurae minutely punctured. 
Legs red ; the fore coxa^ and the middle at the base, black; 
the apices of the coxas and the trochanters yellow ; the 
base of the hinder tibiae broadly black ; a broad white 
band towards the middle ; at the apex of the white band 
they are black, the apex itself being rufous. The stigma 
is for the greacer part black ; the base broadly testaceous. 

32 Cameron, Hymenoptera^from Grey mouth. 

Abdomen black ; the apical half of the second and the 
basal half of the third rufo-testaceous ; the apex of the 
second segment yellow ; down the centre of the petiole 
(but not reaching the apex) are two keels ; the extreme 
apex smooth, but, in front of this smooth part, there are 
short, stout, longitudinal keels ; the second segment has, 
shortly beyond the middle, a: wide, deep, transverse furrow, 
which is finely longitudinally striolated, and, in the middle, 
is bent a little backwards ; the base of the segment is 
coarsely but closely punctured ; the third segment has 
also a transverse furrow. 

Mesoleptus sybarita, sp. nov. 

Niger, capite thoraceque albo-maculatzs, apice inetanoti, 
abdomine pedibusqiie rufis ; aits hyalinis, stigmate fiisco. $ . 

Long. 9 mm. 

Antennae black ; the scape reddish in the middle 
beneath. Head lemon-yellow ; the occiput except at the 
sides, the vertex except at the orbits, and a broad line 
down the face to the base of the clypeus, black ; finely 
punctured, very sparsely covered with short pale hair ; 
the mandibles lemon-yellow, black at the apex ; the palpi 
yellow, without a lemon tint. Thorax black ; a broad line 
on the pronotum not reaching to the base, two lines in 
the centre of the mesonotum extending from the base to 
the apex, the base of the lines dilated outwardly, club- 
shaped and touching the pronotum, the scutellum except 
at the apex, post-scutellum, the prosternum, a large 
oblique mark on the mesopleurae, the apex of the propleurae 
to near the bottom, the tubercles, a large oblique mark 
on the apex of the metapleurae and a small one at the 
base above, lemon-yellow ; the middle lobes of the 
mesonotum and the apical half of the metanotum 
brownish- red : above the yellow mark on the mesopleurae 
is a large brownish-red mark ; the upper part of the 

Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xHL (1898), No. 1. 33 

yellow mark being bordered by the same colour ; the 
reddish apex of the metanotum transversely striated. 
Legs fulvous, the four anterior coxae, the trochanters and 
the upper part of the hinder coxae, lemon-yellow. Areolet 
triangular; the nervures blackish, the costa dark-testaceous. 
Abdomen fulvous-red above ; the ventral surface, except 
at the apex, lemon-yellow. 

Mesoleptus comparatus, sp. nov. 

Long. 9-10 mm. 

Differs from M. sybarita in the thorax being almost 
entirely brownish-red, in the pleurae having no yellow 
marks, in the mesonotum having only two small yellow 
marks, and in the face being broadly black in the middle. 

Head black ; the orbits of the eyes except for a 
small space below the top on the outer side, the clypeus, 
base of mandibles, palpi, two short lines on the apex of 
the mesonotum, the scutellum, post-scutellum, the pro- 
thorax broadly beneath, a small obscure mark on the 
mesopleurse in the centre, and a large oblique mark in the 
centre of the metapleurse, yellow ; the middle lobe of the 
pronotum, the parts at the sides of the scutella, the base 
of the median segment broadly in the middle, the mark 
being narrowed towards the apex, the middle of the pro- 
pleurse, the top and base of the mesopleurse broadly, the 
mesonotum in the middle behind, the edges of the meta- 
pleurse at the base and beneath, black. The puncturing 
on the mesothorax is not very strong ; the sides of the 
scutellum obscurely longitudinally striated. Legs reddish, 
except a large black mark on the hinder coxae beneath. 
Areolet oblique, irregular ; the transverse cubital nervures 
not united at the top. Petiole closely and strongly acicu- 
lated except at the apex ; the second segment aciculated, 
the others smooth ; the three apical broadly blackish. 

34 Cameron, Hymenoptera^from Greymouth. 

Ophion PUNCTATUS, Sp. nov. 

Long. II mm. 

Head rufous, the inner orbits bright lemon-yellow, the 
colour becoming paler as it unites with the rufous colour 
of the rest of the head ; the face coarsely and closely 
punctured, the clypeus at the base sparsely punctured, its 
apex almost impunctate ; thickly covered with short pale 
hair ; the mandibles pale lemon-yellow, the teeth black ; 
the hinder orbits obscure-yellow ; the palpi pale-yellow. 
The two basal joints of the antennae are rufous. Thorax 
rufous, shining ; the pro- and meso-notum closely and 
rather strongly punctured, closely covered with a micro- 
scopic pile ; the scutellum is not so darkly coloured as the 
mesonotum, and has the punctures more widely punctured. 
Median segment finely closely rugose, thickly covered 
with short fuscous hair. Propleurae closely and somewhat 
strongly punctured, thickly covered with short fuscous 
hair ; the base raised and paler in colour. The meso- 
pleurse strongly punctured ; the metapleurae with the 
punctures more widely separated, and smaller at base ; 
at the base is a smooth, curved, and in front of the 
spiracles is a wider, deeper, oblique, furrow, which becomes 
wider towards the apex, and clearly separating the pleurae 
into two unequal parts. Wings hyaline, with a fuscous 
tinge, the nervures and stigma dark-fuscous. Tegulae 
lemon-yellow. Abdomen not quite so dark-luteous as 
the thorax ; the petiole with an elongated depression 
extending from the front of the spiracles to a slightly 
greater distance behind them, in the centre on the top ; 
its apex being slightly wider than the base ; the ventral 
surface of the second and third segments pallid lemon- 
yellow. The genital armature coloured like the abdomen. 

The only New Zealand species of Ophion with 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1. 35 

punctured thorax is Ophion imitilis Sm., No. 2. Trans. 
Entom. Soc, 1878, p. 2, but that appears to be a quite 
different form, O. mutilis, No. 2, having the nervures and 
stigma ferruginous, while in our species the stigma is 
black, without a tint of reddish colour ; no mention 
being made of any yellow colour in the eyes in O. inutilis. 
I write " O. inutilis^ No. 2," for Smith actually described 
in the Trans. Entom. Soc, 1876, p. 478, another O. inutilis, 
which is treated as identical with the 1878 specimen by 
Kirby {Trans. Entom. Soc, 1881, p. 45). The 1876 
specimen has also no yellow on the head, nor is there any 
mention of the thorax being punctured, as it is said to be 
in No. 2. 


Apparently a common species, if I have correctly 
identified our species with Smith's, whose description is not 
clear. He says, " mesothorax black," which would mean 
the entire mesothorax ; but lower down he says, " sternum 
black," words which are unnecessary if the whole meso- 
thorax is black. In the Grey mouth example only the 
mesonotum and mesosternum are black ; the orbits are 
obscure yellow ; the stigma and nervures dark fuscous. 
The face is closely, the clypeus more widely, punctured ; 
the tips of the mandibles black ; the ocellar region deep- 
black ; the outer ocelli bordered by a distinct furrow on 
the outer side. The black on the mesonotum does not 
extend to the sides, nor to the edge of the central lobe. 
The basal half of the propleurae obliquely striated ; the 
upper half of the mesopleurae closely punctured ; the 
centre at the base rough ; the lower part punctured ; the 
metapleurae closely punctured above, the lower part 
irregularly longitudinally striated ; the scutellum closely 
punctured, the sides sharply keeled. The median segment 
coarsely and closely transversely striolated, more strongly 

36 Cameron, Hymenoptera, from Greymouth, 

towards the apex. Wings hyaline, the nervures and 
stigma dark-fuscous. 

Paniscus FOVEATUS, sp. nov. 

Long. 17-18 mm. 

A larger species than P. ephippiatus ; may be known 
from it by the absence of black on the vertex and thorax, 
and by the form of the post-scutellum, which is much 
more convex, has the sides distinctly keeled, and is deeply 
depressed at the base, the depression being almost bifurcate, 
through the centre being raised. 

The flagellum of the antennae infuscated ; the face 
and clypeus pallid-yellow; the face more closely punctured 
than the clypeus ; the tips of the mandibles black. 
Mesonotum shagreened ; the scutellum closely punctured, 
much narrowed towards the apex ; the post-scutellum 
rugosely punctured, the sides at the base (bordering the 
depression) sharply keeled. Median segment coarsely 
transversely striated, at its base in the centre is a wide, 
curved, deep furrow as in P. ephippiatus. The propleurae 
obscurely obliquely striated ; the apex closely punctured ; 
the mesopleurae closely, but not strongly, punctured ; the 
metapleurse behind the spiracles finely punctured, the 
rest much more coarsely punctured, on the lower side 
almost longitudinally striolated, the lower part of the 
mesopleurae is not depressed as it is in P. ephippiatus. 
Wings hyaline, the nervures blackish, the stigma fuscous. 
The abdomen is uniformly luteous, the apex not being 
darkened ; the sides of the petiole at the base widely 


Nigra J abdomine rufo, basi late nigro ; pedibiis rufis^ 
coxis posticis nigris^ trochanteribus flavis ; a lis hyalinisy 
stigmate testaceo. ?. 

Long. 7 ; terebra 2.5 mm. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1. 37 

Antennas nearly as long as the body, black ; the scape 
testaceous beneath ; the flagellum thickly covered with 
short black hair. Head black ; the mandibles yellow ; 
their teeth piceous-black ; below the antennae thickly 
covered with silvery hair ; the vertex more thickly with 
shorter black hair. Thorax black, hardly shining, except 
on the apex of the meso- and the base of the meta-pleurae ; 
the propleurae at the apex longitudinally striolated. The 
median segment with a curved keel near the base ; on the 
metapleurae a keel unites to the spiracle, and, from near 
the apex cf this keel, a less distinct one runs to opposite 
the middle of the coxae. Legs rufous ; the hind coxae 
black ; the four anterior trochanters pale-yellow ; the pos- 
terior tarsi infuscated. Petiole black, except the apex, 
which is very shining and testaceous, at the sides finely 
striated ; the rest aciculated ; the second segment black ; 
the apex broadly, the sides narrowly, rufous. The areolet 
oblique, narrow, the nervures touching at the top ; the 
areolet projecting beneath ; the recurrent nervure received 
beyond the middle of it. 



Niger, tarsis fuscis ; alis fttniatis. ?. Long, fere 5 mm. 

Head almost opaque, except the vertex, which is 
smooth and shining in the centre, covered, especially in 
front, with a white pubescence ; the mandibles pale-yellow 
at the apex ; the teeth piceous ; it is closely punctured, 
the vertex and front being less strongly punctured than 
the lower parts. Thorax covered with a microscopic white 
pile ; the pronotum irregularly longitudinally striolated in 
front ; the striations in the hollowed middle being the 
larger. Mesonotum finely and closely punctured ; down 
the middle are two shallow, striated furrows. Scutellum 

38 Cameron, Hymenoptera, from Greymouth. 

with the punctures more distinct and more widely separated 
than on the mesonotum ; its base is hollowed and divided 
by eight strong keels ; it is narrowed towards the apex ; 
its sides are straight, and it forms almost a triangle ; the 
mesonotum at its sides is strongly longitudinally striated ; 
the striations being widely separated ; on either side at 
its apex is a smooth, shining, transverse space. The 
base of the median segment bears short, thick, longitudinal 
keels, separated from the rest of the segment by a stout 
transverse one, the rest of the segment being reticulated, 
bordered on the inner side by a longitudinal keel, the edge 
itself being also stoutly keeled. The propleurae in front 
finely transversely striated ; the centre hollowed, strongly 
irregularly and deeply striolated ; the striations on the 
apex much weaker ; the mesopleurae above with shallow, 
irregular punctures ; the lower side much more strongly 
punctured, almost reticulated ; the metapleurae strongly 
irregularly reticulated. Legs black ; the extreme apices 
of the femora, and the base of the tibiae testaceous ; the 
spurs whitish ; the tibiae and tarsi closely covered with 
silvery pubescence. The base of the abdomen coarsely, 
the apex finely and closely longitudinally striated. Radial 
nervure elongate, reaching to the end of the wing, being 
nearly as long as the cubital ; the second transverse cubital 
nervure is very faint. 

Meteorus nova-z?:alandicus, sp. nov. 

RufuSy capite, pedibusque pallida flavis^ alls hyalinis, 
stigmate flavOy basi fusco. ?. 

Long. 5.5 ; terebra 2 mm. 

Head shining; the face covered with white hair, the 
vertex more thickly with shorter fuscous hair ; the teeth of 
the mandibles black, piceous at the base ; the front finely 
transversely striated ; below the antennae are a -few short 
longitudinal striae. Thorax uniformly rufous in colour ; 

MancJiester Memoirs, VoLxliu (1898), No. 1. 39 

finely and closely rugosely punctured ; the apex of the 
median segment covered with moderately long, white hair, 
the base with shorter fuscous hair. The propleurse irregu- 
larly horizontally striolated at the base; the upper part 
being almost entirely black ; the mesopleurse at the top 
(especially at the base) strongly irregularly striolated and 
reticulated ; the lower part is widely hollowed, the hollow 
being strongly and somewhat obliquely striolated. Median 
segment strongly and closely rugosely punctured ; the base 
in the middle jwith 2 or 3 short longitudinal keels ; the 
metapleurae near the top with a stout curved keel, beneath 
which at the base it is horizontally striated ; the meso- 
pleurae at the apex raised, almost carinate, the keel being 
smooth and shining at the top. Legs pallid-yellow ; the 
hind coxae and apex of the hind femora rufous ; the 
hinder tibiae and tarsi not so pale in colour. Wings 
hyaline with a faint fuscous hue ; the nervures pallid- 
fuscous ; the stigma pale-yellow, darker at the base. 
Petiole rufous ; finely and closely punctured ; the base 
darker, almost transversely striated ; the rest of the 
abdomen lighter in colour, especially towards the apex ; 
the second segment is finely punctured ; the others very 

The first abdominal segment has " tracheal grooves " 
and is dilated in the middle. It is longer and more slender 
than usual. The second cubital cellule is slightly narrowed 
at the top. The antennae unfortunately have been lost. 
The radial areolet of the hind wings is not geminated by 
a transverse nervure. 

Alysia stramineipes, sp. nov. 

Nigra, pedibus flavis ; alis hyalinis, stigmate mgro. ?. 
Long. 4 mm. 

Antennae black ; the scape testaceous ; the flagellum 
covered closely with a microscopic pile ; the joints not 

40 Cameron, Hymenoptera, from Greymouth. 

clearly separated, the third longer than the fourth. Head 
shining ; the face closely, the front and vertex sparsely, 
covered with short, black hair. Pro- and meso-thorax 
shining, closely punctured ; the median segment coarsely 
rugosely punctured, sparsely covered with longish black 
hairs ; the metapleurae rugosely punctured at the sides, 
the middle with wide, deep, widely separated punctures. 
The hinder edge of the mesopleurae crenulated ; its base 
distinctly punctured, the punctures clearly separated, but 
not by a great distance from each other ; the upper part 
with the punctures closer, smaller and shallower ; on the 
lower side, but not touching the base, is a wide, deep, 
curved furrow, indistinctly crenulated in the middle. The 
upper part of the propleurse stoutly striated ; the upper 
two striae stout ; on the lower side immediately over the 
coxae are two much stouter keels. Median segment 
coarsely rugosely reticulated. Legs entirely fulvous- 
yellow ; the femora sparsely, the tibiae and tarsi thickly, 
covered with white hair. Wings hyaline ; the stigma 
large, blackish ; the costa and nervures paler ; the first 
abscissa of the radius very short, not one-half the 
length of the space between the recurrent and the first 
transverse cubital nervure. The petiole above closely, its 
apex more sparsely and not so strongly, punctured ; the 
rest of the abdomen very smooth and shining ; the apices 
of the segments pallid-yellow. 

The only specimen is not in good condition, but I 
believe I have described correctly its salient specific points. 
It appears to be an Alysia as defined by Foerster in his 
generic synopsis of the family. (Verh. Ver. Rheinl. ^IX. 
p. 263.) 

Gasteruption pedunculatum Schl. 

Foenus unguicuLatus Smith, Trans. Entom. Soc, 1869 
p. 480, pi. IV., f 8. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1. 41 

Gasteruption pedunculatuin Schletterer, Ann. K. K. 
Natur. Hofmus. Wzen, 1890, p. 467. 

One $ and one ?. 

In both examples the pronotum is rufous, except in 
the middle, the rufous colour being narrowest at the top ; 
the mesopleurae are broadly rufous immediately over the 
sternum ; there is a curved rufous band over the hinder 
coxae, and a narrower oblique one immediately in the 
middle above it. The amount of red on the legs varies. 
In the S the amount of white pubescence on the pro- 
thorax is much greater than it is in the ?, unless it be 
that it has been rubbed off from the latter in my specimens. 


Proctotrupes maculipennis Cam. 

Cameron, Manchester Memoirs, 1888, p. 175. 
One specimen. 

Malvina punctata Cam. 

Manchester Memoirs, 1889, p. 13. 
Four examples. 

Betyla fulva Cam. 

Manchester Memoirs, 1889, p. 13. 

This species was described by the Rev. T. A. Marshall 
in the Entom. Mon. Mag., November 1892, under the name 
of Tanyzonus bolitophilce, which name must give place to 
my earlier one. 

Mr. Marshall describes both sexes. The $ is winged, 
and has the thorax fully developed, not narrow and con- 
tracted as in the wingless ?, which has 15 -jointed antennae, 
while the $ has them 14-jointed, much thinner, attenuated 
towards the apex, and with the third joint emarginate. 

Mr. G. V. Hudson discovered the species at Welling- 

42 Cameron, Hymenoptera^from Greymoiith. 

ton, New Zealand, to be a parasite on the luminous " Glow 
Worm " BoUtophila luminosa. Boliiophila is a species of 



Described by Smith as a Tetramorium. Common at 
Greymouth ; and, according to Forel, at Mount Cook, on 
the Island of Timaru, at an elevation of 2,540 feet. 


This was also erroneously referred to Tetramorium. It 
is more related toMonomorium; and a new gorms, Hubertia, 
has been formed for its reception by Forel, C.R. Soc. Entom. 
Belgique^ 1890. Found at Greymouth and at Mount Cook 
along with M. nitidum. 

For an interesting description of the habits of the 
above-mentioned ants, as observed at Ashburton, the 
reader is referred to a paper " On the origin of Ants' 
Nests," by Mr. W. W. Smith in Entom. Mon. Mag., March, 
1892, pp. 60-65.* The nests are formed under stones 
partly buried in the sandy soil, on the terraces of the river 
and in stony places on the plains. 

In the nests of the ants are found sundry inquilines. 
There are two species of Homoptera a species of Ripersia 
and Dactylopius poce Maskell, both feeding on the roots 
of the grasses among which the ants' nests are placed ; 
a beetle, Diarthrocera formicoephiia Brown, an isopod, 
Platyarthrus^ and some mites. It is noteworthy that the 
coccid genus, Ripersia, and the crustacean, Platyarthrus, 
are found inhabiting ants' nests in Europe. 


Several examples. 

* For a description of a great flight of M. nitidum, see W. W. Smith, 
Ento77i. Mon, Mag., 1890, p. 321. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1. 43 

Aphaenogaster antarcticus Sm. 
Two females. 

Crabro (Rhopalum) JOCOSUS, Sp. nov. 

Long. 8-9 mm. 

Comes near to C. perforator Sm. ; differs in having 
less yellow on the legs and none on the mesonotum. 

Head black ; the cheeks and clypeus densely covered 
with silvery pubescence ; the front and vertex alutaceous, 
sparsely covered with microscopic down ; the ocelli • . * ; 
the vertex depressed in the centre, where there is a furrow 
running down from the ocelli ; close to the eyes on the 
inner side, nearly opposite the lower ocellus, is a short, 
moderately deep, curved depression. Antennae black ; the 
basal joints of the flagellum testaceous beneath ; the third 
joint slightly, the fourth largely, produced beneath ; the 
sixth deeply incised at the base, the apex largely dilated ; 
the fifth joint ovate. The mandibles piceous before the 
teeth ; there is one large apical and a shorter basal tooth. 
Pronotum at the middle distinctly separated from the 
mesothorax ; in the centre above broadly hollowed, the 
sides behind depressed, the middle raised, rounded ; the 
edge of the pronotum near the tegulae white. Mesonotum 
and scutellum shining, impunctate, glabrous ; a deep, large, 
oval depression at the side of the post-scutellum. Down 
the centre of the median segment is a deep, moderately 
wide furrow. At the base of the mesopleurae an oblique, 
wide, crenulated furrow ; in the centre above a small 
round depression ; the metapleurai are broadly depressed 
at the base. Legs black ; the base of the fore femora, the 
fore tibiae except a black line behind, the fore tarsi, the 
apex of the middle femora, the middle tibiae except behind, 
the middle tarsi except the apical joint and the second 

44 Cameron, Hymenoptera, from Greymouth. 

and third joints of the hinder tarsi, yellow. Wings 
hyaline ; the stigma and nervures black. Abdomen 
shining ; the apical segments covered with short pale 
hair ; the pygidium opaque, covered with longish white 


Under this name Mr. W. F. Kirby ( Trans. Entom. Soc. 
1883, p. 201, fig. ) describes a genus Taranga " apparently 
allied to Pemphredon " but which is really related to Pison. 
Kohl {Ann. K. K, Natter. Hofmns. Wzen, XI. p. 458) 
regards it as a division of Pison. Bingham {Fauna of 
India^ Hym. i. p. 218) says that he has "taken specimens of 
Pzsojz with three cubital cells in one fore wing, only two 
in the other. Such seems to be the case with the allied 
genus Taranga Kirby. Kohl unites Taranga to Pison ; 
but from a careful examination of the type, I have come 
to the conclusion that they are distinct." I have noticed 
myself that the outer nervure of the pendicular cellule 
tends to become obliterated in species where it is normally 
present. The neu ration in Taranga appears to be normal, 
and not merely an individual aberration ; but still I cannot 
regard it in any other light than as a division of Pison. 
Otherwise the species with neuration differing from the 
type, e.g.^ Pisonites, would also have to be treated as distinct 

Pison pruinosus, sp. nov. 

Niger, opacus, capita thoraceque longe albo-hirtis; alis 
fere hyalinis. ?. Long. 16 mm. 

Antennae opaque, the scape and basal joints of the 
flagellum thickly covered with longish pale hair. Head 
covered thickly with long greyish hair, which is thicker 
and more silvery below the eye incision. Apex of clypeus 
rounded in the middle. Mandibles shining, the base with 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1. 45 

long silvery hair. Thorax opaque, alutaceous, thickly 
covered with longish white hair, longest and thickest on 
the scutellum and median segment. Apex of the median 
segment with with an oblique slope ; the basal half in the 
centre with a wide, moderately deep furrow, from which 
run some curved, oblique keels ; the base of the slope 
coarsely punctured ; the rest with strong, transverse, dis- 
tinctly separated striations. Pleurae and sternum with 
small, shallow, distinctly separated punctures ; the sternum 
depressed in the centre, down which runs a straight, stout 
keel. Coxae, trochanters and femora covered somewhat 
thickly with longish white hair ; the tibiae and tarsi pru- 
inose. Wings fusco-hyaline ; the extreme apex smoky ; 
the second cubital cellule triangular ; in length scarcely 
half the length of the pedicle ; the first recurrent nervure 
received shortly, but distinctly, in front of the cubital ; the 
second interstitial ; the second transverse cubital nervure 
near the top, and both branches at the bottom are bul- 
lated. Abdomen opaque, the segments at the apices 
banded with silvery pubescence ; the basal two ventral 
segments sparsely covered with white hair ; the apical 
more thickly with longer fuscous hair ; the base of the 
second segment is smooth, raised, and, in the middle, pro- 
jects into a somewhat triangular area. 

P. morosus Sm., is a smaller species than this, has 
the head, thorax and abdomen more shining, and much 
less pilose ; the furrows on the median segment shorter 
and shallower ; its head is more developed behind ; the 
abdomen deeply excavated in the middle at the base ; the 
depression on the mesopleurae wider and deeper ; the 
pedicle of the second cubital cellule hardly longer than 
the appendicular cellule ; the second transverse cubital 
nervure is more rounded and curved at the bottom ; the 
second cubital cellule at the top is hardly so long as the 
second at the bottom, while in P. morosus it is longer ; 

46 Cameron, Hymenoptera, from Grey month. 

the transverse nervure is received distinctly in front of the 
transverse basal ; in P.pruinosus it is interstitial, P. tuber- 
culatus Sm. differs in being much smaller — only 3 lines — 
and in having two minute tubercles on the second, third 
and fourth ventral segments near their apical margin. 

One specimen. 

An example of this, apparently common, species has the 
second transverse cubital nervure completely obliterated. 
Gorytes tricJiiosoina Cam. is probably only a form of 
G. carbonarius. 

Tachytes depressus Sauss. 

Reise der Novara, Hymen, p. 69. 
Three specimens. 

Tachytes sericops Sm. 
One example. 

Tachytes helmsi Cam. 

Manchester Memoirs, 1888, p. 182. 
One example. 


The PompilidcE appear to be the commonest, largest 
and most handsome of the New Zealand Hymenoptera. 
Under the name of Sphex one of the species has been 
recorded by Mr. Potts (probably S. Wakefieldi\ as 
preying on spiders, with which the Pompilidce provision 
their nests. Mr. Potts {Nature, XXX. p. 267) says : " A 
species of Sphex [read Salius'] with orange-coloured body 
deposits the benumbed or torpid bodies of spiders in 
some crevice for future use. An individual of this species 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1. 47 

had its hole in a dry corner beneath the plate of a long 
veranda. One day I observed it dragging a victim along 
a gravelled walk that was parallel to the veranda ; the 
small stones and grit made its progress very difficult 
After very trying struggles with these impediments it 
displayed a remarkable degree of intelligence, by which it 
gained its ends. It altered its course and made for the 
veranda, ascending the smooth, painted board that 
adjoined the gravelled walk. After slowly traversing 
seven inches of perpendicular, it came to a rounded 
beading which projected outwards. Now came its supreme 
moment of physical exertion. The body of the spider 
apparently was too heavy to render the aid of wings 
available. After several pauses in its progress it slowly, 
yet surely, surmounted the difficulty presented by the 
projecting beading, gained the level boards of the veranda, 
along which it travelled rapidly with its burden, which it 
sometimes dragged, sometimes pushed before it. By the 
expenditure of great exertion in surmounting the beading 
it gained a smooth and level run to its home of thirty- 
nine feet" 

In Mr. Kirby's Catalogue all the species are des- 
cribed under the name of Priocnemis, which name, however, 
must give place to Salius. 

a. Fulvous species. 

Salius wakefieldi Kirby. 

This is by far the commonest of the Pompilidce. In a 
fresh state the head and thorax are thickly covered with 
golden pubescence; but with age this gets abraded, 
the parts then appearing quite bare and shining. 

Salius marginatus Sm. 
A much rarer species than 5. Wakefieldi, to which it 
has a great resemblance when the latter has the head and 

48 Cameron, Hymenoptera^ from Greymouth, 

thorax freshly covered with hair. In 5. margznatuSy 
however, the head and thorax are quite black, instead of 
brownish or mahogany-coloured, the base of the antennae 
black instead of red, while the first and second transverse 
cubital nervures are curved, in 6". Wakefieldi straight 
and oblique. 

Under the name of Agenia brouni, Signor Gribodo 
{Bull. Soc, Entom. Ital. XVI., 1884) describes a species from 
Howich, which agrees closely in coloration, &c., with 
^. Wakefieldi, but the latter is a Salius not an Agenia. 

Salius FUGAX Fab. {inaculipennis Sm.). 

This is a rare species, and may be known from the 
others by its smaller size and by having a stigmal as well 
as an apical fuscous cloud in the wings. 

b. Black species. 

Salius monachus White (see Smith). 
One example of this large species. 

Salius triangularis, sp. nov. 

Long. 10 mm. 

Agrees with S. monachus Sm. in being entirely black 
and in having the head and thorax covered with long 
black hair, but is not half its size ; and otherwise may be 
readily known from it by the basal abdominal segment 
being triangular as seen from the side, the centre being 
sharp, the base and apex falling obliquely, whereas in 6". 
monachus the middle is broadly rounded and not sharply 

Scape of antennae densely covered with black hair ; 
the second and third joints bare ; the rest missing. The 
head covered all over with long black hair, shining ; the 
apex of the mandibles rufous ; the hinder ocelli separated 
from each other by half the distance they are from the 
eyes. Thorax covered with longish black hairs ; the pro- 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol.xlii. (1898), No. 1. 49 

and meso-thorax shining ; the median segment rounded at 
the base, the rest oblique ; the apex obscurely transversely 
striated. The femora sparsely covered with longish black 
hair. Wings with a shining, fuscous tinge ; the apex of 
the radial nervure curved ; the second cubital cellule at 
top and bottom not much more than half the length of the 
third ; the first transverse cubital nervure sharply, the 
second slightly, oblique ; the third roundly elbowed at the 
middle ; the first recurrent nervure received in, the second 
shortly before, the middle of the cellule. Abdomen shining, 
impunctate ; the basal slope of the petiole covered with 
longish black hair ; the apical more thickly with stouter 
hair ; the apical segment thickly covered with long, stiff, 
black hair; the hypopygiumwith the sides broadly rounded; 
the centre roundly incised. 

In certain lights, the wings have a bright, metallic, 
bronzy iridescence. 

Salius carbonarius Sm. 
Two examples. 

Salius nitidiventris Sm. 

A $ and ?. 

This is a much smaller species than S. carbonarius, 
and agrees with it in having the body entirely black, 
shining and almost bare ; but may be known from it by 
having the apex of the cubital nervure curved instead of 
straight and by the second cubital cellule at the top being 
distinctly shorter than the third, while in the other species 
it is equal in length to it. 

Agenia huttoni, sp. nov. 

Nigra, nitida, albo-pruinosa, alis hyalinis, nervis 
nigris. $. Long. 5 mm. 

Head, except on the vertex, thickly covered with 

00 Cameron, Hymenoptera, from Greymouth. 

silvery pubescence ; the eyes very slightly converging 
beneath, straight ; the hinder ocelli separated from each 
other by a somewhat less distance than they are from the 
eyes. The three basal joints of the antennae black, closely 
covered with white pubescence. Thorax almost shining, 
thickly covered with short white pubescence ; the median 
segment elongate, rounded. Legs pruinose. Wings as 
long as the body ; the apex of the radial nervure with a 
slight curve ; the second and third cubital cellules at the 
top as long as the third ; the first transverse cubital nervure 
at the bottom slightly curved, the rest oblique ; the first 
recurrent nervure is received shortly beyond, the second 
shortly before, the middle of the cellules. Legs entirely 
black ; the femora sparsely covered with white hair ; the 
tibiae and tarsi with white pubescence, the apex of the 
hind tibiae on the inner side with fulvous pubescence. 
Abdomen shining, impunctate, the apex with short white 
hair ; the hypopygium large, broadly keeled at the base 
in the middle ; the apex rounded, sparsely covered with 
long white hair. 


Dasycolletes vestitus Sm. 

Trans, Entoni. Soc, 1876, p. 485. 
Two specimens. 

Dasycolletes hirtipes Sm. 

Trans, Entom. Soc, 1878, p. 7. 
One specimen. 

Prosopis agilis Sm. 

Trans. Entom. Soc, 1876, p. 484. 
One specimen. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. 1. 51 

Prosopis sulcifrons, sp. nov. 

Nigra, nitida, alls fusco-violaceis. 9. Long. 8-9 mm. 

Head shining, the vertex sparsely covered with long 
blackish, the face more thickly with short white hair ; the 
face with shallow punctures, the vertex at the sides 
much more distinctly punctured ; the centre at and below 
the ocellar region opaque, alutaceous ; the front between 
the antennae carinate. On the inside, at the top of the 
eyes is a deep distinct longitudinal suture. The clypeus 
at the apex roundly, but not deeply, curved. Mandibles 
entirely black, deeply and widely furrowed on the outer 
side ; the base alutaceous, the apex shining ; the teeth 
blunt. A curved, shallow, narrow furrow runs down from 
the antennae to the bottom of the eyes, bordering the 
yellow mark ; and, in the centre below the antennae and 
joining the lateral ones, is a transverse straight one. The 
flagellum of the antennae obscure-brownish on the under 
side towards the apex ; closely covered with a pale down ; 
the scape punctured, scarcely dilated towards the apex. 
On the pronotum is a yellow line, narrowed and almost 
interrupted in the middle, dilated on the outer side ; the 
tubercles yellow, the latter having at their apex a thick 
mass of pale hair. Mesonotum distinctly, but not deeply, 
punctured ; there is a central and a lateral narrow, not 
very distinct, furrow, reaching from the base to the middle. 
Scutellum punctured like the mesonotum, indistinctly 
keeled down the middle. Median segment alutaceous, its 
apex oblique, thickly covered with long white hair. Pro- 
pleurae sparsely covered with long white hair ; the meso- 
pleurae bearing all over shallow punctures ; the furrow 
distinctly crenulated. The central furrow on the median 
segment, deep, narrow. Legs entirely black, except 
the spurs which are pale ; the tibiae and tarsi thickly 
covered with silvery hair, the tibiae especially towards 

52 Cameron, Hymneoptera, from Greymouth. 

the apex, the femora sparsely covered with soft pale 
hair; the spurs pale. Wings fuscous, with a violaceous 
tinge ; the stigma and nervures blackish, the former 
fuscous on the lower side ; the second cubital cellule 
narrowed at the top, being there less in length than 
the space bounded by the recurrent nervures ; the 
first recurrent nervure is interstitial ; the second dis- 
tinctly separated from the second transverse cubital. 
Abdomen shining, impunctuate ; the apex thickly covered 
with long black hair. The propleurae at the base are 
finely indistinctly obliquely striated. 

Comes near to P. laevigata ; but the description given 
of its metathorax "smooth", the apex of the abdomen with 
only " a few black hairs," while in the present species it is 
thickly covered with long black hairs, does not fit the 
species here described. 

Prosopis INNOCENS, sp. nov. 

Long. 7 mm. $ . 

Comes near to P. agilis Sm., but differs in the 
shorter second cubical cellule, in the recurrent nervures 
being completely interstitial, in the pronotum being without 
any yellow, and the tubercles black, not yellow. 

Head dull, not shining, the front and vertex obscurely 
punctured ; the clypeus, except the apical margin, yellow, 
the yellow being produced above it as a wedge-shaped 
mark, which reaches nearly to the enclosed space below the 
antennae, its top being irregular, having one side higher 
than the other. The inner orbits have a yellow line 
reaching from near the base of the antennae, where it is 
narrow, becoming gradually dilated, rounded, narrowing 
again to the bottom, but not so narrowly as at the top. 
The mandibles black on the lower edge, the upper part 
yellow ; the teeth piccous and black. Antennae stout, 
black ; the basal joints of the flagellum brownish beneath ; 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii.{\Zg%), No.X. 53 

the scape curved, only very slightly dilated towards the 
apex, and obscurely punctured, the lower part fringed 
with longish pale hairs. Thorax alutaceous, sparsely 
covered with pale hairs ; the mesonotum and mesopleurse 
obscurely punctured ; the base of the mesopleurse crenu- 
lated ; a deep, wide, curved furrow in front of the middle 
coxae. On the mesonotum opposite the tegulae is a 
curved, shallow furrow. The middle of the median segment 
has a wide shallow furrow, and bears long pale hair. Legs 
black, the anterior tibiae yellow in front ; the apices of the 
anterior tarsal joints testaceous ; the tibial spurs pale; 
the tarsi thickly covered, especially at the base, with pale 
fulvous hair. Wings hyaline, the stigma black, fuscous 
on the lower side ; the nervures blackish ; the first trans- 
verse cubical nervure oblique ; the second obliquely bent 
towards it (but not sharply) at the top ; the top of the 
cellule three-fourths of the length of the bottom ; the 
first recurrent nervure almost, the second completely, 
interstitial, Abdomen dull, the apices of the segment dull- 
piceous ; the apical segments fringed with longish hair. 
Abstract of the Greymouth Hymenoptera : — 











... 4^ 


• 3 

EVANIIDiE ... ... 


Proctotrupid/e ... 

• 3 






.. 6 


... 8 


••• 5 

Total ... 

... 64 


Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 3, 

IL Description of two new species of Mutilla from 
South Africa. 

By Peter Cameron. 
{Communicated by J . Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S.] 

Received October 12th. Read November 30th ^ 1^97' 

The two species of Mutilla here described agree 
closely in coloration, having the thorax red, the head and 
abdomen black, the latter having two white marks; but 
they differ completely in the form of the thorax. 

Mutilla carsoni, sp. nov. 

Nigra, longe hirta, thorace rufo; abdominis segmenti 
secundi maculis duabus albis. Long. 20 mm. 

Hab. Island in Lake Tanganyika {^Carson). 

Head black ; coarsely rugosely punctured, covered 
with long black hairs above ; the sides below the eyes 
with silvery pubescence, the oral region with long blackish 
hair ; the palpi blackish. The scape of the antennae curved 
towards the apex, sparsely covered with longish black 
hairs ; the flagellum covered with a microscopic pubescence ; 
the basal joints thick, the others distinctly tapering towards 
the apex. The head is largely developed behind the 
eyes, being developed there almost twice their length. 
Thorax three times the length of the head ; a little con- 
tracted in the middle, gradually narrowed towards the 
apex ; before the depression is a stout, shining, rounded 
tooth, and behind it are two others of about the same size. 
The upper part of the mesopleurse smooth, shining, 
glabrous ; the lower part coarsely punctured ; this part 
being separated above by a distinct raised margin, 

February 4th, i8g8. 

2 Cameron, Mutilla^from South Africa. 

and thickly covered with fulvous pubescence and less 
thickly with long white hair. The apex of the median 
segment smooth, impunctate. Above, the thorax is 
covered with long black hairs ; the lower part of the 
metapleurse thickly covered with pale hairs. Legs thickly 
covered with long pale hairs ; the fore calcaria pale. 
Abdomen black, thickly covered with long black hairs ; 
before the middle of the second segment are two roundish 
marks of silvery pubescence; the third segment is covered, 
except in the middle, with silvery pubescence ; the fourth 
and fifth with long black hairs ; the apical with long pale 
hairs ; the basal half of the second ventral segment is 
stoutly keeled in the middle, the keel ending in a stout, 
curved, projecting point. 


Long. 24-25 mm. 

Hah. Transvaal. 

Agrees in coloration with M. carsoni ; but the white 
marks on the second abdominal segment are smaller and 
situated on the extreme base ; otherwise differing in the 
much shorter and broader thorax which is not one-half 
the length of the abdomen. 

Head strongly rugosely punctured, above sparsely 
covered with stout black hairs ; the oral region, at the sides 
and behind, with the hairs longer, paler and much more 
numerous ; behind the eyes it is not much longer than 
them, and straight, not narrowed ; the space above the 
antennae hollowed, rounded at the top ; its sides near the 
antennae with a straight stout keel ; the clypeus covered 
with longish, thick, golden hair ; the mandibles with 
longish blackish hair. Antennae short, thick, not much 
longer than the width of the head ; the scape curved, 
shining, above sparsely covered with short black hair ; the 
flagellum thick distinctly and gradually narrowed towards 

Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 2. 3 

the apex where it is shining and glabrous. Thorax 
scarcely twice the length of the head, not much narrowed 
behind ; very coarsely rugosely reticulated ; the sides 
irregular ; before the middle is a stout tooth ; the median 
segment at the sides, shortly below the top projects into a 
large, stout, triangular tooth. Legs short and stout (much 
shorter than in M. carsoni) ; the anterior coxae and 
femora thickly, the posterior more sparsely covered with 
long white hair ; the four posterior tibiae and tarsi thickly 
covered with stiff silvery hair ; the fore tarsi short and 
thick, above strongly punctured, its lower side with three 
large stout spines ; the apex shining, piceous. The basal 
two segments of the abdomen nearly as long as the head 
and thorax united, black ; on the extreme base of the 
second segment are two small silvery marks, broader than 
long ; on either side of the third segment is a large, trans- 
verse mark of silvery pubescence ; the second segment is 
strongly punctured, the punctures large, deep, elongate, 
and running into reticulations ; its apex with the punctures 
very much smaller and more distinctly separated. The 
basal ventral segment forming a projecting blunt triangle ; 
the base of the second segment oblique, and having a 
blunt projection in the middle, strongly punctured, 
especially at the sides where the punctures are much 
larger, deeper and more irregular ; the other segments 
are much more finely and closely punctured, and thickly 
fringed at the apex with long pale-fulvous hair. The 
pygidial area closely rugose ; the sides thickly covered 
with long pale-golden hair; the hypopygium thickly 
covered with black hair. 


III. Lamb, On Waves. 

p. 4, equation (19); read 


p. 4, equation (20) ; read N'^ in second member. 

p. 16, equation (89) should precede the last two lines of type. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xlii. (1898), No. 3. 

III. On Waves in a Medium having a Periodic 
Discontinuity of Structure. 

By Professor HORACE Lamb, M.A., F.R.S. 

Received Decej?tber 6th. Read November soth^ iSgy. 

The main object of this paper is to illustrate the 
selective total reflection which takes place at the boundary 
of a medium of the above constitution. The case where 
the periodic variation of properties is continuous has been 
discussed by Lord Rayleigh* but the problem in this 
form is very difficult, and it may therefore be worth while 
to investigate in some detail the consequences of the 
periodic structure in the more tractable circumstances 
here considered. In the examples chosen for discussion the 
medium is represented by a string supposed to be capable 
of longitudinal vibrations, and the periodic interruption of 
properties consists, in one case, of a series of equal 
particles attached at equal intervals ; in another, these 
particles are (moreover) urged towards fixed positions by 
elastic springs ; whilst in a third example they are sup- 
posed to be connected to the string (not directly but) 
through the intermediary of springs. It is further shown 
how the methods can be extended to the case where equal 
and similar dynamical systems, of any degree of com- 
plexity, are inserted at regular intervals. Exactly the 
same analysis applies when the intervening medium con- 
sists of a tense string capable of transversal \''^x2l\ao'!\s, and 
to many other cases. 

Experimental illustrations of the principles here 

* Phil. Mag., Aug., 1887. 
February ^th, ii 

2 Lamb, Waves in a Medium with Periodic Structure. 

developed are afforded by some optical and acoustical 
phenomena studied by Lord Rayleigh ;* but the results 
have also an interest, on another scale, as bearing on 
mechanical theories of reflection, refraction, &c. In parti- 
cular, the usual assumption that the wave-length is great 
compared with molecular intervals, is here dispensed with, 
and we are able to trace to some extent the fate of a train 
of relatively short waves, or of an abrupt disturbance. 
On the other hand, some caution must of course be 
exercised in drawing inferences as to theories of radiation, 
absorption, and the like, from the study of a one- 
dimensional model. 

I. Suppose we have a string of line-density p, loaded 
at equal intervals a with particles of mass M. Taking 
the axis of x along the string, and denoting by S the 
displacement of any point of it, we have the equation 

dt^~^ dx^ ' ' ' • ^'^' 


C^^-E/p .... (2), 

E being the coefficient of elasticity. If we assume that S 
varies as e'^^'^\ i.e., we consider a simple-harmonic disturb- 
ance whose wave-length on the unloaded string would be 
27r/>^, the equation (i) becomes 

£+^^^=° • • • (3). 

If we distinguish the values of 2 corresponding to 

successive particles M by suffixes, the solution of (3) for 

the interval between the sth and (^-i-i)th particles is 


J. J. , Bs+i - 4 cos ka . . , . 

4 = 4a cos kx + -^ — .^ sm kx . . (4), 

sin ^a ^^'' 

* P/iz/. Mag., Sept., 1888, p. 256 ; Theory of Sound (2nd ed.), vol. ii., 
p. 311. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. 3. 3 

where the origin oi x has been taken (temporarily) at the 
undisturbed position of the Jth particle. Similarly, in the 
interval between the (j— i)th and jrth particles, we have, 
with the same origin, 

^ ^ , 4cos/^^-£,_i . , . X 

Hence the tensions of the string on the two sides of the 
s\h particle are 


i^s+i-^scoska) . (6), 


'dV\ kE 

<4L=^.(^''^°^'''-^-> • ('>' 

respectively. The equation of motion of this particle is 

or, since It °^ ^^^^*^ 

^,+1 - 2^Xcos ka - ifika sin ka) + ^,_i = o . (9), 

^ = M/pa . . . (10), 

i.e. fjL denotes the ratio of the mass of one of the attached 
particles to that of the portion of string constituting one 
of the intervals. 

The solution of the difference-equation (9) will assume 
distinct forms according as the coefficient of 2^g does or 
does not lie between the limits +1. In the former case 
we put 

cos ka - ^fxka sin ka = cos 6 . , (n), 

and we may without loss of generality suppose that d lies 
between o and tt. This gives 

i. = Fe"'+Qe-"' . ... (la), 
or, expressing the time-factor, 

£,=^/(^^'+^^> + ^/<*^'-^«' . . (,3), 
where A, B are independent of .$•. 

4 Lamb, Waves in a Medium with Periodic Structure. 

In the alternative case we put 

Q,o^ka-\ixka^\'!\ka= ±_Q.o^u . (14), 
where u is real, and obtain 


4, = ^/^'^'+^^^ + ^/^^'-^^ . . (15), 

4 = (-)^{^/^'^'+^^^ + ^/^^^-^^^} . (16), 

according as we take the upper or the lower sign in (14). 

The two types of disturbance represented by (13) 
and (15) or (16) are essentially different in character. 
Either term of (13) represents a disturbance whose 
amplitude is the same at all parts of the medium, whilst 
in the case of (15) or (16) the amplitude of either com- 
ponent diminishes indefinitely as we advance in the 
medium in one direction or the other. In the former 
case, the disturbance can be transmitted to any distance ; 
in the latter case, this is not possible. A fuller discussion of 
this question will be given presently (§ 2). 

In the present problem (but not in all the variations of 
it, see § 5), will be real for values of ka falling below a 
certain limit, and the disturbance will then be of the 
type (13). Moreover, for very long waves, ka and ^ will 
both be small, and we find, approximately, 

^=^{i^^).ka . . . (17). 

The disturbance represented by either term of (13) 
may now be described as a wave travelling in the negative 
or positive direction of x. If the wave-length (A) in the 
loaded medium be m times the interval «, where m is a 
large number, we have md = 27ry and therefore 

\=2TvalQ = kalQ.\ . . . (18), 

where Ao = 27r//^. Hence, for the refractive index (A^) of 
the medium, we have 

as we should expect, since the effect of the loads is to 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 3. 5 
increase the average density of the medium in the ratio 


If we carry the approximation a stage further, we get 
the dispersion-formula 

iV^=x., + i,W = iV^(.+1^5). (.0), 

where N^ denotes the refractive index for infinite wave- 
length, as given by (19). 

2. We proceed to apply the preceding formulae to 
the case of reflection. We will suppose that the string to 
the left of the origin is unloaded, and that from the origin 
onwards masses M are attached at equal intervals a, as 

An incident wave 

in the unloaded portion may be regarded as giving rise to 
a reflected wave 

^ = ^/^(^^+^) . . . (22), 
and to a certain disturbance in the loaded medium. When 
is real, and sin ka positive, this latter disturbance may 
be represented by 

4=^/(^^/-rf) . . . (,3). 

and it is proposed to determine the coefficients of reflection 
and transmission {^A and E). 

We will suppose that at the origin we have s^o. The 

kinematical condition to be satisfied at this point is 

ihA = B . . . (24). 
The tension of the string immediately to the right of the 
particle .f = o is 

* The case of sound-waves incident on a series of equidistant perforated 
screens, as in the experiment described in Lord Rayleigh's Sound, § 343, is 
mathematically equivalent. 

6 Lamb, Waves in a Medium with Periodic Structure. 

and that of the string immediately to the left is 

{- 1. -^ A)ikEe'^'^- 
Hence the dynamical equation is 

^U kE 

(^1 - U cos kd) + ikEly I - A)eikct. (25), 


dt'^ sin ka 

/ A\ -u / ^o COS ^^ - ^1 


Substituting the values of ?„> ^1 from (23), this becomes 


cos ka - Ilka sin ka-e ^ 

i sin ka 


e -co^ka 



where a reduction has been effected by means of (11). 
Solving (24) and (27) for A and ^, we find 

29 sin-f ^<a!-0 ) 

e —e 

i^ —ika 
e -^ sin- 


sin-(/^a + 0j 
The amplitude of the reflected wave is therefore 
sin-l ha-0\ 



and that of the disturbance transmitted to the particles 

sin ka 




For sufficiently long waves, ka and d are small, and 
d = Nkay where N is the refractive index ; the expressions 
(30) and (31) then take the forms 
N-i . 2 



iV + i 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol, xUi. (1898), No, 3. 7 

Some caution is necessary in the application of the 
above results. When ceases to be very small, the 
disturbance in the loaded medium is no longer of the 
simple character which we are accustomed to associate 
with the term "wave-motion," and it becomes necessary 
to consider which of the terms in (13) is to be taken to 
represent a disturbance progressing in the direction of 
;t:-positive. In its present form the problem of this § is 
indeed, strictly speaking, indeterminate. A more definite 
form may be given to it if we introduce a very small 
frictional force, acting on each of the particles M, and pro- 
portional to the first power of the velocity. It then appears 
that the foregoing solution applies when sin ka is positive, 
but that when sin ka is negative, the disturbance in the 
loaded medium must be represented by 

4 = ^/'^^'+^'* . . . (3=), 

in place of (23).f The amplitude of the reflected wave is 
then obtained by reversing the sign of 6 in (30). 

When is imaginary, the formula (23) must be re- 
placed by 

l.-Be ... (33) 


^ i.={-)'Bi'^*-"' . . . (34) 

according as the upper or lower sign obtains in (14). The 
analytical work is the same as before with the substitution 
of u or u — iir for 20, and the results can therefore be 
written down at once. Thus, we find, in the former case, 

_ g^^^ -e^^ _ _ (g" - cos ka) - /sin ka - 22^ / \ 


, smka , ,, 

d) = tan-^- 7- . . . (36) 

^ e'' - cos ka ^^ ' 

+ It appears unnecessary to go into the proof of these statements, as the 
more general investigation of the next § is free from the difficulty here 

8 Lamb, Waves in a Medium with Periodic Structure. 

It appears that the amplitude of the reflected wave is now 
equal to that of the incident wave. This might have 
been anticipated from considerations of energy, since (33) 
shews that for sufficiently large values of s the disturbance 
to the right of the origin is insensible. The same result 
will hold, of course, when iQ is replaced hy u — iir. 

3. The next application of our formulae is suggested 
by the optical problem : to determine the intensities of 
the light reflected and transmitted respectively by a plate. 
We will suppose that to the left of the origin the string is 
unloaded, that a series of masses M are attached at the 

x = Oj a, 2«, 3«, , na, 

and that to the right of the last-named point the string is 
again unloaded. 

It may be sufficient to indicate the leading steps of 
the calculation. For x<io^ the disturbance may be 
regarded as made up of an incident wave 

i=/^(rf-x ) . . . (37), 

and a reflected wave 

as before. For x^na, we have a transmitted wave 

The formulae applicable to the loaded portion of the 
string will depend on the value of ka. If the value of 
defined by (11) be real, we have 

The kinematical conditions to be satisfied at x=o and 
x=na are, respectively, 

i+^ = C + Z) . . (41), 


• Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No.'^, 9 

The dynamical equations, analogous to (26), are found to 

i^-co's>ka , j^e~^ - cos ka 

^_A=C'-;^^^' + D'^-^-.^^^^ . (43), 
ismka tsmka 


^^-^nka_ _ ,nO e ' '' ' COS ka _ ^ ^,^, /' - COS ka 

From (41) and (43) we obtain 

C(/Q _ ^-ika^ ^ j^^,-i^ _ ,-ika^ ^ 2,-sin ka . (45), 
C(e'^'' - /) + i9(/'^^ - e - ') = 21 A sin ka . (46). 
Again, from (42) and (44) we find 

—ika -i^ 

nr^ J . ■ ' Be-'''^'' . . (48). 

2t Sin d 

The last four equations may also be written 
Ce^^^-^^^ sin^(0 + ka) -De' ^^'^^^^^^ sin^(0 - ka) = sin ka (49), 

- Ce^'^^'^^''hm\{Q-ka)-^ne-^'^^-^''hm~{Q+ ka) = Asmka (50) 

sin-(0 + >^rt) ., ,^,. ^ ^ 

sin-(0->^<a;) ., ,,/a , x 

sin Q 
Substituting from (51) and (52) in (49), we find 

sin sin ^^/^^'-^^^^^ 

^~sin4(0 + ^^)/^''^^)^-sin^^(0-.^«)r'^"^^^' 

sin0sin.^^/<'^ + ')^^ , , 

sin0sin/^«cos(;z+ i)0 + i{i - cos cos >^«)sin {n+ i)B ^ 

lo Lamb, Waves in a Medium with Periodic Structure, 

The intensity (/) of the transmitted waves, that of 
the incident waves being taken as unity, is given by the 
square of the modulus of this expression, and is therefore 

j___ sin^ Q sin^ ka . . 

"~ sin^ ^iv^ka cos'' (;^ + i)f^ + (i - cos Q cos kaf sin^ (« + i)^ ^^ ' 

Again, from (50), (51), (52) we find 

- 2/sin - (0 + ka) sin -(0 - ka) sin {n + i)9 

A = ? ? Jgg-inTza 

sin Q sin ka 

_ /(cos - cos koi) sin (« + i)0 e^'^ . . 

sin sin ka cos (^^ + i)^ + /(i - cos 6* cos ka) sin(;^ + 1)^ \^^i' 

The intensity (/') of the reflected waves is therefore 
given by 

(cos0-cos^«)2sin2(;2 + 1)0 
~ sin^ Q sin^ ^« cos^ (« + 1)6/ + (i - cos 6^ cos kaf sin^ (« + i)0 ^^ '' 

It is easily verified that 

^+^'=1 • • . (57), 
as should obviously be the case, since there is no dissipa- 
tion of energy in our medium. 

When the number (/2+1) of particles in the loaded 
portion of the string is considerable, a very slight variation 
in the value of ka (and consequently of 0) will cause 
great fluctuations in the values of cos (;2 4- i)0 and 
sin(;^-|-i)0, and thence in the values of / and /'. The 
mean value (/) of the former expression, for wave-lengths 
in the neighbourhood of 27r//^, is easily calculated* from 
the formula 

5 / d^ i_ 




Try a2cos2 + /32sin20-a/3 


sin sin ka 

I - cos Q cos ka 
Cf. KirchhofF, Optik, p. 165. 


Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No.%. 11 

and the mean value of /' is then 

r=i-I . . . (60). 
We may notice that if q denote the coefficient of reflection, 
as given by formula (30) of § 2, we have 

--=^:- r-^ ■ ■ (-)• 

in accordance with known optical results. 

So far, we have supposed to be real. When 6 is 
imaginary, the formula (40) must be replaced by 

or by 

^^ = Ce^{^^^ + •^«') - -^^ ^ Z)e^^^^^ +S'r)+su ^ /^^^ 

according as the upper or the lower sign is taken in (14). 
The rest of the notation being as above, we find in the 
case of (62) 

^^ sinh^.sin^^/^+^)^^ 

sinh u sin ka cosh {n + i)u ■{• i{i - cosh z^ cos ^^)sinh(;2 + i)u 


. /(cosh ut- cos ka) sinh (n+ i)u e ^ 

sinh u sin ka cosh {n •\- \)u -v i{\ - cosh u cos ka) sinh \ji-\-\)u 

these results being obtained at once from (53) and (55) by 
writing = — iu. When nu is great, we may put 

cosh (« + \)u = sinh {n + \)u = 00, 
which gives 

„ ^ /(cosh u - cos ka) eika 

B = o, A = -^-r — V— r 7 '-r — i-x- (66). 

sinh2<!sm/ea + z(i - cosh?<!Cos/e«) ^ ^ 

The modulus of the latter expression, which is, moreover, 
easily indentified with (35), is unity. The incident wave 
is now reflected with unchanged amplitude, and there 
is no transmitted wave. 

4. It remains to examine for what ranges of ka the 
incident wave in the problem of § 2 is partially transmitted, 
or wholly reflected, respectively. For this purpose we 

12 Lamb, Waves in a Medium with Periodic Structure. 

require to know the critical values of ka^ viz., those which 

Q,Q's>ka-\nka%\Xika= ■\:_\ . - . (67). 
This equation requires that either 

^\wka — o . . . (68), 


cot \ka = \iLka . . , (69), 

tan \]ia = - ^ytka . . (70). 

The roots of (69) and (70) are easily constructed 
graphically by means of the intersections of the curves 

y = co\.\x, y= -\.2i\\\x . . (71), 
(where Ji:=kd) with the straight line 

y = ifix .... (72). 
The positive roots of {6S) are given by 

ka = O, TT, 27r, 37r, 

We will denote the positive roots of (69) by 

ka = ai, as, ag, , 

and those of (70) by 

ka = l3i, /32, A, 

It appears on reference to the figure that the positive 
roots of (6y), when arranged in ascending order of 
magnitude, are given by the first line of the following 
scheme : 

ka = Oj ai, TT, /3i, 27r, aa, 37r, /^g, ... ) /^ n 

6 = 0, TT, TT, O, O, TT, TT, O ... j * \^jJ> 

and it is easily ascertained that the equation in question 
has no multiple roots. Hence each of the roots in (73) 
marks a transition from partial transmission to total 
reflection, or vice versa. The upper brackets indicate the 
ranges of ka for which there is partial transmission, and 
the lower ones mark the intervals of total reflection. 

If the masses M be increased, the straight line 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii, (1898). No. 3. 13 

y=\\i.x becomes steeper, and the intervals of total reflection, 
which are indicated by the heavier portions of the axis 
of X in the figure, widen out at the expense of those of 
partial transmission. 

In interpreting these results we must remember that 
the quantity ka is inversely proportional to the wave-length, 
and therefore directly proportional to the frequency, 
of the incident vibrations. 

To estimate the maximum amplitude of the transmitted 
waves, in any interval of partial transmission, we remark 
that the value of in any such interval ranges between 
the limits o and tt. If we put 6 = ^77, the formula (59) of 
§ 3 gives 

/= I sini^rt I . . . (74) 

Also, putting = j7r in (11), we have 




Hence, near the centres of the intervals of higher order 
we have 

ka = s-K -^ €, 
where e is small, and 

approximately. We infer that in the successive intervals 
of partial transmission the amplitude of the transmitted 

14 Lamb, Waves in a Medium with Periodic Structure. 

vibrations becomes less and less. Moreover, it is easily 
seen that this tendency is more marked, the greater the 
value of ju. » 

5. As a first variation of the problem stated in § i we 
will suppose that each of the masses M^ in addition to the 
forces which it experiences from the string on the two 
sides of it, is urged towards its mean position by means of 
a spring. 

The equation of motion of the s\k\ particle is then of 
the form 

M% = ^^K^.~2K^o^ka^l,_^)-MaX . (76) 

or since 5 =<: e"^^^^ 

4+1 - 2^1 cos ka - -^lika - — 2- • 7- j sin ka\-\- 4_i = o (77). 

The constant o- here denotes the ' speed ' of the oscillation 
when J/ vibrates under the influence of the spring alone. 

The expression whose value determines the character 
of the motion is now 

la-^-J^m-""-^ .-^ivci'ka . . (78). 

If this lie between the limits + 1 we have in the problem 
of § 2 a partial transmission ; in the opposite case a total 

The limiting value of (78) for ka = o is 

and therefore greater than unity. It follows that for 
frequencies below a certain limit, or for lengths of the 
incident waves exceeding a certain limit, we shall have 
total reflection. The fact that in a medium of the kind 
here considered there is an upper limit to the length of 
waves which can be transmitted is very remarkable. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 3. 15 

The critical values of ka are determined by the 

Q,oska-\ii\ka 2~* A~)sin/^a= +1 

This requires either that 

sin ^^ = o 
or that 



or that 

cot^/&« = ^^^-^^) . . (82). 

The positive roots of (81) and (82) are determined 
graphically by the intersection of the curves 

jj/=-tan^x, 2' = cotJ^ . . (83), 

with the hyperbola 

We have now total reflection throughout the range 
extending from ka = o to /^^ = j3„ where (5o is the lowest 
positive root of (81). For large values of ;ir the hyperbola 
(84) approaches the asymptote j^ = J^iur, and the critical 
values of ka approximate to those determined in § 4. 
It will be noted that no special peculiarity attaches 

1 6 Lamb, Waves in a Medium with Periodic Structure. 

to the case oi ka = (ja\c^ which occurs always in an interval 
of partial transmission. 

6. An instructive contrast to the state of things con- 
sidered in § 5 is obtained if we suppose the masses M to 
have an elastic connection with the vibrating string. In 
the annexed illustration, each of the circles is meant to 
represent a light rigid frame, attached to the string at 
opposite ends of a diameter, and carrying a particle M 
connected with it by springs. 

M#w | W i%imf m j^m 

Some addition to our previous notation is now required. 
We will denote by 5^ the displacement of the point of 
the string to which one of the masses is attached, and by 
?/ that of the corresponding particle. We have then 

M^^Ma\K-i:)-o . . (85), 

whilst, from the equilibrium of tensions, 
IcE IcE 

Assuming that li oc e^^<'\ and eliminating g/, we find 

^s+i - 2^/ cos ka - j^ * _^^2^/ 2 sin ^«J + 4-i = o (87). 

For sufficiently small values of ka we now have trans- 
mission, as in § 2. The critical values of ka are given by 

, \ixka . , 

cos ka - J li^^^ifP' sin ^^ = ± I . (88). 

This is satisfied by sin/^^ = o, and the remaining roots are 
determined by the intersection of the curves (83) with the 

This has an asymptote parallel to j^ iox x=aa\c, or 


y--^ ■ ■ ■ (89). 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 3. 

It appears that waves whose length (XJ exceeds a 
certain limit «2/z) are partially transmitted. Moreover, 
for sufficiently long waves we find 

^=.v/(i+i") . . . (90) 
exactly as in § i. As the wave-length is diminished we 
get a series of alternate intervals of total reflection and 
partial transmission, respectively. But the intervals of 
partial transmission become wider and wider as we pro- 
ceed, so that our medium is transparent for relatively 
short waves, except when the wave-length falls a little short 
of an aliquot part of 2a. Moreover, in the middle of any 
one of these intervals, of high order, we have Q — \ir and 
sin ka—^Li, approximately.* It follows from (59) that the 
coefficient of transmission is then nearly equal to unity. 

We have here perhaps an illustration of the theory of 
refraction sketched by Sir George Stokes in the Wilde 
lecture f At all events, we have constructed a one- 

* The angle 9 is now defined by the equation 

Q.O'ika — — ^'^ ^ , ?,m.ka = co?,6. 
I -k^c^jir^ 

In the investigations of §§ 2, 3 we have only to write m-I{i — k'^c'^l'^'^] for y. 

throughout. The results, such as (30), (31), and (59), from which ^ has 

been eliminated, will remain unaltered. 

t Manchester Memoirs, vol. xli. (1897), No. 15. 

1 8 Lamb, Waves in a Medium with Periodic Structufe. 

dimensional medium which for sufficiently long waves has 
a definite index of refraction, with coefficients of reflection 
and transmission related to this index in the usual manner ; 
which (again) totally reflects radiations of wave-lengths 
lying between certain limits ; whilst for sufficiently short 
waves there is, as a rule, free transmission, with practi- 
cally no reflection. 

y. The above examples have been chosen for simplicity, 
but there is no difficulty in extending the method to the 
case where dynamical systems of any degree of com- 
plexity, but all exactly alike, are interpolated at regular 

We may suppose that the position and configuration of 
any one of these systems is determined by means of the 
coordinate ($) of the point of the string where it is 
attached, and by means oi n other coordinates ^i, ^2, ... qn- 
There is no loss of generality in supposing these latter 
coordinates to be so chosen that the expressions for the 
kinetic and potential energies reduce to the forms 

2 T= axq^ + «2^2^ 4- . . . + a,,q,c + 2(ai^i + a^q^ + . . . + a„^,J^ + Pl^ 


2 F= hq^ + V2' + . . . + b,,q^ + 2(/3i^i + /32^2 + . . . + /3.^J^ + (2^2 


respectively. Lagrange's method then gives n equations 
of the type 

as^^b^^^raS,^^^l, = o . . (93), 

together with 

/'^+(2US.(ai, + /3,^,)=X . . (94), 

where X is the extraneous force corresponding to the 
coordinate S, viz., the difference of tensions on the two 
sides of the interruption. If we assume that all our 
functions vary as ^*^'^^, we have, from (93), 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 3. 19 

and thence, from (94), 

We have a formula of this type for each interpolated 
system. Distinguishing the successive systems by suffixes, 
we have, from (6) and (7), 

^' ^ sml^(^^+' ~ 24cos^^ + ^,_i) . (97), 
and therefore 

|,+i - 2{cos^« -/{k)smka}^, + 4_i = o . (98), 

/W = ^{.V^P-<2-.<^^7 . (.9). 

The difference-equation (98) is to be solved as before. 
The critical values of k are determined by 

cos ka -f{lc) sin ^« = + I . . (100) 

and are therefore given graphically by the intersections of 
the curves 

>' = cotJ^, j=-tanja; . . (loi) 
with the curve 

y=/{x/a) . . . (102). 

The latter curve has asymptotes parallel to r correspon- 
ding to 

kc={b,la,)\ [r=i,2,.,.n\ . . (103). 

It is not difficult to establish that these special values of 
k will occur always in intervals of total reflection. 

It may be shewn also that the terminal conditions, in 
the problems of §§ 2, 3, reduce to the forms given in 
equations (24), (27), and (41)... (44), and thence that the 
expressions obtained in § 3 for the coefficients of reflection 
and transmission in terms of ka and B are perfectly general. 

20 Lamb, Waves in a Medium with Periodic Structure. 

The problem may be still further generalized by 
imagining each interpolated system to have two distinct 
points of attachment, on opposite sides, to the interrupted 
string. The simplest example of this kind is" where each 
system consists of two equal masses connected by a spring. 

-#WA/i^ 0>/wwu^ %m M\^ 

A dynamically equivalent problem is that of the propaga- 
tion of sound-waves along a tube having a series of equi- 
distant bulbous expansions. The difference-equation is 

found, on examination, to be of the same general type 
(98) as before. 

Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 4. 

IV. Further investigations into the MoUuscan Fauna 
of the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Gulf of Oman, 
with descriptions of Forty species. 

(Mostly dredged by F. W. Townsend, Esq.) 

By James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S. 

Received and read December i4^hy i8gy. 

Referring to my first paper* on this subject, read 
exactly a year ago (December, 1896), before this Society, 
I had the pleasure of meeting Mr. Townsend in London 
last summer, and of examining carefully with him 
the whole of the material collected by him during the past 
four years. He has now returned to India, and is 
contemplating, if possible, seeking fresh areas for research 
and for dredging purposes, and hopes to be able to sound 
depths exceeding those compassed by him in former 
expeditions. His last best results came from the Bahrein 
Islands, and the southern shores and inlets of the Persian 
Gulf From the neighbourhood of Bushire to the north, 
and especially from the two islands Kais (or Gais) and 
Sheikh Shuaib, some very prolific material was dredged. 

The principal novelties are, a most exquisite Ostrea, 
perhaps the most delicately beautiful of the genus yet 
discovered, a handsome Trochus, allied to T. radiatus^ 
two new cones, one of these, C. saecularis^ we trust to 
receive live examples of, and augur that, in perfect condi- 
tion, it will hardly yield the palm for perfection of form 
and graceful outline to any other species. Another Yoldia 
has occurred, a wonderfully pure crystalline shell, a Drillia 

* Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xli., No. 7, 1897. 
May lyth, i8g8. 

2 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea^ etc. 

{D. resplendens) unique for fine polish and brilliant 
colouring, two Bullies, one {B. ceroplasta) peculiar and 
unusual in form, a pretty Scalaria (5. malcolmensis) from 
Malcolm Inlet, on the S. of the Persian Gulf, and Fusus 
arabicus, a dwarf species of typical form and character, 
from Muscat, where also occurred the striking Mytilicardia 
FJinchi, which, at the request of Mr. Townsend, we have 
named after Mr. B. T. Ffinch, CLE., chief of the staff of 
the Indo-Oceanic Telegraph Service. Two more examples, 
also, of the beautiful Scalaria finibriolata Melv., having 
occurred off Muscat, the largest (a remarkably perfect 
example measuring 52 mm. in length, and well preserving 
the salient characters of the original description, by which 
it was differentiated from 5. decussata Kien) is here figured 
(PI. I, f 12). But, of all the forms, a new Strombus is 
perhaps the most unlooked for. It is now very many 
years since any additions were made to this genus, and 
monographers have considered it complete. The species, 
therefore, for which I propose the name belutschiensis, 
dredged off Charbar, on the coast of Beluchistan, is there- 
fore exceedingly noteworthy. It only came to hand during 
the preparation of the present paper, and may be regarded 
as the first fruits of Mr. Townsend's fresh dredging expe- 
dition (1898). 

I have also included in the present paper certain new 
species dredged by Captain Tindall, of the S.S. " Patrick 
Stewart," either on the Angrias Bank, W. of Bombay, 
at Quilon, on the Malabar Coast, or near Batticaloa and 
Hambangtotte, E. and S. Ceylon respectively. From the 
two former, especially, came some good results, e.g., 
Ancilla Tindalli, a distinct addition to a circumscribed 
genus, Marginella quilonica, an elegantly banded shell, 
and Calliostoma duricastellum, this last dredged abun- 
dantly at Batticaloa. One example of the true Scalaria 
decussata Kien, was also dredged off the Angrias Bank. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No, 4, 3 

I am indebted, too, to Mr. G. B. Sowerby for letting 
me inspect a few Mollusca collected on the Mekran Coast 
and in the neighbourhood of Karachi by Mr. J. O. Twells, 
one of which, a toothless Nerita, seems undescribed. 

As heretofore, to Mr. Ernest R. Sykes, Mr. E. A. 
Smith, and especially Mr. Hugh Fulton, very best 
acknowledgments are due. The latter has much aided me 
with close examination of critical forms. Mr. Robert 
Standen has also been most kind in his help, and I am 
much obliged to him. 

It will not, I think, be amiss here to print in extenso 
a short account of Mr. Townsend's collecting grounds, 
supplied to me by him, and given in his own words, as 
follows : 

" The extent of the Mekran Coast does not seem to 
be generally realized, comprising, as it does, over 500 miles 
of coast in a direct E. and W. line, Karachi being at the 
Eastern, and Jask at the Western extremity. It naturally 
follows that only a very few spots have been exploited, 
and, with the exception of Karachi, it cannot be said that 
even now any one place has been thoroughly worked out. 
Karachi offers a fairly rich field to the collector, consider- 
ing its limited area, both as regards littoral and dredged 
species, the number already named and classified being 
about 750, and there are still many unidentified species, 
which do not appear in the list, and which are now being 
gradually worked out. 

" The extensive mud flats of the Karachi Harbour 
backwater have not, so far, yielded many varieties, but 
this may be due to the fact that they have been but 
slightly investigated. The mud is mostly of a very soft 
nature, and the labour entailed by walking even a short 
distance is very great, and to that may be added the risk 
of contracting malarial fever by stirring up noxious gases. 
The reefs to the west of the harbour are composed of 

4 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea, etc. 

sandstone, in which several kinds of borers are common, 
and, though not nearly as rich in results as might be 
expected from their situation and appearance, yet some 
of the species found there are exceptionally fine. For 
instance, Cyprcea lentiginosa, C. pallida, C. turdiis. The 
loose stones of the training groin inside the harbour 
furnish very similar species, but they are not, as a rule, 
so fine in colour or size as those found on the reef This 
may be due to the fact that the stones forming the groin 
are in a more or less muddy and dirty state, whilst the reef 
is free from mud and deposit from the harbour. 

"The sandy beach, which extends for miles, is even less 
productive than the rocks, the few species found there 
being common and uninteresting. As will be seen, 
whenever the list we are contemplating is published, the 
majority of the Karachi species have been obtained by 
dredging. The most profitable ground for this kind of 
work is a mixture of sand and mud with loose stones, in 
the immediate vicinity of rocky patches or reefs. Different 
kinds of softish mud also yield good results, but not 
without much labour, as the dredge fills quickly, and so 
the contents take some time to sift. There is a good deal 
of shingle about Karachi, the worst of all bottoms, as the 
dredge is filled at once with stuff that cannot be sifted, 
and is seldom worth careful examination. 

" Before passing from Karachi, it may be worth noting 
the manner in which the fishermen obtain quantities of 
Solen corneus, which they use for bait for certain kinds of 
fish. A pointed stick about two feet long is introduced 
into one of the holes with which the mud flats abound, and, 
should an obstruction be felt, is quickly withdrawn and a 
pinch of common salt dropped into the hole. The stick 
is then re-inserted, and twirled rapidly and lightly between 
the palms of the hands until an upward movement is felt 
and the fish appears, more than half the shell sometimes 
protruding above the surface of the mud. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. ( 1 898), No. 4. 5 

'^ P lacuna placenta, which seems to be common both on 
the Mekran Coast and in the Persian Gulf, is preserved at 
Karachi and in the neighbourhood, and is a source of 
revenue to the Indian Government, the right to collect 
them for the pearls they may contain being sold every few- 
years. No edible bivalves are collected at Karachi for the 
market, as at Bombay. 

" West of Karachi, almost all the species given in the 
list have been dredged in depths varying from 5 to 60 
fathoms, soft mud, muddy sand, and hard clayey mud 
being the kind of bottom usually met with. A few 
isolated patches of soft muddy sand, with loose stones, 
liave been found at a depth of about 7 fathoms, and these 
are always profitable to dredge over — whilst, on the other 
hand, the hard clayey mud is not only utterly unprofitable 
as regards living specimens, but is very troublesome in 
choking the dredge. 

"The chief features of the Mekran Coast vary very 
little — high, rugged hills, both in the fore and back 
ground, with occasional valleys, the whole presenting as 
barren and desolate an appearance as it is possible to 
imagine. The whole of this coast has undoubtedly formed 
part of the sea bottom at some prehistoric age, as the 
highest hills are covered with a layer of hard stony 
substance, which has originally been mud, and in which are 
found quantities of shells in a more or less fossilized state. 
On the Gwadur Headland, 480 feet above sea level, large 
specimens of Eburna Molliana in an almost perfect state 
have been found, the colouring in one instance being almost 
as fresh as that of a living specimen. Large numbers of 
single valves of Pecten Townsendi have also been found in 
the same place in an equally good condition, in fact the 
whole of the Mekran Coast and Persian Gulf offers a 
rich field to geologists. Several of the rocky reefs 
between high and low watermark, and the long stretches 

6 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea, etc. 

of sandy beach which are exposed to the full force of the 
S.W. monsoon, have been examined, but they are usually 
as devoid of shells as the surrounding country is of 
vegetation ; it is only in sheltered nooks that anything like 
success has rewarded the most diligent search. The coast 
line of the Persian Gulf is about three times the length of 
Mekran Coast, and has been even less explored. Oppor- 
tunities of landing at any but the regular ports of call are 
few, although more dredging has been done in the Gulf; 
it is again only in the sheltered corners that any spoils 
can be obtained. One live coral reef, at Bahrein, was 
examined at low water, but yielded nothing beyond Murex 
spinosus and Turbo radiatus, both common species. 

"The bed of the Gulf is chiefly composed of blue mud, 
at a depth of from 40 to 50 fathoms, decreasing, as the 
head of the Gulf is reached, to 30 and 20 fathoms. 
Although live specimens are seldom met with, the mud 
contains large quantities of dead shells, and these, it may 
be presumed, in a living state, inhabit the rocky patches 
and coral which abound in all parts, becoming scattered by 
the action of currents, hermit crabs, etc. The best results, in 
dredging, have been achieved round the various islands in 
from 7 to 12 fathoms ; the bottom, in these localities, is 
mainly composed of coral, live and dead, sand and weeds ; 
the little mud there is being mixed with sand and loose 

" One interesting fact has been observed in the Persian 
Gulf, and in a less degree on the Mekran Coast. The 
submarine telegraph cable belonging to the Indian 
Government (from Karachi to Jask a single line, from 
Jask to Bushire two lines), lies principally upon the mud, 
in about 45 fathoms. Upon raising the cable for repairs^ 
in any part, it is generally found to be covered with shell 
growth, varying in quantity and thickness according to the 
length of time the cable has remained undisturbed. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 4. 7 

Strange to say, however, nothing living can be dredged 
near it, therefore could the cable be seen at the bottom of 
the sea it would present the appearance of a long line of 
oysters and other shell growth interspersed with weeds, 
passing over a vast field of mud. 

" The dredge used in making the collection is of wire 
netting, the bag having an iron mouth, for boat use ; the 
mouth would be 2ft. x 6in. made of flat iron (2in. x %in.), 
the top and bottom being flattened out and made sharp, 
the wire net bag about 2ft. deep, with J^in. mesh. The 
rope for towing is attached to a chain bridle, made fast to 
to the four corners of the frame." 

Leucotina GRATIOSA, sp. nov. 

(PI. 2,f. 15.) 

L. testa atteniiato-fiLsiformi, albida, ochraceotincta, 
delicata, tenui., anjractibus octo, ventricosulis^ undique 
spiraliter arete piLuctato-sitlculosis, apertura oblofiga, labro 
szviplici, tnargine cohunellari intus itniplicato. 

Long. 1 3*50, lat. 4 mm. 

Hab. Malcolm Inlet, Persian Gulf, 10-12 fathoms. 

A whitish shell, tinged with pale ochreous ; attenuately 
fusiform, eight-whorled, whorls somewhat swollen, spirally 
closely punctate, the punctuations stained with pale 
ochre, mouth oblong, lip simple, columella internally 

A very graceful shell, and evidently a Leucotina, 
though at one time we had fancied it came nearer 
ActcBopyramis. Much confusion exists at present as to 
the limitation of these two genera, and no solution will be 
found to this difficulty till the animal is studied, when, 
naturally, the wide distinction between the opistho- 
branchiate y^<;/^<?;^/^<^ as compared with the Pyramidellidce, 
will be seen at once. Conchologically, the chief distinc- 
tion seems to be in Leucotina, the uniform punctate 

8 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea, etc. 

sulcation, and the columellar plait. The sulcations in such 
species as Monoptygma fulva, and Myonia concinna now 
relegated to ActcBopyramis, are simple, and non-puncturate. 
(^gratiosus, benign.) 

(PI. I, f. 20.) 

T. testa cylindracea, delicata, papyracea, albida, vel 
pallide straminea, 07nnin6 Icevi, parum nitente, anfractibus 
quatuor, apud sutiiras canaliculatis, apicali mainmillatOy 
vztreOy ulthno magnopere cceteros super ante, later ibus rectis, 
apertura oblonga, apud basim latiore, labro recto, tenui, 

Long. 3-50, lat. I '50 mm. 

Hab. Karachi. 

Cylindrical, papyraceous, thin, with straight sides, four- 
whorled, including the glassy nipple-shaped apical, the 
shell being entirely smooth, though hardly shining, deeply 
channelled at the sutures, the last whorl ten times exceed- 
ing the size of the others put together. Dredged 
abundantly near Karachi ; we have seen quite a hundred 
specimens. It is allied to T. fusiformis A. Ad. from 
Japan, also to T. Isseli Pilsbry (^—pygmcea Issel), which 
occurs with it, but not plentifully. 

Terebra Edgarii, sp. nov. 
(PL 2, f. 12.) 
T. testa attenuata, angusta, solidiuscida, cinereofusca, 
haud nitente, anfractibus tredeciin quorum apicali Icevi, 
subvitreo, cceteris apud suturas impressis, paullulum 
gradatidis, spiraliter zona suturali succinctis, undique longi- 
tudinaliter et irregulariter costulatis, costis rudibus, Icevibus, 
interstitiis planis, cinereis, idtimo anfractu dorsaliter 
transversim infra medium albizonato, apertura squarrose 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. 4. 9 

ovata, intus fzcsca, spiraliter albizonata, labro simplici, colu- 
mella fusca, nitida. 

Long. 19, 1 at 4*50 mm., jA maj. 

Hab. Karachi. 

A few specimens of an attenuate, solid, dull grey 
Terebra, with fuscous rudely sculptured ribs, which are 
smooth and slightly shining, relieving (at all events in the 
larger examples before us) the dull unicolorous interstices. 
The sutured band is broad and well defined, the whorls 
thirteen, inclusive of the glassy apical whorl, the last has 
dorsally a whitish spiral zone encircling it, which appears 
reflected inside the mouth. The outer lip is simple, 
columella shining, fuscous. We dedicate this species to 
Mr. Edgar Smith, who has done more of late years than 
any other author to elucidate the genus, He considers it 
near T. prcetexta Conr. and T.evoluta Desh., this latter by 
some being considered a variety of the large T, Dussumierii 
Kien. Mr. Hugh Fulton has also taken much trouble in 
the differentiation of this species, also considering it near 
evoluta, and for his care I am much indebted. 

Con US (Leptoconus) dictator sp. nov. 
(PL I, f 10.) 

C. testa fusiformi, oblonga, spira multum elevata, apice 
acutissimo, anfractibus duodecimo apicalibus IcBvibus, fere 
pellucidis, cceteris gradatulis, albidis, arete brunneosparsis et 
maculatiSy ultimo anfractu apud peripheriam acutangulari, 
lateribus rectis, parum nitente, itndique transversim sulcato, 
sulculis arete puncturatisy omni superficie brunneo spar say 
flammulata, vel {p yes cipue apud medium) maculata, apertura 
angusta, labro tenui, simplici, recto, basi paullum recurva. 

Long. 47, lat. 20 mm. 

Hab. Sheikh Shuaib Island, Persian Gulf, 10 fathoms 
in coral sand. 

The nearest allies to this cone are C. tornatus Brod., 

lO Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea, etc. 

(wrongly joined to interruptus Brod. (^Ximenes Gray), by 
Tryon, both being natives of the west coast of Central 
America), and C. planiliratus Sowb. This last has been 
newly figured by Smith, it having been dredged in the 
" Investigator" Expedition, off Calicut, west coast of 
S. India, in 45 fathoms. {c.f.Ann. & Mag. N.H. Series 6, 
vol. xiv., p. 159, 1894.) Our shell is more elegantly 
spindle-shaped, and the spiral grooves are less distant and 
puncturate. C. dictator is fusiform, with elevated spire, 
acute apical whorls, attenuate base, straight sides, angled 
periphery, dull white colour, everywhere dotted and painted 
with dark brown ; these markings on the last whorl break 
out into longitudinal brown flames, and there is another 
suflusion of brown below the middle. This whorl is like- 
wise transversely encircled with lined furrows, which are 
closely puncturate. The mouth is narrow, outer lip simple. 
One perfect specimen. 


(PI. I, f. 23) 

C. testa gracilis arcziato-fusifonni, spira elevata, apice 
actttissimo, anfractibus tredecim, arctis, gradatis, tribus 
apicalibus pervitreis, Icevibus, cceteris infra suturas straniineo- 
sparsis, pulchre cancellatis, et tornatis, ultimo anfractu 
arcuato, stramineo, nitido, ad peripheriain acutangulari, 
albo, rubrimactdato^ infra hie illic, et prcBcipue apud inediuM 
albosparso et maculato, siniul ac prope basini, basi multuni 
attenuata, undique transversim arctissime sulcidoso, sulculis 
puncturatis, apertura angusta, labro simplici. 

Long. spec. maj. 36, lat. 13 mm. 

Loc. Malcolm Inlet, Persian Gulf, 24 fathoms mud. 

One of the most gracefully beautiful of the genus. 
Several individuals were discovered by Mr. Townsend at 
the locality above cited, none, however, in live condition, 
and only two (one especially) showing coloration and 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. ( 1 898), No. 4. 1 1 

markings to perfection. The shell is fusiform, arcuate, 
much attenuate at the base, spire elevated, thirteen- 
whorled, of which three are apical, glassy, smooth, the 
rest beautifully turned and cancellated below the sutures, 
the last whorl is acutely angled at the periphery, pale 
straw in colour, flecked and lined with white at the 
periphery, which is also decorated with a row of reddish 
spots. At the median band, and likewise at the base, there 
are also white blotches, and the whole surface of the last 
whorl is closely transversely sulculose, the sulci being 
dotted. All are unfortunately more or less broken at the 
edge of the outer lip. 

{saecularts, in allusion to the " annus saecularisl' year 
of Jubilee, 1 897, in which this exquisite cone was discovered.) 

Pleurotoma (Drillia) Angriasensis, sp. nov. 

(PI. I, f. 3.) 

p. testa fusiformi, solidiuscula^ Icevi, nztida, anfractibus 
decern, longitudinaliter costatis, costisin medium rugulosis, in 
ultimo fere evanidis, ultimo anfractu latiore, apud basini 
subtriincato, apertura ovata, labro exteriore effuso, paullum 
incrassato, sinu inconspicuo. 

Long. 20, lat. 7-50 mill. 

Hab. Angrias Bank, W. of Bombay (Capt. Tindall). 

A white, smooth Drillia, with nodulous angled whorls, 
and almost plain last whorl, lip effuse, base subtruncate. 
This more resembles Drillia cygnea Mel v. and Standen 
from Lifu than any other species known to me. 

Pleurotoma (Drillia) resplendens, sp. nov. 
(PL 2, f 8.) 

P. testa fusiformiy solida, nitida, perlcevi, ad apicem 
inaminillata, vitrea, anfractibus decem, incluso apicali, ad 
sitturas compressis, rubro-stramineisfongitudinaliter costatis^ 

12 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea, etc. 

costis mcrassatiSy perlcBvibus, pallide stramineis, interstitiis 
IcBvissintis, rubrotinctis, ultimo anfractu apud basim paullum 
truncato, ad medium longitudinaliter, sicut supra, costato, 
infra ad basim Icevisimo, albescente, apertura ovata, labro 
incrassato, sinu suturali firofimdo, excavato, dorsaliter leniter 
bifasciato, margine columellari recto. 

Long. 19 mm., lat. 5. 

Hab. On the Oceanic cable, near the entrance to the 
Persian Gulf. 

A very shining, smooth, brightly-coloured Drillia, with 
about ten whorls, the apical mammillate, vitreous, the rest 
shining, ornamented with pale straw-coloured thickened 
ribs on a smooth blood-red ground, the last whorl smooth 
below the middle to the base, where it is almost white. 
Above, the ribs are as in the upper whorls, the mouth is 
oval, outer lip somewhat thickened, sutural sinus profound, 
excavate, dorsally the outer lip is slightly bifasciate, the 
columellar margin is straight. 

A few specimens, all alike, save as to size. 

Cythara hypercalles, sp. nov. 

(PI. I, f. 5.) 

C. testa eleganter fusiformi, versus apicem attenuata, 
gradattda, solidiuscula, anfractibus, inclusis duobus apicali- 
bus,vitreis, decem, longittcdinaliter cos tatis, costis inceqiialibus, 
transversim spiraliter undique arctissime striatis, stramineo- 
ochraceis, dorsaliter et prcecipue circa suturas brunneo-suffusis 
velmaculatis, ultimo anfractu apud basim paullulum recurvo, 
apertura angusta, oblong a, labro extus incrassato, albo, 
dorsaliter binis maculis brimneo-rufis decorato, intus simidac 
margine columellari, minute denticulato. 

Long. spec. max. 15, lat. 5 mm. 

Hub. Muscat in 20 fathoms ; sandy mud. 

Six examples, but only three mature, of an elegantly 
formed Cythara, fusiform, gradate, ten-whorled, two being 

Manchester Me^noirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 4. 13 

apical and glassy, the rest unequally longitudinally ribbed, 
and spirally closely striated, pale straw colour, dorsally 
marked with darker red-brown effusion, and often spotted 
below the sutures. The lip is thickened, white, being within, 
as on the columellar margin, minutely denticled. There 
are two brown spots at the back of the outer lip. 
(uTrepKaXXrjc, surpassingly beautiful). 


(PI. I, f. 150 

C. testa fiisifornii brunneo-rufa^ solidula^ anfractibus 
septem vel octo, quorum apicali minimo^ Icevi^ brunneo-riigro^ 
cceteris arctissime et pulchre clathratis, apud suturas im- 
pressis^ ventricosiclis, clathris squarrosisjuncturagemmtdatis^ 
apertura ovata, aurzta^ intus rufa, labro incrassato pulchre 
cremdato, sinu lato, haud prof undo ^ columella fere recta. 

Long. 9, lat. 275 sp. maj, 

Hab. Karachi, and Linjah. 

A very neat form, of the same alliance as C. violacea 
Pease, or clandestina Desh. The three specimens before 
us are alike in shape, two are dark-brown in colour, the 
third a paler ochre yellow. The clathrations are beautifully 
regular, and in a young specimen the point of junction 
between the longitudinal and spiral lirae is gemmuled 
with shining small papillae. The whorls are seven or eight, 
aperture acute, outer lip thickened, crenulated sinus wide, 
but not cut deeply, columella nearly straight. 

Although half as long again (9 as against 6 mm.) as 
any of the typical foraminata Rve, that have been collected 
at Karachi (Townsend), or Bombay (Blanford, Aber- 
crombie, etc.) where it seems to be abundant, a closer 
investigation convinces me it is not specifically distinct. 
I have, nevertheless, drawn up a full description, and it 
may be observed that a few points of distinction, in 

14 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea, etc. 

addition to that of size, occur. For instance, the canal is 
shorter, aperture wider, with the surface of the whorls 
more coarsely, though equally evenly, clathrate. 
(/ca/xaS, a trellis. Lat. clathrus.) 

Lachesis BICOLOR, sp. nov. 

(PI. i,f. i;.) 

L. testa fusiformi, solidiuscula, versus apicem attenuata, 
carneo-brunnea^ ad utrainque extrentitatein albescente^ an- 
fractibus fortasse octo — apicalibus ? — cateris longitudinaliter 
flexuoso-costulatis^ costis spiraliter arete striatis, apertura 
late ovata, labro effuso, simplici, liaud sinuigero. 

Long. 7, lat 2 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf 

Several species of the small genus, Lachesis^ inhabit the 
Mediterranean, one of them being British. One Japanese 
species is recorded, and one from St. Paul I., South Indian 
Ocean {L. Turqueti Velain.). It is interesting, therefore, 
to find another in the Persian Gulf, possessing the family 
" facies," but the outer lip more effuse than usual, the 
colour pinkish-brown, whitening towards both extremities, 
the shape fusiform, probably eight-whorled, but the apical 
whorls are wanting in the specimen before us. 

(PL I, f I.) 
A, testa oblongo-fusiformi, apud apicem attemiata, 
nitidissima, pallide stramineo-ockracea, anfractibus septein- 
octo quorum tribus apicalibus^ pellucido-vitreis, cceteris 
transversim paullutn infra suturas unisulcatis, interstitid 
castaneo-affusa, ultimo anfracta vix effuso, in medio cinna- 
momeo-castaneo ochraceo, delicate sub lente lineolato^ juxta 
basim fasciola pallide castanea decor ato^ apertiira ovato- 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. ( 1 898), No. 4. 1 5 

oblonga, ifztiis albtda, labro extus vix effuso, margin e columel- 
lari pauUuni calloso, 7iitidissimo. 

Long. 17, lat 8 mm. 

Hah. Angrias Bank, Lat. i6"5o, long. J2. (Captain 

A very elegant, shining, cinnamon-coloured shell, 
banded below the sutures and towards the base of the 
last whorl with chestnut brown. Allied to A. marginata, 
but of different shape, and much smaller. 

Ten specimens. We have pleasure in connecting with 
this Ancilla the name of Captain Tindall, of the S.S. 
" Patrick Stewart," who, at the request of Mr. Townsend, 
took a few soundings off the Angrias Bank, and some 
other places on the Malabar Coast. 

Margin ELLA (Glabella) quilonica, sp, nov. 

(PI. I, f. 4-) 

M. testa politissima, nitida, perlcBvi, ovata, spira pyram- 
idali, anfractibus qiiinquey ventricosulis, albocinereis^ supra 
suturas spiraliter rufozofiatis, ultimo anfractu apud medium 
et infra bizonato, apertura angusta, labro exteriore incrassato, 
albido, int7is multidenticulato, majgine colum,ellari fortiter 

Long. 8, lat. 4 mm. 

Hab. Quilon, Malabar Coast, at 15 fathoms (Captain 

Four or five examples of a pretty shining polished 
shell, having the same disposition of banding as the smaller 
M. suavis (Souverbie), from New Caledonia. The whorls 
are five, cinereous white, banded once, spirally, just above 
the sutures, with a rufous-brown zone, the last whorl being 
bizoned, below the lower zone the basal region is white, 
shining, the aperture narrow, the outer lip thickened, 
within denticled, columella strongly four-plaited. 

1 6 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea, etc. 

We carefully compared the shell with the description 
and figure of M. deformis Nevill, from Ceylon, the marking 
being similar, but form entirely different. 

With a few other interesting Mollusca, this was 
dredged by Captain Tindall, during a cruise of the 
S.S. " Patrick Stewart," in 1896, off the Malabar Coast and 
West of Ceylon. We may add that some of the specimens 
were encrusted with a coral {Heteropsammia sp.*) 

Marginella (Persicula) OODES, Sp. nov. 

(PI. I, f 16.) 

M. testa minuta, crassiuscula, perlcevi, albida, nitida, 
spzra omninS immersa, anfractu ultimo globoso, apertura 
oblonga, angusta, labro percrasso, nitido, IcEvi, intus planato, 
non denticulato, colu7nella quadriplicata. 

Long. 2, lat. I "25 mm. {sp. maj.). 

Hab. Bushire (Persian Gulf). 

About a dozen examples of a little pure-white shining 
Cyprcea-X-^^ shell, globose, with spire wholly immersed, 
the mouth narrow, oblong, the outer lip very thickened, 
quite smooth and not denticulate within. Columella four- 
plaited. From Issel's description of his M. pygmcea, which 
must be near this species, the colour is yellowish, and the 
outer lip is denticulate within. From the figure we would 
gather the mouth was narrower than in our species, 
and the form more oblong than globose. Issel described 
it from one example only, found in the Gulf of Suez, and 
what purports to be it has also been once recorded from the 
Persian Gulf It is very likely this nearly allied species. 

(ww8i7c, egg-shaped.) 

(PI. I, f 6.) 
F. testa parva, attenuata, lanceolata, gracilis anfrac- 
tibus novefn, duobus apicalibus brunneis ofnninS Icevibus^ 

* These were kindly examined by Prof. S. J. Hickson, F.R.S. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No, 4. 17 

coster is ventricosiilis, apud siituras astrictis, longitudinaliter 
costatiSy penultimo et ultimo ad octo costis, rotundatis, 
incrassatis, spiraliter undiqiie arete costulatis, interstitiis 
spiraliter granidoso-liratis, ultimo reetirostrato, canali longa, 
apertura ovata, labro vix incrassato, intus spiraliter plicato, 
columella septemplicata. 

Long. 34, lat. 10*50 mm. spec. maj. 

Hab. Muscat, Arabia, 15 fathoms mud and sand. 

A small species, but one that has attained its full 
growth, being a \.yi^\Q'd\Fustis in form,attenuately lanceolate, 
nine-whorled, two of them are apical, smooth, brown, the 
rest constricted at the sutures, ventricose, longitudinally 
thickly ribbed, ribs about eight on the two last whorls, 
these ribs are spirally crossed by revolving riblets, or raised 
lines, the interstices being granuloso-lirate, the colour is 
cinnamon brown, slightly darker on the ribs, the mouth is 
ovate, canal straight, prolonged, lip within plicately striate, 
the columella is seven plaited, these plaits are the con- 
tinuation of the spiral riblets. 

Two species, similar, but one slightly smaller than the 
other, say long. 32, lat. 9*50. Also three or four, in young 
condition, have been subsequently (1898) procured from 
the same locality. 

(PI. 2, f 13.) 

B. testa parvay fusiformi, tenui, cerea, paiillum nitente, 
Icevissima, anfractibus septem, quorum duobus apicalibus, 
perlcevibus, mammillatis, cceteris longitudinaliter costulatis, 
costis rectis, ultimo afifractu cceteros longitudine excequante, 
costis infra medium evanidis, ad basim spiraliter multi-sul- 
catis, sulculis profundis, basi subtruncata^ apertura ovata, 
labro paullum effiiso, parum incrassato. 

Long. 12, lat. 4*50 mm. 

Hab. Mekran Coast. 

1 8 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea, etc. 

A thin, waxy little Bullia, with a superficial resem- 
blance to certain Nassae, e.g., N. teretiuscula Ad., and 
pulchella Ad. Very smooth, slightly shining, cinereous 
drab in colour, seven whorled, two being apical, swollen, 
vitreous, the rest all longitudinally ribbed, the ribs very 
smooth, as are the interstices, the last whorl about equals 
the remainder put together, here the ribs disappear below 
the middle of the whorl, and in their place are several 
spiral deeply sulcate lines around the base of the shell. 
The aperture is oval, outer lip a little effuse. 

Ten or twelve specimens. 

(KijooTrXatJ-roc, waxen.) 

Bullia (Pseudostrombus) indusica, sp. nov. 
(PI. I, f. 19.) 

B. testa ovato -fusiformiy spira acuminata, paullmn 
nitida, palltdissime, straminea vel albo-cinerea, ajtfractibus 
octo {incluso apicali vitreo, Icevi) ad suturas impressis, 
ventricosulis, tribus supernis plus minusve Icevibus, nitidis y 
cceteris undique spiraliter linear i-sulcatis, infra Juxtd suturas 
bino plicarurn or dine transverso, nequaquam granoso ?iec 
decussato incrassatis, ultimo ventricoso, costulis spiralibus 
magis prominulis ad basim, apertura ovata, intus alba^ 
labro paidluin effuso, tenui, canali brevi, columella paullum 
excavata, opercido corneo, ovato, inargine serrato, mtcleo 

Long. 23, lat. 10 mm. 

Hab. Karachi. 

This cannot be confounded with B. lineolaia ( = Belan- 
geri Kien), there being no trace of fulvous marking, nor 
is the shell of the same consistency, being far more delicate. 
The transverse sulculi, too, in B. lineolata, are only partial 
over the whorls, leaving a considerable space below the 
sutures smooth, with the exception of a once folded 
sutural plait. The species before us is ovately fusiform 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 4. 19 

with acuminate spire, somewhat shining, very pale straw 
colour or whitish grey, whorls eight, the first three being 
smooth, the rest regularly spirally line-furrowed, the sutures 
are impressed, and the sutural plaits are shown by a 
double row of thickened spiral costulae, there is no sign of 
decussation or granulosity, the aperture is ovate, outer lip 
slightly effuse, thin, canal short, columellar slightly 
excavate. The operculum, which is present in both 
specimens examined, is horny brown, ovate, with serrated 
margin, and apical nucleus. (Karachi is at the mouth of 
the R. Indus, hence the trivial name.) 

MUREX (Ocinebra) flexirostris, sp. nov. 

(PI. I, f II.) 

M. testa fusiformi, utrimque acuminata, brunnea, asper- 
rima, spira turrita, anfractibus septern, apicalibus duobus 
Icevibus, cceteris vix varicosis, squamosis, longitudinaliter 
crassicostatisy angulatis, spiraliter liris squamiferis accinctis, 
anfractu ultimo adbasim attenuato, canali longa, Jlexirostri, 
apertura rotundo-ovata, labro fimbriato, dorsaliter, juxta 
labrum, varicifero, columella et interiore pallide violacea. 

Long. 8, lat. 4 mm. 

Hab. Muscat, 10 fathoms, coral sand. 

A distinct little Ocinebra, being, in the most perfect 
of the specimens, which is selected for the type, of a brown 
colour, acuminate both posteriorly and anteriorly, rough 
with small scales on the lirae which cross the thickened, 
obliquely-angled ribs spirally, the last whorl attenuate 
towards the base with a long (2-50 mm.) beak, bent back- 
wards, the aperture is roundish, columella and interior 
of the mouth pale violet, outer lip fimbriate, and with one 
large varix just behind it. The shell is otherwise singu- 
larly free from varices. 

A smaller example, which has not attained its full 

20 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea^ etc. 

growth, is even darker brown, with the same pale violaceous 
interior. Three or four specimens. 
{fiexirostrisy curvedly beaked.) 

Cerithiopsis (Seila) hinduorum, sp, nov. 

C. testa cylindracea^ miiltum attenuata^ solidiuscula^ cas- 
tanea^ anfractibiis quin- vel se-decim, undigue spiraliter 
tricarznatzs, carinis arctis^ Icevibus, cBqualibus^ interstitiis lon- 
gitudinaliter liratis^ ultimo anfractu quinque-carinato^ 
juxta basiin angulato^ basi excavata^ apertura subquadrata^ 
labro simpliciy canali brevissimo^ subretuso. 

Long. 13, lat. 4-50 mm. 

An abundant shell at Karachi, especially the neigh- 
bourhood of Manora. We have seen nearly a hundred 
specimens, differing a little in basal breadth, and length, 
and also in number of whorls, the colour varying from pale 
chestnut to dark russet ; and the larger examples are lon- 
gitudinally streaked or suffused with darker brown. Seila 
bandorensis Melv., described from Bombay examples, 
occurs with it, and we shall hope in a succeeding paper to 
draw up a revised description of this, Mr. Townsend's 
specimens being dredged, and perfect at the mouth. 

vS. hinduorum is no doubt near dextroversa Ad. and 
Reeve, but the spiral carinae are all equal, and the colour 
is chestnut brown. A strong family resemblance charac- 
terises this section of Cerithiopsis, the majority of species 
being American. 


S. testa ovato-fusi/ormi^ delicatula^ tenui, albo-lactea^ 
turrita^ anfractibus octo vel novem^ apicalibus * * * ^ 
undique arete obliqui-costatiSy costis lamellosis, incurvis^ 
papyraceis, longitudinaliter connatis^ auritis^suturas superim- 
pendentibusy lamellis simulac interstitiis transversim leniter 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. 4. 21 

striatis^apertura rotunda, peristomate extus ctrciter lamellosOy 

Long, 9, lat. 4 mm. 

Hab. Malcolm Inlet, Persian Gulf; 25 fathoms. 

Allied to the Mediterranean S. muricata Risso, but the 
lamellae are closer, more ear-shaped at the sutures, and 
thinner in substance. They are likewise longitudinally 
continuous and connate along all the whorls. This new 
form is a remarkably graceful species. Two examples 


E. testa perlonga, multum attenuata, polita, nitida, albo- 
lactea, anfractibus duodecim, apicali vitreOypellucido, hetero- 
stropho, antice verso, omnino lacteis, apud suturas vnpressis, 
ventricosidis, infra, juxta suturas, vitta semipellucente spira- 
liter succinctis, aliter albolacteis, apertura ovatorotunda, 
labro extus vix incrassato. 

Long. 6, lat. i mm. 

Hab. Kais (or Gais) Island, Persian Gulf, 10 fathoms. 

A very prolonged, shining, milky white, perfectly 
smooth shell, twelve whorled, with heterostrophe apex, 
glassy, coiled on the front of the next whorl, the whorls 
are. impressed at the sutures, and slightly ventricose. 


M. testa attenuato-ftisiformi, ininuta, albida, subcrystal- 
lina, anfractibus octo, apud suturas multum impressis, ven- 
tricosulis, longitudi?zaliter arcticostatis et spiraliter carinatis, 
supernd tribus, ultimo a^tfractu quatuor carinis instructo, 
inters titiis prof undis, quadratis, decussatis, ultimo anfractu 
ad basim infrd carinam delicate spiraliter tornato, apertura 
oblonga, labro tenui, simplici, columella inconspicud uni- 

22 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea^ etc. 

Long. 4, lat 1-50 mm. 

Hab. Karachi (E. R. Shopland and F. W. Townsend). 

A beautifully chased little species ; allied to certain 
Odostomice with decussated sculpture, and I follow Tryon 
in including such under the subgeneric — or generic — 
name of Miralda. It is a semicrystalline little shell, 
white, alternately sculptured with many longitudinal 
ribs, crossed by prominent keels, three in the upper 
whorls, four in the lowest. The interstices are quadrate, 
and deep. Below the lowest keel on the last whorl, 
the base is delicately spirally striate. The mouth is 
oblong, outer lip simple. The columella is once plaited 
but this is not very conspicuous. Three or four specimens. 

(67rr?(^o()oc, chink bearing, from the deep quadrate 


T. testa minuta ad apicem perattenuata^crystallina, tenuis 
anfractibus novem vel decern^ quorum apicali heterostropho^ 
vitreo, Icevz, cceteris apud suturas multum appressis, ventri- 
coso-tumidis^ longitudinaliter obtusi-costatis^ costis flexuosis^ 
obliquiSy apertura ovata, labro tenuis simplici^ columella recta. 
Long. 4, lat. 1*25 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf, off anchor, Bunder- Abbas. 
An exceedingly delicate, glassy nine or ten-whorled 
Turbonilla, with very impressed sutures, and tumid 
whorls, the longitudinal ribs being somewhat flexuose. 
Mouth and outer lip simple, columella straight. Judging 
from the figure, it comes near T. acuticostata Jeffreys, from 
the Mediterranean, but a more delicate species, of about the 
same size. The longitudinal ribs of the last whorl, though 
terminated just above the base, which is smooth, do not 
seem to have the spiral line at the point of termination, 
as in acuticostata. Three examples. 
{basilicus^ kingly.) 

Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 4. 23 


T. testa oblonga, fuszforim, delicatida^ semipellucida, 
albida, apice heterostropho, vitreo^ Icevi, anfraciibus octo^ ad 
suturas iinpressis, ventricosulis^ Ufidique recticostatis^ costis 
icBvibus, interstitiis spiraliter filostriatis^ apertura rotundo- 
ovata, labro tenui, shnplici^ paullum effuso^ columella rec- 

Long. 4, lat. 1*50 mm. 

Hab. Manora, Karachi. 

Several examples of a Titrbonilla^ which, did it but 
possess the columellar plait, so characteristic a feature in 
the PyrgiUincB, would be easily comparable with P. Edgarii 
Mel v., or P. interstriata Souv. It is eight whorled, white, 
delicate, longitudinally straightly ribbed, ribs smooth, 
interstices spirally filostriate, mouth roundly ovate, outer 
lip slightly effuse, simple, columella straight. Allied to 
T. {Pyrgostelis) flexuosa Jeffreys, from the Mediterranean, 
and the recently described T. {Pyrgostelis) Emilice Melv., 
from Bombay; it is much larger than this latter species, 
whorls more ventricose, and eight, as against six whorled. 


T. testa crystallina^ alba., delicata^ turrita^ gradatula^ 
anfractibus decern^ qucruni apicali vitreo, IcBvi, bulbosOy 
ccBteris gradatis^ Icevibus, longitudinaliter recticostulatis^ 
mterstitiis omnino Icevissirnis^ ultimo anfractu costulis infra 
medium evanidis, ad basim Icevi, apertura ovata^ labro 
tenuiy simplici, columella obscurissme uniplicata. 

Long. 4'50, lat. 1*25 mm. 

Hab. Karachi and Mekran Coast (Townsend and 

An exceedingly pretty species, the whorls are white, 
ten in number, including the glassy, bulbous apical, the 
rest being scalariform, proportionately graduate, and taper- 

24 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea, etc. 

ing, crystalline and delicate. Longitudinal straight riblets 
adorn each whorl, these, as in the case of so many ribbed 
Turbonillce, are evanescent below the middle of the last 
whorl. The aperture is ovate, outer lip thin, elongate, 
columella very obscurely once plaited. This shell has for 
its allies T. scalaris Phil, a European species, entirely 
different in texture and substance, though akin in form, 
and T. {Pyrgostelis) Velaini Tryon = sca/arzs Velain non 
Mont, from the Island of S. Paul, South Indian Ocean. 
I have only seen a figure and description of this latter 
species, from which T. templaris seems to differ in the 
perfect smoothness of the interstices between the ribs, 
those in T. Velaini being striate, in the ten as against eight 
whorls, and in being larger in all its parts. T. Abercrombiei, 
described by myself in 1893, from Bombay, is like in its 
graduate whorls, but differing in form of mouth and last 
whorl, and lastly, Pyrgulina pyrgomella Melv., also from 
Bombay, resembles our shell in form, but here the longi- 
tudinal ribs begin at a little distance from the sutures, the 
intermediate space being smooth, and the ribs are also 
slightly papillose at the upper end. The columella is also 
very conspicuously plaited. 

(vide Pfoc. Mai. Soc.^ Vol. II., 1896, pp. 113, 114.) 

{templaris, of or belonging to a temple.) 

Nerita (Heminerita) anodonta, sp. nov. 

N. testa parva, subglobosa, solidiuscula, anfractibus 
iribus, apicalibus erosis, ultimo rapide accrescente, spiraliter 
filo-lirato, in uno specimine liris concinnenigris, regularibus, 
in altero irregutariter dispositis, hie illic nigro-tessellatis vel 
maculatis, apertura lunata, labro paullum incrassato, intus 
Icevi, area columellari planata, nitida, ochraceotincta, inargine 
non denticulato, recto, operculo paucispirali, extus granuloso. 

Alt. 9, diam. 10 mm. 

Hab. Karachi (J. O. Twells, Esq.). 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 4. 25 

A small, but well-marked species, for the sight of which 
I am indebted to Mr. G. B. Sowerby. It belongs to the 
toothless section of Nerita proper, and is really best dis- 
tinguished from certain NeritmcB by its operculum. It is 
variable in its painting : one of the examples before us is 
neatly spirally threaded, the lirse being black, another is 
more irregularly lirate, and tesselated, here and there only, 
with black. The mouth is, as just observed, not denticulate, 
nor has the outer lip teeth within the aperture. The opercu- 
lum is paucispiral, granulated without. 

(avoSouc, without teeth.) 

Trochus (Infundibulum) Fultoni, sp. nov. 

(PI. I, f 21.) 

T. testa prof mide pseud-uinbilicata, solidula, pyramidata, 
conica, anfractibus septem vel octo, apicali subacuto, interdutn 
fere rectis, inter dum supra suturas tumidulis, quasi grada- 
tulis, vivide viridi-coloratis, et radiatim longitudinaliter 
rubro varii-pictis, flajuuiis superne in omnibus speciminibus 
haud variantibus, infra, in ultimo anfractu nunc condensatis, 
nunc tenuibus, vel fulgetrinis, anfractibus omnibus undique 
spiraliter liris granulosis inst7^uctis, superne quatuor vel 
quinque ordinibus lirarum, ultimo quinque vel sex, ad 
peripheriam angulato, basi subplanato, viridi, et delicate 
rubripicta, liraruni quinque ordinibus prcedita, interdmn 
granulis evanidis, inter dum, et scepius, distincte granulosis, 
striis concentricis inter stitialibus, apertura quadrata, intus 
iridescente, crassilirata, labro exteriore crassiusculo, columella 
iridescente, plicata, margine vix crenato, basi intus crenulato. 
Operculo corneo, cartiligineo, multispirali, 

Alt. 25, sp. maj., diam. 25 mm. 

Hab. Entrance to Persian Gulf (G. of Oman). 

A great many specimens, all nearly similar, but with a 
slight tendency to vary in granulosity of spiral lirse, and 
also, in some instances, in tumidity of the lower part of the 
central whorls. 

26 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea, etc. 

Hitherto this shell must have been mixed up with 
T. radiatus Gmelin, from which, however, we can always 
distinguish it. Some points of difference consist in the 
apex never being orange tinted, the whorls uniform and 
more vivid green, the interstitial lirse between the granular 
striations being absent in all the specimens examined, the 
diametric measurement less in proportion to the altitude 
than in either T. radiatus Gmel., or T. vividus Reeve (the 
nearest approach to our species) and the false umbilicus 
more profound, and narrower. The general form is like- 
wise more acutely narrowly conical. 

Mr. Hugh Fulton has rendered me most valuable 
assistance in the elucidation of this and other critical 
species in Mr. Townsend's and Commander Shopland's* 
collections ; and it gives me much pleasure to connect 
this interesting species with his name. 


(PL I, f 140 

C. testa perforata, pyraniidaio-conica^pallide rufo-ochracea, 
solida, elegante, anfractibus octo, haud prominulis apud 
suturas, undique spiraliter arete et delieate punctosuleatis, 
infra, juxta suturas, et ultimo apud peripheriam spiraliter 
bifuniculato, squarrose rufotessellato, in medio interdum 
unicolore, interdum oblique rubrisparso et maculato, ultimo ad 
peripheriam acutangulato, basi eoncinne spiraliter sulculosa, 
hie illie rubri-pieta, apertura oblique quadrata, intus iri- 
descente, labro extus tenui, simpliei. 

Alt. lo, diam. 7-50 mm. 

Hab. Batticaloa, Ceylon (Captain Tindall). 

A pretty Trochoid shell, allied to C. polychroma Ad., 
C. interruptum Wood, and others of that section of the 
genus. The shell is perforate, pyramidal, the whorls close 
set, and not prominent at the sutures, the spiral puncto- 

* c.f. Ann. ^ Mag. N. H., Ser. 7, Vol. I., (1898) p. 194 sqq. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 4. 27 

striation or sulcation is uniform, and close. At the bottom 
of each whorl, just above the sutures, the sulci are broader 
and funiculate, and tessellated with red, the remainder of 
the surface is sometimes flushed with red, and sometimes 
quite plain. 

A good many examples, all alike in form, but differing 
slightly in pattern, as described above. 

{duricastelliim, a stronghold.) 

(PI. 2, f. 14.) 

O. testa suborbiculari, albida, dorsaliter rufo-suffiisa, 
probabiliter per lobos valvce inferioins adhcerente, valva 
siiperiore inultiplicata, costis raniosis, apud medium, prcEcipiie 
dorsaliter, elevata, siiperficie delicate longitudinaliter sericata, 
margi7ie7n ad ventralem lamellata plicis albidis, qiiindecim 
ad septenidecim, divaricatis, plicis variis, acute angulatis, 
cardine magno, supei'ficie interna albo-ocJiracea. 

Alt. 275, lat 3 unc. 

Hab. On the Telegraph Cable, entrance to Persian 

A few specimens, which, when cleared of nullipores 
and other growths, present a beautiful shell surface. We 
could almost give it the palm in a genus which, uncouth 
as are many of its members, yet in some few instances 
almost rivals the Spondyli. The present species which, 
rightly, is to bear the name of its discoverer, Mr. F. W. 
Townsend, is suborbicular in shape, white, many plaited 
round the ventral margin, the plaits being acute-angled. 
Transverse lamellae are seen above the plaits, the rest of the 
surface being beautifully longitudinally sericeous and 
shagreeiied ; dorsally there is a suffusion of red-brown, 
the depressions between the branching ribs being darker. 
The hinge is large, inner surface yellowish white. 

28 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea^ etc. 
Plicatula PERNULA, sp. nov. 

(PI. 2, f. lO.) 

p. testa paulluni incequivalvi^ incequilaterali^ pediformi^ 
parva, depresso-planata^ pallide carneo-rufa^ costis obliquis 
circiter decern decorata, his costis hie illic spiniferis^ spinis 
brevities y tubiferis^ sqiiamatis^ transversint superficie oinni 
valvarum rudi-corrugatis ^ wnbonibus angustiSy latere antico 
arcuato, ventrali, cum postico, leniter rotundato-oblongo^ intusy 
in speciminibus maturis circiter marginem incrassato^ longi- 
tudinaliter costarum impressiones exhibente^ cardine utroque 
dentibus dnobiis deviis. 

Alt. 20, lat 15, diam. 4 mm., sp. maj. 

Hab. Malcolm Inlet, Persian Gulf ; 24 fathoms, mud. 

Apparently near P. depressa Lam., from the New 
World, and P. muricata A. Ad. Mr. Hugh Fulton, who 
has made comparisons with this latter, writes me that that 
shell is not so narrow at the umbones, and that the 
plications are far more numerous, nor are the spiny 
scales tubulous as in P. pernula. 

Though small, it appears full grown : the shells are 
covered with SerpulcB and Lepralice ; eight examples in all. 

{pernula, a little ham, from the form.) 

Lima (Limatula) leptocarya, sp. nov. 
(PI. 2, f 2.) 

L. testa tenui albida, recta^ cequivalvi, oblonga, clausa^ 
ventricosa, longitudinaliter arete costulata^ costis ad medium 
vaharum prominulisy ad latera evanescentibus, nuniero ad 
sex et viginti, umbonibus distantibus, sulculo mediano vix 
notato, auriculis cequalibus, 7nargine cardinali lato. 

Alt. 8, long. 5, diam. 4*50 mm. 

Hab. Muscat ; 10 fathoms. 

Resembling the British L. subauricidata Mont, and 
especially L. elliptica Jefifr. In the former species the 
longitudinal median sulcus is distinct and central, in the 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii.{\%(^%\ No, 4i. 29 

latter it is inclined to one side. In this new form, the 
median sulcus is hardly perceptible. As in L. elliptica, 
the longitudinal riblets are evanescent at the sides, being 
about twenty-six in number ; these riblets are more pro- 
nounced than in that species. Several examples. 

(XcTTTojcapuov, a light nut, the fruit of the hickory, from 
the shape of the shell.) 

(PI. 2, f 7.) 

Y. testa crystallina^ pellucide tenui, cequivalvi, incBqui- 
lateraii, umbonibus parvis, approximatis, margine dorsali 
utrimque leniter declivi, antice oblongo-ovato, margine 
ventrali convexiusculo, postice paullum producto, dentibus 
pectinatis, in utraquevalva postice quatiwrdeciin, antice eodem 
numero, superficie nitidissima^vitrea^concentrice obliquilirata, 
liris indistinctis. 

Alt. 8, lat. 15, diam. 450 mm. 

Hab. Bushire, Persia, 4 fathoms, mud. 

A very delicate crystalline pellucid Yoldia, the super- 
ficies concentrically obliquely lirate, and slightly prismatic, 
the shell is posteriorly produced, anteriorly ovate-oblong, 
the ventral margin somewhat convex, the umbones small, 
approximate, dorsally declining on each side ; teeth, 
pectinate, about fourteen in either valve on each side of 
the umbones. 

The only species nearly allied to this is F. serotina 
Hinds, which is also in the Townsendian collection, having 
been found among shell-growth on the Telegraph Cable at 
55 fathoms mud, in lat. 25^58' N. and long. 57^3' E. This 
is not so transparent a shell, and posteriorly not quite so 
produced, the concentric lirae in Y. serotina are clearer 
cut, and the umbones more prominent, causing the dorsal 
margin anteriorly to be slightly arcuate. 

(clarus, clear, transparent.) 

30 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea, etc, 
Mytilicardia Ffinchi, sp. nov. 

(PI. 2, f. 17.) 

M. testa oblongo-trapezoide, incequilaterali, rtifo-gilvay 
unibonibus incurvis, margine dorsali postice recta, antice 
excavato-declivi, latere postico recto, ventrali ad anticum 
oblique declivi, antico breviter oblongo, lunula parv a, prof unde 
cardiiformi, testa longitudinaliter quatuor-decini vel quin- 
deciin costis decor ata, antice angustis, irregulariter nodosis, 
postice majoribus et latioribus, scepe spiniferosquamosis, 
squamis foliaceis, cochlearibus, prcecipue latus apud posticum 
conspzcuis, simul ac ad posticam marginis dorsalis partem, 
intus albida. 

Alt. 25, sp. maj., lat. 37 mm. 

Hab. Muscat, 10 fathoms coral sand, and Persian Gulf, 
33 fathoms. 

Seven or eight examples varying only in size , being 
very uniform in shape and structure. We have 'taken the 
largest specimen as our type. This new Mytilicardia is 
an interesting and conspicuous shell, coming in the same 
category as M. calyculata L., from the Mediterranean, than 
which it is much broader, and M. crassicostata Lam., a 
more elaborate species altogether. 

It is of a fulvous-dun colour, the umbones incurved, 
placed very far forward, the ventral margin is posteriorly 
almost straight, anteriorly excavate, the posterior margin 
also straight, anterior shortly oblong ; the ventral 
obliquely tending from the posterior to the anterior 
margin. The longitudinal ribs are fourteen to fifteen in 
number, the posterior much the larger and wider, and are 
ornamented, the smaller with nodules, the larger with spiny, 
foliaceous and spoon-shaped squamae. 

Named, at the request of Mr. Townsend, in honour of 
his chief, Mr. B. T. Ffinch, CLE., who is taking consider- 
able interest in the results of these numerous dredging 
expeditions in the Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 4. 31 

Basterotia ARCULA, sp. nov. 
(PL 2, f. 16.) 

B. testa cequivalvi^ inceqidlaterali^ subquadrata, inflata^ 
valvis parurn hiulcis^ umbonibus incurvis, prQininulis^ mar- 
gine dors all iitrimque recto ^ antico rotundato- truncate^ 
postico oblique prodiicto^ ab umbonibus usque ad marginem 
ventralem posteriorem carinato et acutangulato^ cardine in 
utraque valva uno dente instructor dentibus productis^ 
magnis, superficie sordide alba, granulosa, latere postico 
cordifomni^plano-marginato, minute granuloso, tutus alba. 

Alt. 8, lat. 13, diam. 7-50 mm. sp. maj. 

Hab. Karachi, 3 fathoms, mud and sand. 

This genus, formerly known as Eucharis Recluz non 
Latreille, bears, until the hinge with its conspicuous teeth, 
one in each valve, be examined, a considerable resem- 
blance to certain members of the family Arcadce. The 
new species now before us, especially so; indeed, it might 
be considered a small variety o{ Area tetragona L. 

The shell is equivalve, inequilateral, squarrose, inflated, 
the valves hardly gaping laterally, the umbones incurved, 
prominent, the dorsal margin straight on both sides of the 
umbones, anteriorly the shell is roundly truncate, pos- 
teriorly obliquely produced, from the umbones to the 
posterior end of the ventral margin runs an acutely 
angled keel, the surface of the shell is dirty white, 
granulose, the posterior side flattened, plane margined 
(with the keels just mentioned), heart shaped, minutely 
granular. Within the shell is while. 

One perfect shell, and a larger half valve. 

{arcula, a little ark or chest.) 

Circe nana, sp. jtov. 
(PL 2, f 9.) 

C. testa parva, oblique orbicularis solidiuscula, umbonibus 
paullum attenuatis, prominulis, antic^ ovata, postice obtus- 
angulo-truricatula, margine ventrali convexiusculo, dorsaliter 

32 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea, etc. 

postice fere recto^ antice inultum declivi^ superfice albida 
concentrice irregulariter lirata, liris apiid medium antice et 
postice oblique gramdoso-undosis^ intus albay linea palliali 
parum sinuosa. 

Alt. 7, lat 8*50 mm. 

Hab. Indian Ocean ; 33 fathoms, long. 26'' 10' N., lat. 
52^50' E., mud, and coral rock. 

A dwarf Circe^ in size resembling the British and 
Mediterranean C. minima L. It is white, obliquely 
orbicular, the umbones slightly attenuate, prominent, the 
dorsal margin straightish posteriorly, much declining 
anteriorly, the shell being unequally concentrically lirated, 
the lirsB ornamented with oblique nodules tending regu- 
larly posteriorly and anteriorly, ceasing beyond the middle, 
while the shell is slightly shining. Within white, the 
pallial line hardly sinuous. 

(PI. 2, f II). 

D. testa oblique rotunda^ ventricosa^ nitida, Icevi^ indis- 
tincte concentrice striata, straminea vel cinereo-alba, umboni- 
bus approximatiSy incurvis, prominulisy dorsaliter utrimque 
rapide declivi, postice rotunda, antice a medio marginem ad 
ventralem tri- vel quadri-plicata, plicis obtusis, inconspicuis, 
intus albescentey cardine in utraque valva bidentato, dentibus 

Alt. 7, lat. 7-50, diam. 5 mm. 

Hab. Gais (or Kais) Island, 7 to 10 fathoms ; also 
Muscat, 10 fathoms, Persian Gulf 

An obliquely rounded shell, straw coloured or olivaceous 
or ashy white, shining, concentrically striate, umbones 
approximate, prominent, valves extremely ventricose and 
tumid, posteriorly round, anteriorly three- or four-plaited, 
the plaits commencing below the centre of the shell to 
the ventral margin. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 4. 33 

A great many examples from the two above-mentioned 

(ycvt^Xioc, generative, from its frequency.) 

Gari erasmia, sp. nov. 

(PI. 2, f 3.) 

G. testa parvayOblonga.cBquivalvi, fere cequilaterali^valvis 
dorsaliter leniter declivibus, antice oblongis, sicut in latere 
posticOy margine ventrali longo] convexiusculo, ferd recto, 
superficie violacea vel roseo-ochracea, arctissime concentrice 
costiilata, interstitiis postice fere Icevibus, a medio fere ad 
latus anticum alvearibus, costulis crenelliferis, antice 
crassigranulosis et undulosis, bis alternatim dispositis^ 
quadratulis, intus parum nitente, v iolacea vel rosea. 

Alt. 5, long. 9, diam. 3 mm., sp. maj. 

Hab. Gais (or Kais) Island ; 14 fathoms, broken rock 
and coral sand. 

One of the smallest, if not the least, of the genus, but 
none the less beautiful. Two specimens are before us. 
Of these, the larger, pale violet in colour, is of an oblong 
shape, rounded off anteriorly and posteriorly, slightly 
convex, but running almost straight at the ventral margin. 
The ornamentation is peculiar. Closely concentrically 
costulate, these ribs posteriorly are almost smooth, as are 
the interstices, towards the middle of each valve the costae 
become crenelliferous, the interstices honeycombed, and, 
at the anterior margin, they are noduled and granuled, in 
an alternate manner, assuming a diamond pattern. The 
smaller example, of a rosy-ochre, is much smoother 
posteriorly and in the middle, but has the same character 
of ornamentation in a lesser degree. The presence of 
Lepralice oy\ the larger specimen would seem to denote its 
mature condition, I may add that Gari Schum., 18 17, 
has precedence one year over Psammobia Lm., 18 18. 

(fpa<T/L((oc, lovely.) 

34 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea, etc. 

Tellina (Arcopagia) HABROTIMA, Sp. nov. 
(PI. I, f. 8.) 

7. testa delicata, sordzde alba, umbonibiis parvis, acutis, 
sed conspicuis, candidis, ant ice ovata, postice rotund ata, 
margine dorsali lente utrimque declivi, ventrali rotundato, 
arctissime radiatim costulatis, et spiraliter similiter con- 
centrice decussatis, costulis spinoso-lamellatiSy inters titiis 

Alt. 13, lat. 15, diam. 4*50 mm. 

Hab. Angrias Bank, Arabian Sea (Captain Tindall). 

An exceedingly delicate, ornate shell, the sculpture 
being of a highly-chased radiate and concentric costula- 
tion, the interstices being quadrate. The radiate ribs are 
spiny, lamellate, in number about forty-six. In form, and 
general decussation this Tellina resembles most closely 
T. carnicolor Hanley, from the Philippines, the number of 
radiate ribs is, however, nearly doubled in that very finely 
sculptured species, the ribs being much thinner and finer. 
There is likewise strong superficial similitude to T. costata 
Sowb., but the umbones in that species are more elevated, 
the shell narrower by far, and the ribs only about 

(ajSpoT-fjuoc, delicately refined.) 

Tellina (M^ra) actinota, sp. nov. 
(PL 2, f. r.) 

T. testa parva, delicatula, oblonga, antice prolongata, 
postice curta, margine ventrali convexo, dorsali utrimque 
declivi, superficie delicate concentrico-striaia, striis postice 
paidlum squamatis, pulcherrime puniceo-radiata ab um- 
bonibiLS ad marginem ventralem, intus nitida, radiis 

Alt. 6-50, lat. 9, diam. 3-50 mm. 

Hab. Muscat, Arabia ; 10 fathoms, coral sand. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. {i%9^\ No. ^, 35 

A very beautifully rayed, and delicate species. It is 
allied to T, semen Hanley, T. lechriogramma Melv., etc., but 
we have not seen any of these near relations to it, in any 
instance, rayed. The concentric striae are very delicate, and 
more pronounced posteriorly. 

(aKTiv(i)Tog, radiate.) 

Tellina (Angulus) sericata, s/>. nov. 

(PI. 2, f 18.) 

T. testa sitbtrapezoide, delicata, tenuis pallidissiine albo- 
straminea, umbonibus acutis, latere postico ab umbonibits 
rapide declivi ad mediiun b rev iter tj'iincato, antice peroblongo, 
margine ventrali cojivexiusculo, ab itmbonibus ad extremi- 
tates posticas marginis ventralis valvariun unangulata, 
superficie triangulari inter angidwn et latera postica 
spinifera, irregulariter nodidoso-corrugata, ccetera superficie 
concentrice lineata, lineis obliquis, irregulariter diffitsis, 
transeuntibus, in medio magis arctis, hie sinuosiSy illic, 
prcBcipae antice, prope ventralem marginem evanidis. 

Alt. 10, lat. 14, diam. 4 mm. 

Hab. Muscat, Arabia ; 10 fathoms. 

An ornate species, with a beautiful silky superficies, pos- 
teriorly angled and truncate, spiniferous, the space between 
the angle, which extends from the umbones to the 
posterior extremity of the ventral margin, is irregularly 
nodulously wrinkled. The shell, anteriorly, is very oblong, 
the surface shagreened with concentric lines, crossed ob- 
liquely and irregularly with other lines, these last becoming 
almost obsolete at the posterior extremity of the ventral 
margin. Not very nearly allied to any Tellina we are 
acquainted with. T.gargadial^. and T. incsqualis HsLnley, 
especially the latter, have some characteristics in common 
with it, but are hardly comparable. 

(sericatus, silken.) 

36 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea, etc. 

Periploma indicum, sp. nov. 
(PI. 2, f. 4.) 

P. testa incequilaterali, inceqiiivalvi, valva sinistra 
mifiore, valvis ventricosulis, tenuibus, sotdide dlbis, super- 
ficialiter irregnlariter concentrice striatis, striis rudibus, um- 
bonibus contiguis, incurvis, margine dorsali utrimque declivi, 
postice curto, subtruncato, antice ovato-i'otundo, margine 
ventrali convexiusculo, ab umbonibus tisque ad lateris 
postici extremitatem unicarinata, carina obtusa, cardine 
in valva utraque obliquo, cochleari, intus alba, nitida, vix 

Alt. 12, lat. 15, diam. 5 mm. sp. maj. 

Hab. Jask ; 4 to 6 fathoms, sand and mud. 

Resembling in form, though not in texture, P. trape- 
zoides Lam., from California. It is of a dirty white hue, 
smoothish, the left valve smaller than the right, umbones 
contiguous, incurved, ligament obscure externally, the 
shell dorsally declining on both sides of the umbones, the 
posterior side curtly truncate, the anterior roundly ovate, 
merging with the convex ventral margin, while an obtuse 
keel runs from the umbones to the posterior extremity in 
both valves. The hinge is oblique, spoon-shaped, one in 
each valve, the shell within is white, shining, not iridescent. 

Seven or eight examples. 

Manchester Mefnoirs, Vol. xliu (1898), No. 4. 37 

Description of a new Strombus from the Mekran 
Coast of Beluchistan. 

(Dredged by F. W. Townsend, Esq.). 

By James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S. 

Received and read March 22nd, i8g8. 

Strombus (Conomurex) belutschiensis, sp. nov, 

S. testa crassa, breviciila^ coniformi^ Icevz^ alba^ epider- 
mide Icete olivacea contecta, anfractibus noveni^ quorum 
apicalibus duobus, tribus his proximis, parvis, infra 
suturas spiraliter tornatis, cceteris irregularibus^ applanatis 
ultimo magno, perlcevt, spiraliter irregulariter squarrose 
castaneo-maculato, infra suturas obtus angularly apertura 
angusta^ oblunga, intus pallide carnea, labro sinuoso apud 
basiiHy supra excavato, inargine columellari incrassato, 
politOy nitidOy recto. 

Long. 45, lat. 23 mm. sp. maj. 

Hab. Charbar, Mekran Coast of Beluchistan, dredged 
at 7 fathoms, in mud and sand (F. W. Townsend, \\ 

Strombus belutschiensis. 
I have made a brief allusion to this new Strombus 
in my last paper on the subject of Indian Ocean Mollusca. 

38 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea, etc. 

Such a discovery is of very exceptional interest, for (since 
S. mirabilis Sowb., 1870, has been proved only synonymous 
with 5. ListeriTh. Gray, 1852) no addition to the genus has 
been recorded since 1857, when Mr. Lovell Reeve des- 
cribed the still unique 5. taurus.^ This is more than 
forty-one years ago, and monographers have more than 
once expressed a pretty decided opinion that the genus 
might be considered complete. 

It belongs to a section of the genus — Conomurex 
Bayle — characterized by the outer lip being hardly dilated, 
spire short, facies cone-shaped, aperture narrow. The 
abundant 5. mauritianus Lam. {cylindricus Swn.) and 
6\ luhuanus Linn., are the only other recent Conomurices. 

The two specimens of 6". belutschiensis before me only 
differ in size, and I have taken the larger for the type. 
The shell is thick, short, coniform, heavy for its size, the 
whorls covered with a smooth olive epidermis. The eight 
upper whorls, inclusive of the two apical, are all small, 
the third, fourth, and fifth are spirally tornate, the next 
three, with the larger lowest whorl, are smooth, irregularly 
formed, and gradate at the sutures, the last whorl is also 
obtusely angled and shouldered a little way below the 
suture, and is squarely, but irregularly, spotted and 
dashed with bright brown markings. The aperture is 
narrow, straight, interior Hght flesh colour, outer lip twice 
sinuous towards the base, excavate at the upper part, 
columellar margin white, incrassate, polished, smooth, and 

From all the many forms of 5. mauritianus Lam. I 
have seen, it differs in this polished thickening of the 
columella, and the very stunted coniform shape. 

It is hoped that the types of all the species in this and 
the preceding paper may be deposited in the British 
Museum (Natural History), S. Kensington. 

* Proc. Zool. Soc, 1857, p. 207, PL 37, fig. 3. 

Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 4. 39 

Explanation of Plates. 

Plate i. 

Fig. I. Ancilla Tindalli. 

„ 2. Scalaria malcolmensis, 

„ 3. Pleurotoma {Drzllza) angriasensis. 

„ 4. Marginella {Glabella) quilonica. 

n 5- Cythara hyper calks. 

., 6, Fusus arabicus. 

„ 7. Miralda opephora. 

„ 8. Tellina {Arcopagta) habrotima. 

„ 9. Turbonilla basilica. 

„ 10. Conns {Leptoconus) dictator. 

„ II. Murex iOcinebrd) flexirostris. 

„ 12. Scalaria fimbriolata Melv. 

„ 13. Cerithiopsis {Sella) hinduorum. 

„ 14. Calliostoma duricastellum. 

„ 15. Clathurella camacina. 

„ 16. Marginella {Persiculd) oodes. 

„ 17. Lachesis bicolor. 

„ 18. Nerita {Hemineritd) anodonta. 

„ 19. Bullia {Pseudostrombus) indusica. 

„ 20. Tornatina Townsendi. 

„ 21. Trochus {Infundibulunt) Fultoni. 

„ 22. Turbonilla {Pyrgostelis) Manorce. 

„ 23. Conus {Leptoconus) scecularis. 

40 Melvill, Molluscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea, etc. 


Plate 2. 


Tellina {Mcera) actinota. 


Lima {Limatuld) leptocarya. 


Gari erasmia. 


Periploma indicum. 


Eulimella kaisensis. 


Turbonilla {Pyrgostelis) templaris, 


Yoldia clara. 


Pleurotoma {Drillia) resplendens. 


Circe nana. 


Plicatida pernula. 


Diplodonta genethlia. 


Terebra Edgarii. 


Bullia ceroplasta. 


Ostrea Townsendi. 


Leucotina gratiosa. 


Basterotia arcula. 


Mytilicardia Ffinchi. 


Tellina {Angulus) s erica ta. 

Muuticiiester MertwJrs, Vc I . XJJ! . 






J. Greer, del et litK. 







Mcuichestet- Memcirs . Vol .XLJL 

Tlafo 2. 

5 , 6 










MiTiteiTL Bros . ixrup . 


Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 5, 

V. On a Method of Determining the Thermal Con- 
ductivities of Salts, with some results of its 

By Charles H. Lees, D.Sc. 

Received and read December 14th, ^^97- 

In the course of a recent investigation on the 
thermal conductivities of mixtures of substances, and 
their dependence on the conductivities of their con- 
stituents, I required the conductivities of crystallised zinc 
sulphate and some other salts, and had to devise a means 
of determining them. The methods usually adopted in 
determining a thermal conductivity, require a disc or 
plate of the substance, and are therefore difficult to apply 
to salts in the form of powder or discontinuous crystals. 
A method of experimenting which has often been used 
for the determination of the physical properties of small 
bodies of irregular shape, may, however, be used with 
advantage. This consists of immersing the body in a 
liquid which possesses the particular physical property to 
be determined, to nearly the same extent as the -body to 
be tested, and observing whether the property of the 
liquid is changed in magnitude by the presence of the 
body. If a change is perceived, another liquid is tried, 
till eventually one is found for which no change occurs, 
and which, therefore, possesses the property in question 
to the same extent as the immersed body. 

In applying this method to the determination of the 
thermal conductivity of a salt, the salt in a rather fine 
state is mixed with water, or with a mixture of water and 

May iph, i8g8. 

2 Lees, Thermal Conductivity of Salts. 

alcohol the thermal conductivity of which is known, and 
the conductivity of the mixture of salt and liquid observed. 
If it is greater than that of the liquid, a better, and if less, 
a worse, conducting liquid is used, the operation being 
repeated till no apparent change in the conductivity of the 
liquid is produced by the addition of the salt. To prevent 
chemical action going on during the test, the liquid is 
previously saturated with the salt, and the thermal con- 
ductivity of the saturated liquid either determined experi- 
mentally or calculated from Jaeger's* results. 

The range of conductivities over which the method 
can be strictly applied, is limited by the conductivities of 
the liquids available, but it has been used over a wider 
range in order to supply some approximate information 
in a field in which our previous knowledge was nil. In 
most cases only a rough approximation to equality of 
conductivity of liquid and salt has been made. 

The apparatus, which was that used by me in deter- 
mining the variation of conductivity with temperature, 
has been described elsewhere in detail,f and will only be 
described shortly here. It consisted of two discs of copper, 
4 cm. in diameter and '3 cm. thick, cemented to opposite 
surfaces of a glass plate of the same diameter and "281 cm. 
thick. To the free surface of one copper disc, a flat 
spiral coil of insulated platinoid wire was attached, and 
the other free surface rested on a horizontal ring of ebonite 
•326 cm. thick, 3*8 cm. internal and 7 cm. external 
diameter, supported on, and cemented to, a third copper 
disc 7 cm. diameter and '3 cm. thick. This disc was 
placed on the top of a metal box, through which water 
circulated. The liquid, or mixture of salt and liquid 
to be experimented on, was placed within the ring of 
ebonite, and the smaller copper discs pressed onto it till 

* See Landolt und Bornstein, Tabelkn. 
t Phil. Trans., 1897. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 5. 3 

they rested on the ebonite. An electric current was then 
sent through the spiral coil, the temperature of the upper 
disc was raised, and heat flowed through the glass plate and 
liquid to the lower disc and water bath. The tenapera- 
tures of the various discs, when " steady," were determined 
by means of thermojunctions soldered into holes in the 
discs, a galvanometer, and a wire of known resistance 
through which a known current was passing. 

The following results have been obtained for a mean 
temperature of I5^C.: — 

Substances. Thermal Cofiductivity (c.g.s. units) 

Water '0014 


CUSO4 + 5H2O between '0017 and 'ooiS 
ZnSO^+yHgO „ 14 „ 15 

FeSO^+yHaO „ 13 „ 14 

NiSO^+yHaO „ n ,, 12 

MgSO^+yHaO „ II ,. 12 









between •oo]5 and "0016 



























4 Lees, Thermal Conductivity of Salts. 

For comparison, I give the mean values quoted by 
Graetz* for metals, and the values found by me for sulphur.f 

Cu '9 

Al -5 

Mg -4 

M 3 

Fe -16 

Ni -I 

Pb -oS 

S "0004 to '0006 

The values for salts whose conductivities lie 
between those of water and alcohol, have been determined 
by the method described, those above that of water by 
interpolation on the assumption that NaCl in particles 
has the same conductivity as in bulk (rock salt). The 
latter, as absolute values, may be wrong to a consider- 
able extent, but the order of the various substances in the 
above tables is not likely to be seriously affected by 
subsequent more accurate work. 

From the above results the following conclusions can 
be drawn : — 

(i) A good conducting metal does not always confer 
good conductivity on its salts. 

(2) The presence of water of crystallisation in a salt 

seems to bring the conductivity near to that 
of water. 

(3) The chlorides of the alkali metals are good thermal 


(4) Sulphides and oxides of the metals are com- 

paratively good conductors. 

(5) No direct connection appears to exist between 

the thermal conductivity of a salt and the con- 
ductivities of its elements. 

* Winkelmann, Handbuch der Physik, Bd. III. 
+ Phil. Trans., 1892 and 1897. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. 6. 

VI. On the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat. 
By Osborne Reynolds, F.R.S., 

Professor of Etigineering, Owens College, 


W. H. MooRBY, M.Sc, 

Late Fellow of Victoria University, and iS^i Exhibition Scholar. 

\A condensed account of the matter of the Bakerian lecture ;* 
published under the condition of the Joule Fund, " to the honour 
of Joule^s name."] 

Part I. 

On the method, Appliances and Limits of Error in the 
direct determination of the Work expended in 
raising the temperature of Ice-Cold Water to that 
of Water Boiling under a pressure of ^8*899 inches 
of Ice-Cold Mercury in Manchester. 


The prestige conferred on this Society by Joule's inti- 
mate and hfelong association with it, renders it the high 
privilege as well as the duty of all its members to foster 
the fame of that great discoverer, and to guard with the 
most jealous eye the memory of his work against whatever 
may detract from the estimation in which it is held. 

With these views, the author cannot bring before this 
Society the results of an independent determination of the 
Mechanical Equivalent 0/ Heat without a word of explana- 

* Phil. Trans., A„ vol. 190, 1897, pp. 30T-422. 
[The Council of the Royal Society have kindly permitted the use 
of the diagrams, pp. 30-34, prepared to illustrate the original paper.] 

2 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

tion of the circumstances and motive which led to the 

In the experimental comparison of physical quantities 
in different modes, such as heat and work, the. measured 
results depend not only on the aptitude and foresight of 
the experimenter and on the particular units employed, but 
involve fundamentally the standards to which the units 
are referred. Thus, in a repetition of the experiments, 
however accurate, the results should not agree unless the 
standards employed are the same. 

Now Joule's standard of temperature-measurement was 
the scale of his thermometer ib), which is now in the 
custody of the Society, and which has not been used in any 
other determination. 

Other determinations have been made by various 
observers with various thermometers, and the results are 
various which, though none of them differ by more 
than I % from Joule's values — 772-69 (1849), 772*55 
(1878) — , are on the average higher than Joule's. And, 
as the result of two researches (Rowland and Griffiths), 
there had, before 1890, been serious proposals, published 
in the Transactions of the Royal Society, to adopt the 
number yjZ instead of J or 772. '■ 

As a member of this Society, the author felt strongly 
averse to this proposal, and not only so, but, from a study 
of the published papers, convinced, himself that, notwith- 
standing the improved laboratory conveniences, the 
methods and means by which these later results were 
obtained, were, quite apart from Joule's wonderful aptitude, 
in no way comparable with those of Joule ; still he did not 
then feel competent, even had he been able to do so, to 
attempt a verification of Joule's results ; for it seemed to 
him a mere impertinence to publish results either as 
verifying or correcting those already obtained except 
with the fullest assurance that the requisite means, aptitude, 

Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 6. 3 

skill, experience and devotion are at least equal to those 
which have been already employed. 

It was only on the occurrence, five years later, of cir- 
cumstances which seemed to afford an opportunity, such 
as might not again occur, of obtaining the measure, in 
mechanical units, of the total heat necessary to raise water 
from 32° to 212°, the physically fixed points of temperature, 
and of thus placing the heat, in mechanical units, on the 
same footing as the unit of heat defined by temperature, 
without the intervention of the scales of thermometers, that 
the research was contemplated, and then after considerable 

The recognition of the responsibility even in attempt- 
ing such a determination, and the harm to science that 
might follow from further confusion owing to errors in 
what, in spite of opportunities, must be the extremely 
difficult task of making such a complex determination 
within less than the thousandth part, together with 
the author's inability to devote the time necessary, pre- 
vented any attempt until July, 1894. At that date 
Mr. W. H. Moorby offered to devote himself to the 
research, and so to relieve the author from all responsi- 
bility except that which attached to the method and 
appliances, so that having, from experience, formed the 
highest opinion of Mr. Moorby's qualification, there 
appeared no excuse for further delay, particularly as, after 
seeing the appliances, both Lord Kelvin and Dr. Schuster 
expressed strongly their opinions as to the value of the 

The opportunity for the research consisted in the 
inclusion in the original equipment of the Whitworth 
Engineering Laboratory, in 1888, of the following 
appliances : 

(i) A set of special vertical triple-expansion steam 
engines, with separate boiler, closed stoke-hold and forced 

4 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

blast, capable of running steadily at any speeds up to 400 
revolutions a minute, and working up to 100 H.P., 
especially arranged to give access to the shaft three feet 
above the floor. 

(2) A special hydraulic brake dynamometer, on an 
extension of the engine shaft. This brake, which is shown in 
Figs. I and 2, is capable of absorbing any power up to a 
maximum of 30 H.P. at 100 revolutions a minute, increasing 
as the cube of the speed, so that it is capable of absorbing 
the whole power of the engines at any speed above one 
hundred revolutions a minute. 

The whole of the work is absorbed by the agitation of 
the water contained in the brake, while the heat so 
generated is discharged steadily by a stream of water 
through the brake, with no other functions than of affording 
means of regulating the temperature of the brake, and 
the quantity of water in it. The moment of resistance 
of the brake is a definite function of the quantity of 
water it contains. And as, except for this moment, the 
unloaded brake is balanced on the shaft, the load being 
suspended from a lever on the brake at four feet 
from the axis of the shaft, if the moment of resistance 
of the brake exceeds the moment of the load, the lever 
rises and vice versa. By making the lever actuate valves 
which regulate the inlet and outlet streams, the quantity 
of water in the brake is continually regulated to that 
which is just sufficient to suspend the load with the lever 
horizontal, and a constant moment of resistance is thus 
maintained whatever may be the speed of the engines. 

(3) Manchester Town's water, of a purity expressed 
by not more than 3 grains of salts to the gallon, brought 
into the laboratory in a 4in. main at town's pressure (25 
to 5olbs. per square inch), and distributed either direct 
from the main, or at constant pressure from a service tank 
I oft. above the floor of the laboratory. 

Manchester Memoirs^ Vol. xlii. ( 1 898), No. 0. 5 

(4) Two tanks, each capable of holding 60 tons of 
water, one in the tower 11 6ft. above the floor, the other 
15ft. below, connected by 4in. rising and falling mains, 
each 500ft. long, passing through the laboratory in a 
chase beneath the floor. The rising main includes a 
special quadruple centrifugal pump, 2ft. above the floor, 
capable of raising one ton a minute from the lower to 
the upper tank, also a set of mercury balances in the 
laboratory, showing the pressures in the rising and falling 
mains and the levels in the two tanks. 

(5) A special quadruple vortex turbine supplied from 
the falling main, and discharging into the lower tank, 
capable of i H.P., and available for steady speed at all 
parts of the laboratory. 

(6) A supply of power to the laboratory by an engine 
and boiler, quite distinct from the experimental engine, 
and distributed by convenient shafting always running. 

The existence of these appliances, with all their speciali- 
ties, was largely owing to the interest in educational work 
taken by Mr. William Mather, who, together with the 
other members of the firm of Mather & Piatt, afforded 
facilities to the author and inspired that enthusiasm in the 
execution of the novel and special work which alone 
rendered it possible. 

Of these appliances the brake is the centre of interest, 
as it was in this that the work has been measured as well 
as converted into heat. 

A description of this brake has already been published, 
together with that of the engines,* and it is here only 
described so far as is necessary for reference. 

The brake consists primarily (i) of a brake wheel i8in. 
in diameter, fixed on the 4in. brake shaft by set-pins, so 
that it revolves with the shaft {Fi^s. 2 and 3), (2) of 

* Triple Expansion Engines, by Professor Osborne Reynolds, Proc. Inst. 
C.E., 1889-90. Part I., p. 18. 

6 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

a brake case (or brake) which encloses the wheel, the 
shaft passing through bushed openings in the case, which 
it fits closely so as to prevent undue leakage, while leaving 
the shaft and brake wheel free to turn in the case, except 
for the slight friction of the shaft. {Figs, i, 2, and 3.) 

The outline of the axial section of the brake wheel 
{Fig. 3) is that of a right cylinder 4in. thick. The cylinder 
is hollow — in fact, made of two discs bolted together, 
which form an internal boss for attachment to the 
shaft, and also meet together at the periphery — forming a 
closed annular box, except for apertures to be further 
described. In each of the outer disc faces of the wheel 
are 24 pockets {Fig. 2) carefully formed, 4j^in. radially, 
i^in. axially, but so inclined that the narrow partitions 
or vanes (^in. thick) are nearly semicircular discs inclined 
at 45^ to the axis ; those in one of the disc faces being 
perpendicular to the opposite vanes in the opposite face. 

The internal disc faces of the brake case are the exact 
counterparts of the disc faces in the wheel (except that 
there are 25 pockets), so that the partitions, or guides, in 
the case, are in the same planes as the vanes meeting them 
in the wheel. The clearance between the two faces is ^^n. 

The pairs of opposite pockets when they come together 
form nearly closed chambers, having sections, parallel to 
the vanes, nearly circular. In such spaces vortices inclined 
at 45^ to the axis of the shaft may exist, in which case 
the centrifugal pressure on the outside of such vortices 
will urge the case and wheel in opposite directions inclined 
at 45 '^ to the direction of motion of the wheel, which will 
give a tangential component stress over the section of 
the vortices, between the wheel and case, of ij J2 oi 
the sum of the pressures in the vortices. 

The existence and maintenance of these vortices is 
ensured by the radial centrifugal force of the water in the 
pockets of the wheel owing to its motion. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 0. 7 

This is the late Mr. William Froude's arrangement, 
but an essential feature of this brake is the provision 
which secures atmospheric pressure at the centres of the 
vortices, and admits of the pockets being only partially 

The effect of the vortex motion is to ensure a greater 
pressure towards the outside of the vortices than at their 
centres, but, as the tangential stress is the mean pres- 
sure over the section of the vortices, if the pressure at 
the centres of the vortices is allowed to fall, this stress will 
be diminished more or less. Thus, to secure regular stress, 
it is necessary to secure regular pressure at the centres of 
the vortices, and to obtain the maximum stress it is 
necessary that the central pressure shall be that of the 

In order to secure these conditions, and at the same 
time to allow of the pockets being only partially filled — 
that is, to allow of hollow vortices with air cores at atmo- 
spheric pressure — it is necessary that there should be free 
access of air to the centres of the vortices. Such access 
cannot be obtained through the water which completely 
surrounds these centres between the vanes and guides. 
It is therefore obtained by passages (^in. in diameter) 
within the metal of the guides, which lead into a common 
passage opening to the air on the top of the case. {Figs. 2 
and 3.) 

In order to supply the brake with water, there are 
similar passages in the vanes of the wheel leading from 
the box cavity within, which again receives water through 
ports [Fig 3\ leading from an annular recess in one of the 
disc faces of the case, into which water is led by means of 
a flexible india-rubber pipe from the supply-regulating 
valve. The water on which work has been done leaves the 
vortex pockets through the clearance between the disc 
surfaces of the wheel and the case, and enters the annular 

8 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

chamber between the outer periphery of the wheel and 
the cylindrical portion of the case, which is always full of 
water when the wheel is running, whence its escape is 
controlled by a valve, in the bottom of the case, from which 
it passes to waste. 

By means of linkage, connected with a fixed support 
and the brake-case, automatic adjustment of the inlet 
and outlet passages is secured according to the position of 
the lever, without affecting the moment on the brake-case, 
and this linkage also affords a means of adjusting the 
position of the lever when working. {Figs. 2 and 4.) 

To admit of adjustment for wear the shaft is coned 
over those portions which pass through the bushes, the 
bushes being similarly coned to receive the shaft and 
screwed into short sleeves on the casing, so that by 
unscrewing them the wear can be followed up, and 
undue leakage prevented. {Figs. 2 and 3.) 

The brake levers, for carrying the load and balance 
weights, are such as allow the load to be suspended from 
a groove in the lever, parallel to the shaft, at 4ft. from the 
shaft by a carrier with a knife-edge, the carrier and the 
weights being each adjusted to 251b. {Figs. 3 and 4.) 

In addition to the load, a weight is suspended from 
a knife-edge on the lever nearer the shaft, this load 
being the piston of a dash-pot in which it hangs freely 
except for the viscous resistance of the oil {Fig. 4). This 
weight is adjusted to exert a moment of 100 foot- lbs., and a 
travelling weight of 481b. is carried on the lever, and 
worked with a screw of ^in. pitch, so that one turn 
changes the moment by two foot-lbs., while a scale on the 
lever shows the position. A shorter lever on the opposite 
side carries a weight 74*61b. adjusted to balance the lever 
and riding weight when the load and dash-pot are 

The principle of these hydraulic dynamometers is that 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii, ( 1 898), No. 6. 9 

when moment of momentum is introduced into a fixed 
space without altering the moment of momentum within 
that space, the rate at which moment of momentum leaves 
the space must equal that at which it enters. The brake 
wheel imparts moment of momentum to the water within 
the case, and the friction of the shaft imparts moment of 
momentum to the case. If, therefore, the moment of 
momentum of the water in the case is steady, the water 
must impart moment of momentum to the case as fast as 
it receives it from the wheel, and the time-mean of the 
moment of the load must be equal to the time-mean of the 
moment of effort of the shaft, and this is not affected by- 
water entering or leaving the case as long as it enters and 
leaves it radially. The condition of steadiness is, however, 
essential in order that the moment of effort may at each 
instant be equal to the moment of resistance, since any 
change in the moment of momentum of the water is the 
result of the difference of the moments of effort and 
of resistance. 

Fluctuations in the speed of running may thus cause 
two classes of error, even when the load has been constant 
all the time, (i) A terminal error resultmg from a difference 
in the moments of momentum of the water at starting and 
ending the measurements. The relative magnitude of this 
error is the difference of the terminal moments divided 
by the product of the mean moment of the load and 
the interval of time in seconds; so that as the length 
of the time increases this will become indefinitely smaller. 
(2) The difference between the time-mean of the moment 
as measured by the load, and the angular mean of the 
actual moment which measures the work. This error can 
only occur where both the moment of effort on the wheel 
and the velocity fluctuate. With the automatic adjust- 
ment of the resistance, such fluctuations are limited to 
those of so short a period that they do not give the water 

lo Reynolds and Moorbv, Equivalent of Heat. 

time to adjust, that is, they are limited to the fluctuations 
which occur in a single revolution of the engines. Fluc- 
tuations of this kind occur in all reciprocating engines 
from causes which are well-known and hence admit of 
estimation, and by such estimation the limits of errors 
from this cause have been found to be such that at 300 
revolutions a minute the relative error would be less than 
one forty-thousandth part. 

Besides these fundamental errors, the effect of the 
friction of the automatic gear {^Fig. 4) had to be considered. 
In designing the brakes, it was hoped that the slight 
tremour to which they would be subject during their 
motion, would so far relax this friction that the gear- 
ing would adjust without pressure on the support, and 
this proved to be the case. The question of the dash-pot 
was also a matter of consideration; but so long as the 
viscosity of the oil is constant, and the passage for the oil 
to flow past the piston of constant dimensions, the time- 
mean of the resistance is simply proportional to the 
distance traversed divided by the time, so that, as the 
piston does not move through O'l ft. in an hour, this also 
became insensible. 

The only other source of error in taking the product 
of the angle turned through and the moment of the 
load as measuring the work done, is possible end-play 
of the wheel in the case. This is very slight ; it cannot 
exceed ^4 of an inch, while a side pressure of less than 
Solbs. will always stop it ; so that this again became 

The exact determination of the moment of the load 
which involves the exact balance of the brake, and the 
measurement of the length of the lever and the weight of 
the load was,of course, necessary for the exact measurement 
of the work. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. ( 1 898), No. 0. 1 1 

TJie development of the thermal measurements. 

The appliances were originally designed in 1887, for 
the purpose of the study of the action of steam in the 
engines and certain problems in hydraulics and dynam- 
ometry, without any intention of their being used for the 
purpose of determining the heat-equivalent of the work 
absorbed. It was obvious that, as the measured work was 
all spent in heating water, it was only necessary to 
measure the change in temperature and quantity of the 
water used to obtain an approximate estimate of the heat- 
equivalent, but the recognitition of the extreme difficulty 
of obtaining an}' first-hand assurance as to the accuracy 
of scales of thermometers, and the fear of creating 
erroneous impressions as to the value of the equivalent, 
prevented the making of any provision for the introduction 
of thermometers in the first instance. 

But after the engines and brake had been in use for 
two years, and had been found to possess attributes in 
steadiness of running and delicacy of adjustment and 
balance beyond expectation, and particularly to be able to 
work with an almost absolutely steady current of water 
through the brake, doing steady work whatever the speed 
and load, the author recognised that, by working two trials 
with the same thermometers, on the same parts of the scales, 
and with the same loads and the same temperatures of 
water, but at different speeds, since the relative balance of 
the brakes would be the same, the difference of the results of 
the two trials, made under the same surrounding tempera- 
tures, would afford the means of determining the loss of heat 
by radiation, and, this being known, the differences of two 
trials, both made at the same water temperatures as the pre- 
vious, and both at the same speed but with different loads, 
would afford data for determining the error of balance, 
without introducing the value of the equivalent, or the 
scales of the thermometers except to identify equal 

12 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

temperatures. He then yielded to the general wish in 
the laboratory, and added such provision to the brake as 
would admit of the measurement of the heat carried away 
by the effluent water, but only for verifying the accuracy 
of the balance of the brake as determined by mechanical 
tests, which, owing to the friction of the shaft, was difficult 
and only practicable to about one foot-pound. 

The supply of water to the brake came from the service 
tank, loft. above the floor and 7ft. above the shaft ; the 
tank being supplied through a ball-cock direct from the 
town's main ; the pipe from the tank passing under the 
floor to a point conveniently close to the brake, thence by 
a branch rising vertically through the floor, in which there 
is a hand-cock, and above this, at a height of 4ft. above 
the floor, the automatic inlet valve. From this the pipe 
turns horizontal until over the inlet into the brake, where 
it ends in a mouthpiece facing the inlet, with which it is 
connected by a flexible india-rubber pipe {Figs. I and 4). 
The first provision made for measuring the temperature of 
the entering water was an aperture in the bend over the inlet 
valve with a vertical ^in. brass tube, soldered in, about 4in. 
long ; this admitted an india-rubber cork, through the 
centre of which a thermometer was passed down into the 
pipe. This was subsequently replaced by a glass thermo- 
meter chamber. 

To measure the temperature of the leaving water, it 
was necessary, by means of a pipe fixed to the mouth of 
the outlet valve, to lead the effluent stream above the 
balancing lever of the brake and to one side of it. This pipe 
was arranged so as to admit of the introduction of a ther- 
mometer much in the same way as the other. In the first 
instance, the extension-pipe and the thermometer were all 
rigidly attached to the brake and moved with it, which 
entailed a re-balance of the brake. Subsequently another 
arrangement was made. The thermometers used in the 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 0. 13 

first instance were divided to fifths of a degree Fahrenheit ; 
they were both immersed in the flowing water to within a 
few degrees of the top of the mercury. They were com- 
pared at equal temperatures, but otherwise subjected to no 
tests for accuracy of scale. 

During the experiments, the link connecting the inlet 
valve to the automatic gear was removed, the valve 
being set open and the supply regulated by the hand-cock 
below. The pressure in the brake being that of the atmo- 
sphere, and the head of water on the inlet constant at 7ft., 
when the hand-cock was set, the flow was steady. The 
quantity of water in the brake then depended on the 
automatic adjustment of the outlet valve, which, with the 
exception of a little trouble at starting and stopping the 
engines, soon overcome, kept the brake lever steady. 

To admit of catching the water after leaving the out- 
flow thermometer, the extension-pipe turned downwards 
over the side of the lever into a small basin, with its lip 
above the mouth of the pipe and from the basin the water 
flowed into a short trough, from which it was caught in 
buckets and carefully weighed. This was a primitive 
arrangement, and required several assistants, but was found 
capable of considerable accuracy up to about 4olb. a minute. 

The engines were kept running at a constant speed 
by keeping constant pressure in the boiler, the speed being 
indicated on the speed gauge as well as recorded on the 

The water coming from the town's main was at nearly 
constant temperature, between 40*^ and 50^ Fahrenheit, 
according to the time of the year, and varying less than a 
degree throughout several trials. 

The rise of temperature was adjusted by the quantity 
of water admitted, according to the work, so that the final 
temperatures, as well as the initial, were as nearly as possible 
the same in the different trials. 

14 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat 

The rise was generally such as admitted of the tem- 
perature of the brake being the same as that of the labo- 
ratory, which could always be adjusted to about 70^ Fahr. 
The rise was thus from 25^ to 30*^, which, with 4olb. of 
water a minute, requited from 25 to 30 H.P. 

Before commencing the measurements everything 
was adjusted, and the engines running at steady speeds 
with constant load until the thermometer showed the tem- 
perature to be steady. Then, at a signal, the counter was 
put in gear and the water caught. The water thermometers, 
and one showing the temperature of the laboratory, being 
read at minute intervals over 15 or 30 minutes, when, on 
a signal, the counter was removed and also the last bucket. 

The results of these tests were very consistent within 
about 0'3 per cent, which was within the limits of accuracy 
then aimed at. Trials with equal loads and different 
speeds showed that the loss of heat by radiation was very 
small, while those at the same speeds with different loads 
showed that the balance was within the limits determined 
by mechanical tests. 

In these trials the only correction was that for the 
lubricating water which escaped from the brake bushes. 
This was caught at each bush, and the temperature taken 
so that the heat might be added, but this was seldom 
more than 0*3 per cent. 

It is also to be noticed that in these trials the heat 
lost or gained by conduction to or from the shaft was 
included in the radiation. The brake being on an over- 
hanging shaft, which extends no further than the outer 
bush of the brake case, the only conduction is on the side 
at which the shaft is continuous, where the brake shaft is 
only some 4 inches from the brass of the shaft bearing. 
The temperature of the brake on this side, which is 
opposite to that at which the cold water enters, was kept 
by the lubricating water at the temperature of the effluent 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. ( 1 898), No. 0. 1 5 

water, which was the temperature of the laboratory, so that 
there would be no cause of conduction unless the tempera- 
ture of the shaft bearing was raised by friction. When 
the lubrication was good this was small, although on one 
or two occasions it made itself felt. 

The idea of raising the temperature from 32° to 212°. 

These tests became an annual, and very instructive 
exercise. But as the value of the equivalent was then a 
subject of much discussion, the desire to obtain measures 
of it from these trials by those engaged in them, resulted 
in Mr. T. E. Stanton, M.Sc, then senior demonstrator in 
the laboratory, effecting, for his own satisfaction, a com- 
parison of the scales of the thermom.eters used in these 
experiments with a thermometer used in the physical 
laboratory, which had been corrected by the air ther- 
mometer, and introducing the corrections into the results 
of these trials, which so gave values very close to what 
might be expected. 

The author could not, however, see that determinations 
based on such corrections could have any intrinsic value, 
but as the matter was exciting great interest in the 
laboratory, he carefully considered the conditions which 
would be necessary to render the great facilities which the 
brake was then seen to afford, available for an independent 

The institution of an air thermometer was considered 
and rejected, but it occurred to the author that it might 
be possible to avoid the introduction of the scales of 
thermometers just as before, and yet obtain the result. 
If it could be arranged that the water should enter the 
brake at the temperature of melting ice, and leave it at 
the temperature of water boiling under the standard 
pressure, all that would be required of the thermometers 
would be the identification of these temperatures. 

1 6 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

At first the difficulties looked formidable, but on 
trying by gradually restricting the supply of water to the 
brake when absorbing 60 H.P., and finding that it ran quite 
steadily with its automatic adjustment, till the temperature 
of the effluent water was within 3° or 4° of 212°, he 
further considered the matter, and formed preliminary 
designs for what seemed to be the most essential appli- 
ances to meet the altered circumstances. These involved : 

(i) An artificial atmosphere; or a means of main- 
taining a steady pressure in the air passages of the brake 
of about four-thirds of an atmosphere. 

(2) A circulating pump and a water cooler, by which 
the entering water, some 30 pounds a minute, could be 
forced through the cooler into the brake at a temperature 
of 32^, having been cooled by ice from the temperature of 
the town's main. 

(3) A condenser by which the effluent water leaving 
the brake at 2 12*^ F., might be cooled down to atmospheric 
temperature before being discharged into the atmosphere 
and weighed. 

(4) Such alteration in the manner of supporting the 
brake on the shaft, as would prevent excess of leakage 
from the bushes in consequence of the greater pressure of 
air in the brake ; since not only would the leaks be 
increased, but, when the rise of temperature of the water 
was increased to 180^, the quantity for any power would 
be diminished to one-sixth of what it would be for 30^, so 
that any leakage would have six times the relative 

(5) Some means which would afford assurance of the 
elimination of the radiation and conduction, as with a rise 
of 140'^Fahr. above that of the laboratory, these would 
probably amount to two or three per cent of the total heat. 

(6) Scales for the greater facility and accuracy in 
weighing the water, with a switch actuated by the counter. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 0. 17 

(7) A pressure-gauge (or barometer) by which the 
standard pressure for the boiling point might be readily 
determined at 3*^ or 4° above or below the boiling point, 
so as to admit of the ready and frequent correction of the 
thermometers used for identifying the temperature of the 
effluent water. 

(8) Some means of determining the terminal diffe- 
rences of temperature and quantity of water in the brake, 
which would be relatively six times larger, with a rise of 
180^ than with 30^. 

Having convinced himself by preliminary designs, 
not only of the practicability of the appliances, but also 
of the possibility of their inclusion in the already much 
occupied space adjacent to the brake, there still remained 
much to be done in the way of experimental investigation 
to obtain data for the determination of the requisite pro- 
portions of the appliances, and these preliminary inves- 
tigations were not commenced till the summer of 1894, 
when Mr. Moorby undertook to carry on the research. 

A convenient table weighing machine, with a tank to 
hold I ton of water, was obtained and placed on the other 
side of the passage, opposite the brake. 

The outflow pipe was rearranged, a flexible tube being 
used to take the water from the brake to a fixed thermo- 
meter chamber. Glass thermometer chambers were 
constructed, so that both the thermometers were wholly 
immersed in the flowing water. 

The effluent water was led from the thermometer 
chamber over the passage to the switch into the tank. 

The switch was constructed so that it would divert 
the water from waste to the tank, or vice versd, without 
any splash, and was subsequently connected with the 
counter, so that they both moved together {Fig. 6). 

When these arrangements were completed, a series of 
experiments was commenced by Mr. Moorby, similar to 

1 8 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

those already described, with a view to test the improved 
facilities, also to gain experience and facility in making 
and recording the observations. The engines being 
otherwise engaged two or three days in the week, every 
opportunity was valuable. 

At the same time, experiments were in progress to 
ascertain the length of lin. pipe necessary in order that 
water (2olbs. per minute) flowing through it might be 
cooled from 212^ to 75°, when the pipe was jacketed by a 
stream of town's water at 50^^. As the result of these a 
condenser 30ft. long was constructed. 

After passing the condenser, the water was led verti- 
cally to a height of 5 ft. above the chamber, thence past 
an air gap down again to the switch, so as to maintain a 
head of 5 ft. in the chamber, to prevent bubbles forming 
in the water on account of the air it contained. This 
height was subsequently raised to lift. 

In order to cool the water as nearly as practicable, 
without danger of ice being carried over, the cooler was 
designed so that the ice should be outside the pipe through 
which the water passed. This clearly required a con- 
siderable length of pipe, so that the resistance had to be 
taken into account. As the result of experiments, 200ft. 
of ^in. composition pipe was used in a coil, it being 
estimated that this would pass 2olbs. a minute, with a loss 
of pressure of 3olbs. on the square inch. This was placed 
in a tank of parafiined wood, and a paddle worked by the 
line shaft constantly circulated the water ; the arrange- 
ment being designed to secure the coldest water passing 
along the coil. 

To obtain the necessary head — 3olbs. for the coil, 5 
for the brake, and 25 for regulation — it was necessary 
to pump the water. It was also necessary that the flow 
should be steady. To obtain these ends, recourse was had 
to the 3in. quadruple turbine, driven by the water from 

Manchester Memou^s, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 6. 19 

the tower, to drive a i^'in. quintuple centrifugal pump in 
the circuit of the water between the service tank and the 
cooler, and in this way the requisite steady head was 

These preliminary investigations and the construction 
of the appliances, so far described, were not completed till 
May, 1895. It then became possible to make experi- 
ments as to the working of the brake under pressure and 
at high temperatures, so as to obtain guidance as to the 
artificial atmosphere and means of controlling leakage at 
the bushes. These showed that the artificial atmosphere 
would be a simple matter. A strong vessel, made of tin 
plate, with a capacity of three gallons, was connected with 
the air passage on the top of the brake by a flexible tube. 
The vessel had two openings at the top besides that con- 
nected with the brake — one with a cock, to admit of air 
being forced in ; the other with a fine screw stop, to allow 
of a definite escape of air. There was also a cock at the 
bottom, to drain water which might accidentally get 
in. A syringe was used for pumping in air at starting, 
while, during the trials, the small amount of air released 
from the water was more than sufficient to maintain the 

On the other hand, these experiments showed that the 
increased leakage at the bushes was a very serious matter, 
and must be controlled. 

The first step was to enclose the open end of the shaft 
byl^a cap screwed on to the bush, and the side on which 
the shaft was continuous by a stuffing-box, having small 
apertures controlled by cocks to regulate the outflow of 
water for lubrication. {^Fig. 5.) The result was, however, 
far from satisfactory, as the lubricating water flowing out 
from'the brake not only raised the shaft to a high tem- 
perature, but was itself of uncertain temperature. It 
was in July, 1895, that this experience was obtained, and 

20 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

for a time the success of the research seemed doubtful. It 
necessitated the reconsideration of the whole scheme of 
working. This revealed to the author that it would be 
possible to reverse the course of the lubricating water, 
make it flow in at the bushes instead of out, and so not only 
maintain lubrication, but also cool the bushes and shaft. 
That this would be the result of forcing the water in at the 
bushes was tolerably obvious, but what was not obvious 
at first, was that there was already provision in the form 
of excess of pressure in the inflow pipe, between the cooler 
and the supply-regulating valve, to maintain this flow, by 
merely admitting a portion of the cooled water into the 
bushes by by-pipes with regulators, without passing it 
into the thermometer chamber. This water being taken 
from the inflow pipe before the rest passed into the 
thermometer chamber would be nearer 32^^, but would be 
warmed by the radiation into the by-pipe, so that it would 
enter at a slightly uncertain temperature, but this would 
be a radiation effect, and would be eliminated with the 
other radiation effects. As soon as this became clear, the 
success of the research became assured. The work was 
executed by Mr. Foster, and, when complete, rendered it 
possible to keep the bushes at any required temperature. 

In the preliminary trials this temperature was ascer- 
tamed by touch, and regulated to that of the laboratory 
as nearly as possible, the cocks being set to a definite 
opening, and the excess of pressure maintained as nearly 
constant as possible. This plan was found to give con- 
sistent results. But it appeared that, in order to maintain 
the same temperature in the stuffing-box with the heavy 
as with the light trials, the pressures in the pipe being the 
same, it was necessary to open the branch cock 
wider in the heavy trials, on account of the greater 
vortex pressure in these trials. In commencing the 
final trials, the same setting of the cocks was maintained 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. ( 1 898), No. 0, 2 1 

in all the trials, a record being kept ; so that, should any 
means of determining more definitely the relative slopes 
of temperature in the shaft be found, it could be used 

Such a means of determining the relative slopes of 
temperature in the shaft between the stuffing-box and the 
near brass was obtained by sweating brass thermometer 
tubes, radiating outwards, on to the end of the stuffing-box 
and on to the brasses of the near bearing. It appeared to 
the author that these thermometers, although they did not 
indicate the temperature of anything in particular, would 
serve, the conditions being steady, by the difference of 
their readings to identify similar conditions as to slopes 
of temperature, and this turned out to be the case. A 
flood of light was thrown on to conditions which before 
had been hardly perceptible, and it became possible to 
observe the smallest differences in the slopes of tempera- 
ture, thus ensuring the elimination of the conduction of 
the shaft (which had threatened to be a considerable, and 
the only considerable, source of error) to within 0'00002 
of the heat in a single trial, and altogether negligible on 
the mean of 42 trials. 

In order to relieve Mr. Hall, who had charge of the 
engines, from the necessity of maintaining the speed 
constant, a hand brake was arranged on one of the pulleys, 
by which the speed could be adjusted by one of the 
assistants, so as to keep the speed within something like 
0"3 %. And the quantities of water in the brake for 
various loads and speeds having been ascertained by 
experiments, the terminal errors were obtained from the 
records of the initial and final speeds and temperatures. 

The method of conducting the trials was designed to 
secure the most perfect elimination possible of the heat 
lost by radiation, and with this view, after the experience 
obtained in preliminary trials, it was arranged that all trials 

22 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

should be in pairs at 300 revolutions a minute, the loads 
at first being — 
Heavy trials 1,200 foot-lbs., about 70 H.P. on the brake 
Light „ 600 foot-lbs., „ 35 H.P. „ 

The time of running one hour for each trial. The 
thermometers in the inlet and outlet chambers, also the 
temperature of the laboratory to be read every two 
minutes and maintained as constant as possible, and 
subsequently the thermometer on the stuffing-box and 
brasses to be read every eight minutes, and the speed 
gauge read every two minutes. The setting of the cocks 
and the pressures in the supply pipe and artificial atmo- 
sphere also recorded. All observations being recorded 
in ink in a book, and kept distinct from any reductions. 

It was impossible to make trials simultaneously. And 
as the possible opportunities were subject to the regular 
work of the laboratory, in order to secure similar con- 
ditions as far as possible, it was at first arranged that 
each set should consist of at least four pairs of trials, 
taken in such order that the four heavy trials were not 
only made at hours of the day, but also on days in 
the week similar to those of the corresponding light trials. 

Each such set of trials would afford means of 
determining the approximate radiation -constant, and 
show how far the radiation had been eliminated. 

In order to obtain still further definite assurance of 
the elimination, it was arranged that, after consistent 
results had been obtained in several groups of four pairs 
of trials with the brake naked, the brake should be 
covered with non-conducting material in the best way 
practicable, so as to greatly reduce the radiation, at the 
same time leaving it definite, and then similar trials 
should be run. In this way, if the radiation could be 
reduced to one-fourth part of that with the naked brake, 
such error as there might be in the elimination with the 

Manchester Memoirs y Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 6. 23 

naked brake would be reduced to one-fourth part with 
the covered brake, provided no fresh errors, owing to the 
time taken to get the lagging at a steady temperature or 
owing to its absorption of moisture, intervened. Further, 
it was arranged that a similar plan should be adopted to 
obtain assurance of the elimination of errors resulting- 
from each detailed circumstance that could effect the loss 
of heat, namely, that, where such circumstance could not 
be removed, its effect should be definitely varied and a 
fresh set of trials run, which plan seemed to afford the 
best possible means of determining the limits of error. 

The leakage of water from the three working joints 
of the brake was a matter of first consideration and 
continual care. By continual attention to the stuffing- 
box and gland it was reduced to a very small amount. In 
so far as the leakage was equal in the light and heavy 
trials, the effect of such leakage would be eliminated ; 
and, to ensure this, the water was caught, its temperature 
on leaving the brake measured, and the losses of heat 
allowed for, so that the possible limits of error from this 
cause, which were very small, were somewhat definitely 

The losses of water by evaporation from the surface 
in the tank, &c., were rendered as nearly as possible equal 
for the light and heavy trials by cooling all the water tc 
a fixed temperature before exposure to the atmosphere, 
it being arranged that, after the experiments were over, 
the appliances should be so altered as to admit of the 
water in the weighing tank at the working temperatures 
being forced round the same circuit from the weighing 
tank back to the weighing tank, for one hour, at the rates 
of entrance in the light and heavy trials respectively, so 
that the actual losses in each of these trials should be 

By these means, definite estimates of the outside limits 

24 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

of the error that might arise from each of the circumstances 
affecting the relative accuracy were provided, thus assuring 
the accuracy of the results obtained within these limits, in 
terms of the standard of measurements — length or tem- 
perature — to which they are referred. These limits are 
given in a table at the end of this Part. 

The Standards of Measurements. 

During the inception of the research, the appliances 
for standardising the results had been in course of prepa- 
ration, in accordance with the system already mentioned 
as designed by the author. 

Since the absolute quantity of mass does not enter 
into the results, it was only necessary to use a common 
standard in comparing the masses of water with the 
masses which formed the load on the brake. And for this 
purpose 12 of the 251b. cast-iron weights used for the 
load on the brake were adjusted by balance, with a limit 
of accuracy of 00 lib. of each other; then the scales, after 
being reset by Mr. Foster, were surveyed with the adjusted 
weight and the corrections fully determined. As the 
weights on the scales, as well as the adjusted weights 
exclusively used on the brake, were of the same material, 
it was not necessary to apply any correction for the weight 
of the atmosphere to these. And, since the water is 
balanced by cast-iron and the load is balanced by cast-iron, 
a correction for the weight of the atmosphere displaced by 
the iron would leave the relation between the load and 
the water the same ; so that the only correction was for 
the weight of the atmosphere displaced by the water. 

The standard capacity for heat being that of distilled 
water, this would have been employed in the experiments 
had it been practicable. But since, letting alone the extra 
appliances, the cooling the 100 tons of water from a tem- 
perature, say, of 72° to 32^, would have required more than 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 0, 25 

30 tons of ice, while with the water from the town's mains, 
at a mean temperature from February to June of 45*^ R, 
about 10 tons would suffice, town's water was used. And 
had it not been for the known purity of this water, the 
research would not have been attempted. 

As affording definite assurance of the purity of the 
water. Professor Harold B. Dixon kindly furnished the 
result of the analysis he makes periodically for the Corpo- 
ration from water drawn in the College. From this it 
appears that the effect of the salts dissolved is nearly 

A much more important consideration was the effect 
of the air which is dissolved in all water, and particularly 
distilled water. It may be taken that the water used for 
the standard capacity of heat always contains this air, and 
it is only in such experiments as these in which the 
temperature of the water is raised to within one-third of 
an atmosphere of its boiling point that this air can 
produce any sensible effect, and it does not appear that 
this effect has hitherto been noticed. It is, of course, well 
known that when water is heated, before it boils, what are 
called air-bubbles rise to the surface, but on consideration 
it will appear that these are not altogether, nor chiefly, air- 
bubbles, but are filled with saturated steam corresponding 
to the temperature of the water, the function of the air 
being merely to support the excess of pressure whatever 
it may be. Hence the volume of these bubbles represents, . 
in addition to the heat of the water evaporated, the latent 
h eat of this water, and this, taking the weight of air as 0*003 
per cent, of the water (the usual amount) and the excess 
of pressure j^ atmosphere, the effect would be a relative 
error of 00003. ^t was to prevent this that the back 
pressure in the thermometer chamber was made as large 
as practicable. In this way, if the proportion of air 
leaving the water could be ascertained, allowance could be 

26 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

made, and it was arranged that, after the trials, experi- 
ments should be made to determine this. For, although 
the limits of this error were within 0"03 per cent., they 
were much the largest in the research. 

For the standard of length a series of Whitworth 
gauges and a brass scale, by Elliott, were used ; and from 
these a bar was prepared by Mr. Foster having parallel 
plane ends 30 inches apart, to be used for reference in all 
measurements, and preserved. 

The standard of temperature being the interval 
between the temperature of ice melting under the pressure 
of the atmosphere and that of water boiling at the sea 
level in latitude 45^, under a pressure of 760 mm. of ice- 
cold mercury, reference to the barometer was necessary. 

To verify thermometers at the higher temperatures 
with facility at any time, irrespective of the pressure of 
the atmosphere, and to secure ready verification of the 
absolute distance between the upper and lower surfaces of 
the mercury, the author designed a special barometer, in 
which the light over each of the surfaces of the mercury 
is cut off by the separate adjustment of two cylindrical 
brass curtains, the upper curtain screwing down over a 
slotted cylindrical prolongation of the lower curtain, which 
encases the tube and the lower vessel, screwing down on 
the latter. So that when the truly turned lips of the 
curtains are adjusted to read the barometer, say at 30'^ 
the lower curtain can be screwed off the barometer and 
placed vertically over the '^o" bar standing on end on a 
surface plate, so that the lip of the curtain rests on the 
plate, when, as the relative positions of the curtains have 
not been altered, the light over the top of the bar should 
be just as it was seen over the mercury. The lower vessel 
is a cylindrical cast-iron bottle, with parallel plate-glass 
windows, and with the tube passing out through a stuffing- 
box, there being an aperture furnished with a nozzle for 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 0. 27 

connection with the vapour chamber in which the 
thermometers were placed. 

The execution of this was undertaken by Mr. Foster, 
who has produced a very beautiful instrument, the mercury 
being re-evaporated in apparatus belonging to Dr. Schuster 
by his assistant, Mr. A.T. Stanton. The readings are easily 
taken, and verified to the ten-thousandth of an inch. 

The correction on the thermometer for 32*^F. was 
obtained in the usual way ; but as there was no ready 
means, as with the higher temperature, of testing the 
scale of the thermometer for two or three degrees above 
32^^, this correction could only be made by comparison 
with the thermometer already compared with the air 
thermometer, and these comparisons Dr. Schuster kindly 
allowed to be made in the physical laboratory. 

The corrections of the thermometers on account of the 
pressures in the thermometer chambers were also deter- 
mined, while the limits of error, owing to the slight excess 
of the low temperature over 32^, were carefully considered 
and defined. 

The question as to what should be done in the way of 
rejecting trials was also a subject of first consideration. 
It was certain that in such a research accidents must occur, 
and it was necessary to have some rule so as to prevent any 
sorting of the trials. It was therefore arranged to reject 
all trials in which there was definite evidence, either during 
the trial or in the results, of uncertainty in any one of the 
measurements to which no definite limits could be assigned, 
without regard to the apparent consistency of the results, 
and to retain all other trials. 

After the conclusion of the trials, on opening the 
brakes, an estimate of the wear of the metal was made, 
from which estimates of the possible absorption of work 
in disintegrating the metal and of the production of heat 
in oxidizing the metal were obtained. 

28 Reynolds AMD Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

The several circumstances on which the accuracy of 
the results of the investigation depends, together with the 
relative limits of error as determined for each circumstance, 
and the formulae of the relative corrections to be applied, 
are as follows : — 


Z:ircumstaiices and Formulee of Correction. 

Outside Limits of Relative 


Terminal diiferences in the moments 
of momentum of the water in the 





Cyclic fluctuations of speed of the 



- 0-000025 


Work done on the water by end-play 

of the shaft... 




Work done in the dash-pot 


- o-oooooo 


Effect of the automatic gear on the 

balance of the brake 




Imperfect elimination of the error of 

balance of the brake 




Imperfect elimination of the heat 
conducted by the shaft 





Imperfect elimination of the heat 
radiated from the brake 





The engagement of the counter 

+ 0-000013 




The terminal difference of speed and 

- i:{(B + W,)T^ - (B + W^)T;}/2(H) 




Leakage of the stuffing-box ; 



- O'OO0O25 


Leakage at the automatic valve, 





Imperfect elimination of water lost 

by evaporation 




Limits of accuracy in weighing the 



— 0*000025 


Weight of the atmosphere, - 0-001204 




Correction for gravity to latitude 
of Greenwich 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 0. 29 

Circumstances and Formulae of Correction. 

Outside Limit 

s of Relative 



Correction for gravity to latitude 


Salts dissolved by the water + o'Sj-... 



- 0"000000 


Air „ „ - io-3i« 




Length of lever 


- 0-000020 


Effect of pressure on the thermo- 

meters - 2{ W(fi;)i - f2^)}/2i8o°W) 




Rise of the standard reading of the 
thermometers in the intervals of 
correction; +0*5 (difference of rise 

/number of intervals) /180 




Difference between the initial tem- 
perature of the water and freezing; 

- o-oooo28S{ W(Ti° - 32°)}/2(W) 




Work done by gravitation on the 
water : — 

- o-ooooo82:{ W(Pi - P2)}/2W 




Work absorbed in wear of metal . . . 
Total Limits of Error ... 



+ 0-000233, 

- 0-000241 

The quantities under 2 ( ) in the denominators of 
the corrections are to be taken positive for the large trials, 
negative for the small. 

The significance of the symbols are as follows : — 
C, the constant of conduction obtained from the trials. 
R, the constant of radiation obtained by trials with the 

brake naked and lagged. 
s and «, the relative weights of salts and air in the water. 
pup^i the pressure in inches of mercury in the initial and 

final thermometer chambers, 
ei, ('2, the corrections, per inch of mercury pressure, on the 

initial and final thermometers. 
W the weight of water in a trial; W,^ the weight lost at the 
stuffing box; W^ weight of water in the brake at beginning, 
W^ at end of trial. 
T"* temperature Fahrenheit; Ti of water entering; T\ of 
effluent water; T^3 at stuffing-box; T^ at bearing; T^ of 
air ; T° at beginning, T^ at end of trial. 
H, heat generate d during a trial. 
B, capacity of heat for the metal of the brake. 


Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

Fiz. I. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. 0. 3 1 

Fi9. 2. 

32 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

Fig' 3- 

Hg. 4. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 0. 33 

1^ -^^ 

34 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

Fis;. 6. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898) No. 6. 35 

Part II. 

On an Experimental Determination of the Mechanical 
Equivalent of the Mean Specific Heat of Water 
between S*^'^ and %\%° Fahrenheit, made in the 
Whitworth Engineering Laboratory, Owens College, 
on Professor Reynolds' Method. 

By William Henry Moorby, M.Sc. 

I. General plan of the Investigation. 

The Whitworth Engineering Laboratory, at the 
Owens College, is supplied, among other apparatus, with 
a 100 H.P. experimental engine, the whole of the work, if 
desired, being absorbed by one of Prof. Reynolds' 
hydraulic brakes. This brake maintains a steady turning 
moment on the shaft, which we may represent by M, for 
any trial. If N be the number of revolutions of the shaft 
in any time, then the total work done in the interval is 
U = 27rMN. The whole of this work is expended in 
raising the temperature of a stream of water flowing 
through the brake. 

Let W = total weight of water in the interval, and 
^T = rise of temperature in the brake ; then, neglecting all 
losses by radiation, &c., the heat generated = H = W.^/T. 

For some years past experimental determinations of 
the heat generated in the brake have been made to obtain 
evidence of the adjustment of the brake, to the limits of 
accuracy of the thermometers used, by equating the heat, 
multiplied by 772, to the work as measured. The chief 
difficulty met with in the endeavour to obtain reliable 
results by this method was in the calibration of the scales 
of the thermometers 

36 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

In July, 1894, on my applying to him for some 
research work, Prof. Reynolds asked me to undertake the 
experimental part of a research (the method and appli- 
ances having been already devised) on the work expended 
in heating water from the freezing to the boiling point. 

The method suggested was substantially that set 
forth below. 

The stream of water was to be supplied to the brake 
at a temperature approaching as nearly as possible 
to 32*^F., and was to be raised to a temperature of 2I2*^F. 
before being discharged from it. 

If these temperatures could be kept steady at the 
points indicated, two thermometers, the one in the supply 
pipe and the second in the discharge pipe, would be 
required ; and their only function would be to supply a 
means of comparing, in the first case, the temperature of 
supply to that of melting ice, and, in the second case, 
the temperature of discharge to that of steam at the 
standard atmospheric pressure. Thus the calibration of 
their scales would be of no consequence. 

In order to eliminate losses of heat by conduction 
along the shaft and by radiation from the brake, the trials 
were always to be made in pairs, the one carrying a 
moment of 1,200 ft.-lbs. on the brake^ and the second a 
moment of 600 ft.-lbs. The duration of each trial was to 
be the same, viz., one hour. Consequently, since the same 
difference of temperature would exist in each case between 
the final temperature of the water and the surrounding 
air, the loss of heat by radiation would be sensibly the 
same in both, and the difference of work done in the 
two trials should be exactly equivalent to the difference of 
apparent heat generated ; and by dividing the first of 
these quantities by the second, a value of the constant 
required would be obtained. 

In addition to the very obvious advantages contained 

Manchester Me uioii's, VoLxlzi. {i^g^), No. ^. 37 

in the plan suggested above, the power available for the 
purposes of the research enabled me to deal, in trials of 
one hour's duration, with quantities approaching the 
following values : — 

Revolutions, 18,000. 

Total work done, 135,000,000 ft.-lbs. 

Total weight of water raised iSo'^F., 96olbs. 

Total apparent heat generated, 170,000 B.T.U. 
In quantities so large as these, some of the small errors 
inevitable to all physical experiments became quite or 
nearly negligible. 

2. Arrangement of the apparatus. 

Before the experiments could be begun it was 
necessary to specially arrange the line of piping supplying 
water to and discharging it from the brake. The course 
taken by the water in the apparatus as completed was 
as follows i^Fig. 6) : — 

From the mains in the laboratory it was forced by a 
centrifugal circulating pump through a length of about 
200ft. of ^in. diam. composition pipe, immersed in a 
well-stirred mixture of ice and water, with the object of 
cooling it to 32°F. From this pipe the water flowed into 
a glass tube carrying the thermometer which indicated 
the temperature of supply to the brake, the whole stem of 
the thermometer being immersed in the water and the 
readings being taken through the glass walls of the 
chamber. From this chamber the water was delivered 
through a flexible rubber pipe to the brake. Here its 
temperature was raised to 2I2°F. before being forced 
through a second rubber pipe into the fixed discharge 
pipe, which carried a second thermometer jackctted like 
the former one with the water whose temperature was 
required. The water was then cooled by passing through 
an iron condenser of the ordinary chemical pattern, and 

38 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

delivered through a two-way tipping switch, either 
waste or into a tank which stood on the platform of a weigh- 
ing machine. When the engine was running steadily, the 
discharge temperature could be regulated to the required 
point by means of a valve inserted in the supply pipe 
between the ice-cooler and first thermometer. If this 
valve was opened, more water was admitted to the brake, 
and consequently the temperature of discharge fell and vice 
versa. By this means the temperature of discharge in 
most of the trials rarely varied by as much as 2° from the 
desired point, viz., 212°, and the mean temperature of 
discharge, as obtained from 30 observations in each trial, 
never varied by as much as 1° from 212°. 

The temperature of supply varied between 327° and 
34'3° according as the temperature of the water in the 
town's mains was lower or higher. In any one trial the 
supply temperature was exceedingly steady, often not 
varying through an interval of 0'i° through an hour's run. 

3. The various losses of heat. 

As it was likely that in a pair of trials the losses of 
heat would not be exactly the same, and that, therefore, 
some error would appear in the differences of work and 
heat used in the determination of the equivalent, an 
estimate was made of the losses of heat occurring by 
different means in any trial. 

These losses were as follows : — 

(i) Loss by radiation : 

The total loss in a trial was assumed to be propor- 
tional to the mean difference of temperature between the 
water discharged and the air of the engine room, this 
latter temperature being always taken from a thermometer 
standing in a definite position. A quantity R, represent- 
ing the loss by radiation per trial per unit difference of 
temperature between the brake and the air was deter- 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 0. 39 

mined, so as to make the value of the equivalent given by 
the heavy trials alone equal to that given by the light 
trials alone. 

This quantity varied from 36*86, in trials made with 
the brass of the brake exposed directly to the air, to 7*98 
in trials made with the brake covered with loose cotton 

(2) Loss by conduction along the engine shaft. 

This was assumed to vary as the difference in the 
readings of two thermometers, placed, the one on the 
stuffing-box making the joint between the brake and the 
shaft, and the other on the lower brass of one of the*main 
shaft bearings distant some 2j^ inches from the cover of 
the stuffing-box. 

From the first 42 accepted trials this loss was calcu- 
lated to be 12 thermal units per unit difference of 
temperature between stuffing-box and bearing per trial. 
The conical brass bushes forming the bearings of the 
brake itself were lubricated by forcing a stream of ice-cold 
water from the supply pipe, through each into the brake. 
Consequently, by regulating the amount of this water 
supplied to the stuffing-box, I had a very delicate control 
over the temperature gradient along the shaft. In the 
later trials I endeavoured to make this gradient zero, and 
thus cut out altogether any loss of heat by conduction. 

(3) Loss by leakage of water from the envelope formed 
by the supply and discharge pipes y the brake and the tank. 

The only leakage of consequence was that which 
might occur after the water entered the brake. 
The brake itself had three working joints. 
1st. — The stuffing-box on the engine shaft. 
2nd. — The smaller stuffing-box through which passed 

a pin, making the connection between the shaft 

and the revolution counter. 

40 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat, 

3rd. — The regulating valve controlling the flow of 
water from the brake. 

Some leakage occasionally occurred at the shaft 
stuffing-box. This was all caught in the later trials, and 
the heat generated in it per lb. was assumed to vary as 
difference of the temperatures of the stuffing-box cover 
and of the water in the supply pipe. 

The second stuffing-box worked absolutely dry. 
Leakage always occurred at the regulating cock. This 
consisted of hot water, and a special device was made to 
catch it so as to ensure no loss by evaporation. The 
water thus caught was weighed with the main stream 
which had entered the tank, and credited with the full 
rise of temperature between the supply and discharge 
pipes. A fourth working joint in the envelope was at the 
point where the discharge pipe emptied itself into the 
tank. A determination of the loss that might occur in 
the end of the discharge pipe and tank was- made by 
pumping the water continuously for an hour up from the 
tank, and back to it through the discharge pipe, which 
had been disconnected from the brake for the purpose. 
The loss was found to be very nearly J4^1b. in all trials, 
and, since it would be eliminated almost entirely on the 
difference of heat, it was neglected altogether. 

A further correction was often necessary to the 
apparent heat obtained on account of the change in tem- 
perature of the brake itself, together with its water content, 
during a trial. The amount of contained water varied 
with the speed of revolution. Accordingly a curve was 
plotted giving, for different speeds and loads, the thermal 
equivalents of the brake and contents. 
At 300 revs, and 1200 ft.-lbs. this was 57*6 lbs. of water. 

» 600 „ „ 54-6 

The gain or loss of heat by the brake was added to or 
subtracted from the apparent heat obtained. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 41 

4. The method of conducting the experiments was as follows : 
During the progress of the experiments I had the 
assistance of two men and a boy. The first of the men 
had to keep the boiler pressure constant and attend 
generally to the needs of the engine. The second had 
charge of a small hand-brake, by means of which the 
speed of revolution could be delicately adjusted, and 
further, it was his duty to keep a constant pressure of air 
in a receiver which was in direct communication with the 
inner surfaces of the water vortices formed in the brake. 
This receiver had been attached to the brake in place of a 
former free communication with the atmosphere, which 
would have allowed the water in the brake to boil away 
when the temperature rose to 2I2°F. The boy's time was 
fully occupied in charging the ice-cooler with ice. 

In the last series of experiments three similar trials, of 
62 minutes duration each, were made per day, the engine 
never being stopped after the start till all three trials were 
completed. Consequently, what is said below as to the 
starting of the engine, only refers to the first trial made 
on any day. 

I. The pump and engine were started simultaneously, 
the brake being therefore supplied with a stream of water 
from the ice-cooler. The brake then automatically 
adjusted the amount of the contained water till the load 
floated steadily clear of the floor. The engine speed was 
then adjusted to the requisite point, viz., 300 revolutions 
per minute, as indicated by a speed gauge. 

II. The temperature of discharge of the water then 
rose more or less quickly, on account of the work done on 
it in the brake. By adjusting the regulating valve in the 
supply pipe, the discharge temperature finally remained 
steady at about 212'^F. The water supply to the stuffing- 
box was also regulated so as to get the desired difference 

42 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

of temperature between the brake and the adjacent shaft- 
bearing. These adjustments took from a quarter to half 
an hour, and, when completed, the engine was allowed to 
run for some half-hour longer to ensure a steady condition 
being attained. The condensing water had also, in the 
meantime, been adjusted till the water issuing from the 
discharge pipe had the required temperature. 

III. Readings were then taken of : — 
{a) the revolution counter, 

iU) the weight of the empty tank and its cover. 

IV. When a steady condition was reached, on a 
signal being given, the connection of the revolution 
counter with the engine shaft was made simultaneously 
with the pulling over, by a system of links, of the two-way 
tipping switch, and the stream of water which had hitherto 
been flowing to waste was thus diverted into the tank. 

The vessels used to catch the leakage from the stuffing- 
box and regulating cock were placed under their res- 
pective drain pipes. 

The speed of the engine, as indicated by the gauge, 
was read on the signal being given, and as soon as 
possible afterwards an observation was made of the tem- 
perature in the discharge pipe. 

V. At intervals of 2 minutes, 30 observations were 
then taken of the temperatures of supply and discharge of 
the water to and from the brake, and also at each of these 
intervals a note was made of the indication of the speed 

At intervals of 4 minutes, 15 observations were made 
of the thermometer registering the temperature of the 
room ; and at intervals of 8 minutes readings were taken 
of the two thermometers in the stuffing-box and on the 
main bearing. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. ( 1 898), No. 0. 43 

VI. When 62 minutes had elapsed, the counter was 
disengaged from the shaft, and at the same time the 
stream of water was again diverted to waste. The drain 
pipes from the stuffing-box and regulating cock were 
removed from their respective vessels. Readings were 
taken of the speed indicator and of the temperature of 

VII. Fresh observations were made of: — 
{a) the reading of the revolution counter, 

{b) the weight of the tank and water received during 
the trial, to which had been added the water 
caught from the regulating cock. 

A record was also made of : — 

(c) the weight of water which had been caught at the 

5. TJie observations were then reduced as follows : 

Let Ti = mean temperature of water supplied to the brake, 
T2 = „ „ discharged from „ 

Wi = weight of tank and contents before the trial, 
W2= „ „ „ after 

w = weight of water caught from stuffing-box, 
t = rise of reading of the thermometer in the dis- 
charge pipe during the trial, 
T = mean temperature of the stuffing-box cover, 
Tg = „ „ „ lower brass of the main 

T^ = mean temperature of the air, 
Ni = reading of revolution counter before the trial, 
N2 = „ „ „ after „ 

M = moment in ft.-lbs. carried by the brake. 

Therefore we have for the total heat generated 

H = (W2 - Wi)(T2 - Ti) + w{T, - Ti) 4- t.x 
+ (T«-T3)C + (T2-T,)R. 

44 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

where t.x. stands for the terminal correction to the heat 
due to change of temperature of the brake, and 

C = conduction-constant per unit diff. of temperature. 

R = radiation-constant „ „ „ 

Also the total work done 

U = 27r{M + ;;/)(N2 - Ni), 

where 7;^ = error of balance of the brake. 

If the capitals H and U refer to trials with a 
large turning moment on the brake, and the small letters 
Jt and u refer to trials with a small turning moment, 
then for the value of the mean specific heat of water 
in mechanical units we have 

^ _U - ?/ 

The letter K is used here in preference to the usual nota- 
tion J, since the constant obtained is not strictly the 
same as that determined by Joule and other experi- 
menters ; for it must be borne in mind that we are here 
dealing with the mean specific heat of water between 
the freezing and boiling points. 

6. The reliability of the measurements. 

I was personally responsible for every observation 
taken, with the exception of the two readings of the speed 
gauge taken at the beginning and end of each trial, and 
also for the checking of all the apparatus used in the 

The measurements fall generally under two heads. 


The measurement of work. 
This involved the balance of the brake, the length of 
the lever, the determination of the values of the weights 
used in loading the brake, and the counting of the revo- 

MancJiester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. ( 1 898), No. 6. 45 

{a) Balancing the brake. 

This was an extremely difficult operation to perform, 
owing to the large amount of friction which occurred 
between the brake and the engine shaft. A number of 
experiments were made which shewed that the want of 
balance could not exceed ^ ft.-lb. This want of balance 
would make an error in the work calculated for each 
individual trial, but on the difference of work done in any 
two trials the error was completely eliminated if each had 
the same number of revolutions. Consequently, the speed 
of the engine was regulated to the end that the number of 
revolutions should be the same in any two trials which 
were afterwards to be compared. 

Even with a difference of 300 revolutions, which was 
about the maximum difference, between the two trials, 
the error of yi ft.-lb. in balance would make an error of 
less than 00015 per cent in the calculated difference of 
work. Further, since this error was a casual one, it was 
probable that it would cut out on the mean final result, 
and being so extremely small on any individual determina- 
tion it has been neglected. 

ib) Length of the lever. 

This was determined by very careful observation to 
be 4ft. -|-o-02in. when the engine was running under all the 
conditions which obtained in the trials. As in the pre- 
liminary calculations this length was given its nominal 
value of 4ft., the value of K obtained required a correction 
of -J-0042 per cent. 

(r) The zveights used in loading the brake. 

These were cast iron plates weighing 25lbs. each. 
Their weights were determined to rJ-Tj-lb., and in the later 
trials they were so arranged that no error could appear 
in the final result on account of the slight differences 

46 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

which were found to exist between the weights. The 
extreme variation from 2 5 lbs. was 0'04lbs. 

{d) The counting of the revolutions. 

This was done by means of a counter, which was 
pushed into gear with the shaft at the commencement of 
a trial, and disengaged at its close. The engagement 
was of such a character that the mean chance was that 
y^ revolution was missed at the commencement of the 
trials, while at the end the counter stopped as soon as it 
was withdrawn from the shaft. The work obtained there- 
fore needed a correction of 

+ —„ — = + = +o'ooooi nearly, 

18000 72000 ^ 

This correction was added to the mean values of K 
derived from the trials. 


The measurement of heat. 

This involved the calibration of the scale of the 
weighing machine, and the frequent determination of the 
index errors of the two thermometers used in the deter- 
mination of the rise in temperature of the stream of water 
flowing through the brake. 

{a) The weighing inachiiie. 

It was of vital importance that the same unit of mass 
should be used for the weighing machine scale and for the 
weights used on the brake. The scale of the machine was 
consequently checked against the 251b. weights and vice 
versd. By this means a series of corrections to xJolt). was 
obtained for all readings, and, with the exception of casual 
errors occurring in any individual weighing, the deter- 
mination of the mass of water may be taken as accurate 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. ( 1 898), No. 0. 47 

{U) The index en-ors of the thermometers. 

For the initial temperature thermometer this error 
was determined by immersing it in a mixture of crushed 
ice and water. In most of the trials this thermometer 
gave readings between 33° and 34°. On this interval the 
index correction was found to be correct when compared 
with a standard thermometer in the Physical Laboratory 
of the College. Higher up the scale a slightly larger 
negative correction to the readings was found to be 
necessary, and this correction was applied to the later 
trials when required. 

The main accepted experiments lasted from February 
to July, 1896, and during that interval six determinations 
were made of the index error of this instrument. 

The correction required by the readings fell from 
— 0-48"' on Feb. 5th to —0-52° on July 7th. 

By the use of Regnault's steam tables, corrections were 
obtained to the indications of the thermometer used in 
the discharge pipe at the points 212°, 213-8°. and 215-6°, 
and also at lower temperatures when the barometric 
pressure permitted. 

The corrections were obtained by immersing the ther- 
mometer in steam at these temperatures, the pressures 
being reduced directly from Regnault's table. 

These pressures were measured to joVoiii- of mercury 
by means of a combined manometer and barometer 
specially constructed for the purpose. 

The corrections obtained fell from +0/24 on February 
8th to +0-04 on July 6th, 1896. 

Both of these thermometers worked under a con- 
siderable pressure, and on that account a determination 
of the elevation in their readings, due to a known pressure, 
was made. This elevation I found, in the case of the 
thermometer (Q2) used in the supply pipe, to be 0-0072'^ 
per inch of mercury pressure, and for the thermometer 

48 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat 

(Pi) used in the discharge pipe the corresponding rise was 
o*oo66*^ per inch of mercury. 

The pressures under which the initial temperature 
thermometer (Q2) worked were different, according to the 
load carried by the brake. Taking these varying pressures 
into account, a correction factor to be applied to the final 
result was obtained. Jts value was (i— 0'00037). After 
applying this correction it is extremely improbable that 
any error exceeding yip^'^F., or one part in 18,000, can 
have existed in the calculated mean rise of temperature of 
the water in any trial. 

7. The main experiments. 

The trials were begun on Feb. 5th, 1896. The accepted 
trials were made in 1 1 different series, each series con- 
taining generally 3 pairs of heavy and light trials. Between 
each series, some slight alteration was made in the 
apparatus or method of working, all the alterations leading 
up to the methods finally adopted, and which have been 

Series L 

Contained 4 pairs of trials, giving 4 separate deter- 
minations of K. This series differed froni all that followed 
it in that the outer brass skin of the brake was exposed 
directly to the atmosphere, and consequently the radiation 
constant had the large value of 36'86. 

The mean value of K obtained from the series was 
777'8i. The maximum value being 778"56 and the mini- 
mum 777*02. This series of trials has not been allowed 
any weight in the final result, because in some of the 
trials the necessary observations of the temperature 
gradient in the shaft were not taken, and, consequently, 
the conduction correction could only be approximated to 
by assuming this gradient the same in all the trials, since 
the supply of cold water to the stuffing-box on the shaft 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 6. 49 

was the same in all. This series, when compared with 
others that follow, was of use, in so far as it showed to 
seme extent the limit of error involved in the method of 
eliminating the loss of heat by radiation. 

The results obtained from the first series were so satis- 
factory that the lagging of the brake was at once pro- 
ceeded with. This consisted of a layer of about i ^ inches 
of loose cotton covered with thick flannel. 

Series 11. to VI I. 

Contained trials Nos. 12 to 42. In trial No. 12 the 
lagging was evidently damp, and the results obtained 
were consequently rejected. Trials Nos. 24, 25, and 26 
have not been reduced at all, because the load carried by 
the brake was 1244-12 ft.-lbs., and therefore the results 
were not readily comparable with the other heavy trials, 
which carried a load of 1200 ft.-lbs. In addition to this 
the tightness of the bottom regulating cock on the brake 
was so great, as to impede its motion by a moment of 
30 ft.-lbs. about the engine shaft. 

Series V., containing trials 27 to 32, also suffered under 
the latter defect, and have, therefore, been allowed no 
weight in the final result. The individual results do not 
differ materially from others which have been obtained, 
but the want of freedom of the brake was thought 
sufficient to condemn them. 

The annexed table gives the maximum, minimum, 
and mean values of K given by these series. 


Number of 

Values of K obtained. 






Series IL 





Series III. 




777 94 

Series V. 





; Series VI. 



777 16 


' Series VII. 





50 Reynolds and Moorby, Equivalent of Heat. 

Omitting Series V. for the reasons mentioned, the 
mean value of K, obtained by dividing the sum of the 
differences of work in the above determinations by the 
corresponding sum of the differences of heat, is 

K = 777-85. 
From this the greatest variation is less than 0*3 per cent 
in individual determinations, and for the means given by 
each series the greatest variation is less than 003 per cent. 

Series VIII. and IX. 

Differed from the last series considered in that the 
light trials only carried a moment of 400 ft.-lbs. 

Number of 

Values of K obtained. 




Series VIIL 
Series IX. 







Series X. and XI. 

These trials were made in July, 1896, after the careful 
checking of the whole of the apparatus afresh. The 
results are appended. 

Number of 

Values of K obtained. 




Series X. 
Series XL 





These trials were run under precisely similar con- 
ditions as to load, &c., as obtained in Series II. to VII. 

The mean value obtained for the two Series was 
K = 777-85, 
which happened to agree exactly with that given by the 
former set. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. C. 51 

For the final value of K, the quantities given in 
the appended table were obtained : — 





*J c 

<U 3 c 















Means for 21 
heavy trials. 

Means for 23 
light trials. 




— I 



-5 4 

I '5 




Mean differ- 









A value of K is obtained by dividing the difference 
of work in col. 2 by the uncorrected difference of heat in 
col. 3. This operation gives 


This value, however, wants correcting on account of the 
quantities in cols, i, 4, 5, 6, and 7. 

( 1 ) Error hi balance of brake. 

It has been shown that the difference of 15 revolutions 
in col. I will not, when the error of balance of the brake 
is considered, have any appreciable effect in the value 
of Ki given above. 

(2) Loss oj heat by leakage. 

In col. 4 this loss is given as 3 thermal units. The 
correction to Ki is therefore— .,..}fx57y 

= —0-000032. 

52 Reynolds and Moorby, Eqtiivalent of Heat. 

(3) Terminal corrections to the heat. 

In col. 5 the difference of these corrections is given as 
6 thermal units. The correction to Ki is therefore 

= — o'OOOo64. 

(4) Loss of heat by conduction along the shaft. 

In col. 6 the difference of temperature between the 
brake and the adjacent bearing is 1*5^'. The loss per i*^ 
is 12 thermal units. The correction to Ki is = — 0'000i92. 

(5) Loss of heat by radiation. 

In col. 7 the difference of temperature between brake 
and air has the value — 1° ; assuming 9 for the constant 
of radiation the correction to Ki becomes =0"000096. 

The total correction factor required on account of the 
non-elimination of these casual errors is therefore 

Applying this factor we get 

K2 = Ki(i —o"000 1 92) = 778-06(1 —0-000192) = 777-91. 

This value Kg can also be obtained by dividing the differ- 
ence of work in col. 2 by the difference of heat (corrected) 
in col. 8. 

This value Kg now requires a correction factor made 
up of a number of quantities which are dealt with below. 

8. Corrections to the mean value of K (y/ygi) given by the 

I. Length of brake lever. 

This correction has been calculated to be 0*00042. 

II. Salts dissolved in Manchester water. 

These amount to 42-1 milligrammes per Htre. Assum- 
ing their specific heat =0-2, the correction required is 

Ma?ichester Meincirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 6. 53 

III. Air dissolved in the water used in the trials. 

This had an effect in raising the apparent specific heat 
of the water, on account of the bubbles of air expelled 
being saturated with vapour at 2I2^F. I made experi- 
ments to determine the volume of the bubbles, and from the 
data so obtained a correction was calculated at —000021. 

IV. Reduction of tJie weighings to vacuo. 

Bearing in mind that the density of the air affected 
equally the cast iron load on the brake, and also the rider 
weights of the weighing machine, this correction becomes 

— 0-00I20. 

V. Varyifig specific heat of the zvater. 

If Regnault's formula for the specific heat of water 
were accepted, the value of K obtained would require a 
correction of —000006, introduced by the fact that the 
initial temperature of the water was never exactly 32^F., 
as assumed in the specific heat used in the calculations. 

So little is known of the true value of the specific heat 
at any temperature that this correction has not been 

VI. Correction due to pressures on thermometer bulbs. 
This has been stated to be —0-00037. 

VII. Correction due to loss of head in stream of zuater 

between supply and discharge pipes. 
A certain amount of heat would be generated by this 
loss of potential energy. 

The correction required is -f O'oooo/. 

VIII. Engagement of revolution counter. 
This has been already given = +0'0000i. 

Adding all these corrections together, we get as a 

final correction factor 


54 Reynolds and MoORBY, Equivalent of Heat 

g. Conclusions. 

We have, therefore, for the corrected value of the 

specific heat of water, expressed in mechanical units, 

measured at Manchester, 

7;6-94 ; 

at Greenwich, correcting for gravity, 

777-07 ; 

and in latitude 45^, at sea level, 

777-53 ; 

or, in metre-grammes, this last value becomes 

as the equivalent of the mean value of the Centigrade 
unit of heat. 

In absolute C.G.S. units this becomes 
41,832,000 ergs. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 7. 

VII. On the Instantaneous Pressures produced on 
the Collision of Two Explosion Waves. 

By R. H. Jones, B.Sc, 


J. Bower, B.Sc. 

[Communicatad by Professor H. B. Dixon, F.R.S.] 

Received and read February 8th, i8g8. 

A paper, the latter portion of which treated upon this 
subject, was brought before the Society in 1894 by Dixon 
and Cain ; but, owing to knowledge attained since that 
time by the former investigator in conjunction with our- 
selves, some doubt has been thrown on the significance of 
the numbers then obtained. 

At a recent meeting of the Society, Professor Dixon 
brought before your notice several photographs taken in 
order to gain information concerning the " Nature of 
Flame in Explosion." Among the photographs were 
several shewing that the effect of a junction in the 
apparatus is to check the rate of explosion and to diminish 
the luminosity very materially, the explosion wave only 
recouping itself after traversing the explosion tube for some 
six or eight inches beyond the junction. 

This we discovered by photographing the flash on a 
sensitive film fastened to a rapidly-revolving wheel. 

The apparatus consists essentially of a flat-rimmed 

-^ J3th, i8g8. 

2 Jones and Bower, Explosion Wave Pressures. 

tinned-iron wheel, capable of being rapidly rotated about 
a horizontal axis, the rim upon which the photographic 
film is placed being i^in. wide. 

The lenses of the camera are arranged so that an image 
of the explosion tube placed horizontally and parallel to 
the axis of the wheel may be focussed on the rim. Since 
the explosion travels along the glass tube horizontally 
and the wheel is revolving in a vertical plane, the image 
of the flash on the film appears as a line inclined to the 
horizontal, the sine of this angle varying inversely as the 
velocity of the flash, provided the rate of the wheel is 

A photograph of the flash immediately after it has 
passed an imperfect junction in the apparatus is shown 
vcvfig. /. The explosion wave has been partially checked, 
and the point of redetermination is clearly visible. 

The second figure shows the collision of two partially- 
destroyed explosion waves before they have had time to 

In the case illustrated by the third figure, the explo- 
sion wave has been alternately determined and checked 
two or three times. This was brought about by having 
three strong glass tubes placed horizontally and parallel 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 7. 3 

to one another, fastened together by lead bends and caps 
which fitted over the glass, the mixture being fired in the 
uppermost tube. 

What we required was a junction of lead pipe to glass 
tubing, both the lead and glass having an internal bore of 
14^ in., but having different external diameters — the lead 
^in., and the glass ^in. The mode of joining in these 
cases where a stoppage occurred was to take a short piece 
of lead piping, which just slipped over the glass tubing, 
and to beat down one end until the bore at that end was 
only }(\n. ; this was then soldered to the lead piping of 
i^in. internal diameter, a short piece of rubber tubing was 
drawn over the end of the glass tubing, and this was finally 
thrust into the lead cap. These junctions were not quite 
rigid, and the ends of the tubes not exactly flush. 

The pictures given show clearly the partial stoppage 
of the explosion wave at such a joint, the point of redeter- 
mination being indicated by a definite and increased 
speed of combustion, represented by the straight and 
intensely luminous line as distinct from the curved and 
less luminous line of the recouping period. 

Further, a new and very luminous wave is observed 
starting from the point of redetermination of the explo- 
sion wave proper, and travelling in the opposite direction 
with a speed almost, if not quite, equal to that of the 
explosion wave itself 

The point, however, bearing most directly on Dixon 
and Cain's paper is this — that tubes which stood the pres- 
sure of the explosion wave itself, almost invariably broke 
at this point of redetermination. 

Thus, in their experiments, they might really be 
measuring, not the pressure of the explosion vv-ave, but 
this greater pressure always associated with the re-institu- 
tion of the wave after a partial stoppage. The figures 
obtained forced them to the conclusion that there was no 

4 Jones and Bower, Explosion Wave Pressures. 

increase of pressure on collision of two explosion waves — . 
a conclusion which Professor Dixon recognised to be 
hardly consistent with his own theory of gaseous explo- 
sions, according to which the explosion wave may be 
regarded as an intense sound wave in the burning gases. 
The evidence from other sources was sufficiently cogent 
to make him still retain his belief in the theory, and we 
have now had the pleasure of removing this seeming 

An actual increase of pressure on collision of two 
explosion waves has been proved, and also an explanation 
arrived at concerning the cause of the previous inability 
to demonstrate this fact. 

Two distinct theories have been advanced to bring all 
the rates of combustion of the various gaseous explosive 
mixtures under one general formula : — Dixon's and 

Berthelot assumes the instantaneous pressure-motion 
of the wave to be due to the forward movement of burnt 
molecules, i.e.^ of molecules produced by the completion 
of the chemical reaction ; thus each wave front, on 
collision, would act as a dead wall to the other, the mole- 
cules merely exchanging energies, and there would be 
no reason to expect any abnormal increase of pressure 
above that due to the stoppage and reversal of the waves. 

From Dixon's theory it seemed possible — if the wave 
is piopagated partly by movement of heated yet unburnt 
molecules in the wave front — that these molecules meeting 
"end-on" would cause a measurable increase of tempera- 
ture and pressure at the moment of collision, over and 
above the natural increase due to the impact ol two 
pressure waves. On either theory an increase of pressure 
would be expected. 

The means of measurement was that first suggested 
by Le Chatelier and applied by Dixon and Cain. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. ( 1 898), No. 7, 5 

Glass tubes were obtained of a strength such that they 
withstood the pressure of the explosion wave travelling 
one way, but broke when two waves came into collision in 
the tube. The method depends on the principle that the 
glass will respond to a pressure exerted on its sides, no 
matter how short the time for which it is applied. 

In our experiments the same form of lead Y-piece 
was used, save that special care was taken to ensure 
absence of ridges at the junctions, by using brass caps 
with flat ends in place of the rounded lead caps, and thus 
having the glass tube fitting flush against the head of the 
cap. The junctions were also made rigid with Faraday's 
cement. With these junctions no retardation of the 
explosion wave was found to occur. 

One limb of the Y-piece was so supplied with taps 
that the apparatus could be filled with the explosive mix- 
ture, and the flame made to travel down one or both limbs. 
The explosion tube was fitted between the arms of the Y; 
these being of equal length, the two explosions, when 
desired, could be made to meet in the middle of the tube 
to be tested. 

The miixture used was cyanogen gas mixed with its 
own volume of oxygen. This is a mixture which under- 
goes a simple reaction, and one unaccompanied by any 
noticeable dissociation. 

Jena glass was used ; pieces of uniform bore and 
thickness being chosen about 24 in. long ; 6 in. were 
cut off from this to be tested hydraulically, the remaining 
18 in. being used in the experiment itself The external 
diameter was | in., and the thickness of the walls varied 
from iV in- to i\ in. in different experiments. 

Among many attempts, four cases were noticed of 
tubing which stood the explosion one way but which 
broke on collision of two waves. Moreover, repeated 
explosions were often made in such a tube one way, 

6 Jones and Bower, Explosion Wave Pressures. 

to make sure that one explosion did not tend to diminish 
its strength, and it was found that if a tube stood an 
explosion once it would remain intact after any number 
of explosions, and yet would be shattered to fragments by 
the pressure produced by impact of two explosion waves. 

The samples of tube which were hydraulically tested 
gave the following results for breaking pressures : — 

1. Tubes which broke one way — 

r84olbs. per sq. in. ) , , 

1o ^,u >Mean 8681bs. = 58 atmos. 

t8961bs. „ j 

2. Tubes which stood one way, but broke with two 
waves meeting — 

looolbs. per sq. in.\ 

I232lbs. „ [Mean iii7lbs. = 75 atmos. 

.ii2olbs. „ J 

3. Tube which stood both ways — 

I344lbs. = 90 atmos. 
Hence we have the increase of pressure on collision of 
two explosion waves clearly demonstrated. 

Comparison of these numbers with those of the earlier 
paper will shew a considerable difference. 

As previously stated, the higher numbers obtained by 
Dixon and Cain are possibly due to the fact that their 
tubes were fractured, not by the explosion wave, but by 
the greater pressure always evident at the point of redeter- 
mination of the wave after a partial stoppage. We are 
now conducting experiments with other mixtures of gases. 

The phenomenon of the collision of two true explosion 
waves is shown in 7%-. /(.. 

The photograph shews that the junctions in the appa- 
ratus produced no disturbing effect on the explosion wave. 

Two rebound waves start from the point of collision 
in opposite directions along the tube. These are sound 
waves, made luminous by passing through the still heated 
gases. A comparison of this photograph, where the true 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlh. ( 1 898), No. 7. 7 

explosion waves meet, with that of the colh'sion of the 
waves whilst in the recouping period after a partial 
stoppage (see fig. 2), shews that, in the former case, 
the rebound waves are less luminous and travel much 
more slowly than the explosion waves ; whilst, in the 
latter case, the rebound waves are more luminous and 
travel faster than the recouping explosion waves, 

A sound wave, similar to those obtained on the 
collision of two explosion waves, is produced when an 
explosion takes place in a glass tube closed at one end, 
rebounding from the end surface and travelling back along 
the tube. 

The fifth figure gives an illustration of the phenomenon 
just mentioned. Notice that the angle which the rebound 
wave makes with the horizontal diminishes, thus indicating 
that the rate becomes faster. The dark vertical line, used 
for purposes of measurement, is caused by a small black 
band placed on the explosion tube. 

Comparison of the rate of this rebound with that of 
each of the rebounds produced when two explosion waves 
meet shows the former to be slower. 

The ratio of the two rates is about 10 to 13. 

Thus we have indirect evidence of the increase of 
pressure when two explosion waves come into collision. 

This is again confirmed by the increased intensity and 
longer duration of the light which the photograph displays 
at the point of collision. 

The evidence from the actual measurements, the rates 
of the rebounds, and the luminosity, taken together, seem 
to establish beyond a doubt the increase of pressure on 
collision of two explosion waves. 


hb > 






bb |x. 

fi^ o 


I— • 






Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 8. 

VIII. On a General Method of determining the Form 
of the Velocity-Potential of Fluid-Motion in Two 
Dimensions across a Channel with Straight Sides. 


Received and read January nth, iSg8. 

In a paper'"' on the permanence of Mathematical 
Forms of the expressions for physical quantities, I have 
pointed out that the forms of the general equations in 
applied mathematics are necessarily limited by purely 
mathematical considerations, and, to that extent, indepen- 
dent of the physical assumptions on which they may have 
been originally based. 

The present paper may be regarded as a continuation 
of that paper, but dealing with the limitations imposed by 
the same considerations upon the possible forms of the 
solutions of the general equations rather than upon the 
forms of the equations themselves. 

It will appear in the development of the subject, that 
when the form of solution is limited by the considerations 
proper to a problem, the process of change of coordinate 
axes, or of resolution of velocities, &c., will be notably 
simplified in consequence. 

It is, of course, necessary to select an illustration only 
of the method proposed, partly because the conditions in 
different problems are so varied, and partly in order to 
make the character of the method clear by making the 
conditions definite. 

For these reasons, I have selected, as a general 

* Manchester Memoirs, Vol. ix., 4th series, 1895, P- IIQ* 

■^JmL 13th, i8g8. 

2 GWYTHER, Velocity -Potential across a Channel. 

problem which has well defined conditions, the irrota- 
tional motion of a fluid in two dimensions across a channel 
with straight sides. 

The form of the velocity-potential. 

With the modification of the usual notation adopted 
in Lamb's Hydrodynamics^ write 

-(l>-i\P =/(x + iy), 
so that 

u- iv=/'{x + iy). 

The (unction /(x-\- iy) will, in general, contain as arguments 
the measure and direction, relative to the axes, of gravita- 
tion, and the coordinates, whatever they may be, of the 
lines bounding the fluid. As it is assumed that these 
bounding lines are straight, these arguments may be taken 
to be ^ and 7,/] and /3i,/2 ^.nd ^^, etc., where/ and j3 are 
the coordinates of a straight line. 

The origin and axes of coordinates are to be taken 
arbitrarily, and the principle which is fundamental in the 
method of this paper is that with any system of boundaries 
the function /"(;ir-f23/) will enjoy a permanence of form for 
any change in position or direction of the coordinate axes, 
or, stated analytically, must be a covariant of the system, 

^ "r iy, t, g, y, pu p2, 5 A, ft , 

or of 

^■^iyyi,g,y,pup^, . A-y, A-y, , 

where y has been selected as the angle by which to 
orient the system of coordinates in space. 

In considering the conditions for covariancy under a 
change of axes, the letters x, y, 7,/, j3, will still be retained 
to mean the quantities relative to the new axes corres- 
ponding to those they previously indicated relative to the 
old axes ; after the conditions have been found it will be 
useful to drop this convention with results which will be 
seen later. 

Manchester Memoirs^ F(9/. .r///. (1898), iV^. 8. 3 

Employing this convention for the present, it is easy 
to see that if the axes are turned through an angle a, 
retaining the origin, there is no change in j3 — 7, but 
x-\-iy is replaced by {x-\-iy)e^'^, and 7 by 7 + a. We must 
therefore, take the arguments of the function to be 

(^ + /» ^,t,g,pup2, , Pi-7,i^ 

Next, if we give the coordinate axes an arbitrary 
infinitesimal displacement of translation, the analytical 
conditions for covariancy are extremely simple, and it will 
be sufficient to state the results as they affect the mode of 
entrance of the several arguments \nto/(x-\-ij/). 

These are that/ij/o' ^'^'^^^ o^ty enter the function 

in the form 

and that x-\-zy will only enter in the form 

{x + iy)e-'^ - i {A /^^^ - ^) -p^ /(^^ - ^^} /sin (b\ - /3,), etc. 
For brevity, write ^^ ^o"^ 

then the arguments o{f{x-\-iy^ may be taken as 

(^ + z»^"''^-/^2/sin (/3i-/32), /, g, ^3, , A-y, ft-y 

In writing them in this way an arbitrary preference has been 
given to the boundaries of subscripts i and 2, but in any 
case to which this method may be applied it appears 
probable that such a choice would ultimately be made, 
and its introduction here in no way affects the generality 
of the results. 

This completes the conditions which the permanence 
of form demands. 

With the form of the function limited in this way, and 
still written /(;ir+y/), we deduce 

II - iv = e"^^ f'{x + ?V), 

4 GWYTHER, Velocity-Potential across a Channel. 

which can easily be seen to satisfy the requirements which 
have here been developed. 

In the case of a channel bounded by 2, 3, etc., sides 
we have found what arguments may enter into /(;ir + 2J/), but, 
of course, from general considerations we cannot learn 
more of the manner in which they enter the function. We 
proceed to deal with other matters with regard to which 
general conclusions can be arrived at. 

Simplification of results consequent on a 
change of axes. 

In this process a very obvious advantage resulting 
from the stipulation that f{x-\-iy') shall have its general 
covariant form becomes apparent. 

The convention which has been adhered to up to the 

present that 7, j3i, ^^^ , (as well as x-\-iy) shall, after a 

change of axes, represent magnitudes measured from the 
new axes, will now be dropped, and in the case of the angles 
(but not oi x-^-iy) will be considered to retain the reference 
to the original axes. This will, of course, make no change 
in j3 — 7, but in 7 only. 

The change necessary, when the axes are turned 
through an angle a, will merely be to write 7 — a in place 
of 7, or sometimes more simply, to write (;r+2/)^«« in place 

Condition at a boundary line. 

Supposing now that a convenient system of axes has 
been chosen in any case, and that the angles are given 
relative to that system, it becomes necessary to express 
the condition that there is no flow over the boundary 
whose coordinates are /, |3, or that ;// is constant along 
that boundary. Changing to an axis of y parallel to this 
bounding line, from the last paragraph it appears that 
all that is necessary to ensure this condition, is to write 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xhi. (1898;, No. 8. 5 

{p-\-iy)e^^ in place of x-{-iy and to stipulate that the 
imaginary part oi f{x-\-iy) shall, in consequence, become 

The corresponding condition affecting the velocity 
may be dealt with in the same manner, when that is pre- 
ferable to dealing with i//. 

Other modes of orienting the system. 

Hitherto, the orientation of the system in space has 
been effected by orienting the axes by means of y 
relative to the vertical, and the system relative to the axes 
by j3's. This is, of course, an arbitrary arrangement, but 
it is perhaps the least arbitrary among such arrangements, 
and it has secured a formal unity in the expressions 
without interfering with the generality of the results. 

In any particular case, however, the horizontal and 
vertical will probably be taken as axes, and all that is 
then necessary is to orient the system in the most con- 
venient method with reference to the axes, and this may 
sometimes best be done by using some line specially con- 
venient for the purpose which need not be the vertical. 

In illustration of this, we may take the general case 
of transverse motion of a fluid within a space bounded by 
two intersecting lines. 

Most symmetrically, the system may be oriented by 
the position of the bisector of the angle between these 
lines, and the shape of the space containing the fluid 
determined by the semi-angle at the apex. 

It would also be convenient to take the origin at the 
apex. We should then replace 7 by (/32 + j3i)/2, and get in 
the first place 

-cp-ixP =/ { (x+ iy)e-^{^i + ^2)/2} 
with the boundary conditions that the imaginary parts of 

may be constant. 

6 GWYTHER, Velocity-Potential across a Channel. 

If we write \ for the angle the bisector makes with 
the axis of x, and \i for the semi-angle at the apex. These 
expressions become 

f{{x-\-iy)e~'^] and/{j^±^>} 
respectively, and X and \jl as representatives of such 
quantities as /3i — 7, j32 — 7, may freely enter the function 

It is easy to verify that the known cases of transverse 
oscillations in such a space (Lamb's Hydrodynamics^ 

p. 426) where X = - and u = - or -, are in accordance with 
^ 2 '^ 4 3' 

the expressions here given. 

The main difficulty in finding solutions to suit actual 

cases of fluid motion is the condition, not here dealt with, 

relating to the pressure at the surface of the fluid, and no 

new solution is here offered. The very suggestive form 

arrived at in the expression f {{^x + iy)e - i"^} is perhaps 

worthy of notice. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. ( 1 898), No. 0. 

IX. On the Velocity of Sound in a Tube, as affected 
by the Elasticity of the Walls. 

By Prof. Horace Lamb, M.A., F.R.S. 

Received and read March 8th, iSgS. 

Reference having been made to this subject in the 
course of a recent discussion in the Society, it occurred 
to the writer that some results of interest might be 
obtained without much trouble by applying the known 
theory of the deformation of a thin cylindrical tube. It 
soon appeared that although in the case of air-waves in a 
glass or metal tube the effect would be quite insignificant, 
yet in the case of such a tube filled with water (or other 
liquid) the velocity of sound-waves in the fluid might be 
very appreciably reduced. This had indeed been predicted 
long ago by Helmholtz,* and assigned by him as the true 
explanation of the diminution observed in some experi- 
ments of Wertheim. On further looking into the literature 
of the subject, the author found that the problem had 
been treated mathematically by Korteweg in iS/S.f As 
the investigation given below in § i follows a somewhat 
different plan, and embraces one or two collateral problems 
of interest, the writer ventures to submit it to the Society, 
although on the main question it does little more than 
confirm the results obtained in the paper cited. 

When the assumption that the thickness of the tube 
is small compared with the radius is abandoned, the 
problem becomes much more difficult. The method of 

* Fortschritte der Physik, t. iv. ; Ges. Abh., t. i., p. 246. 
t Wied. Ann., I. v., p. 526. This paper gives references to the more 
recent experimental investigations on the subject by Kundt and Dvorak. 

yL^i^th, i8g8. 

2 Lamb, Velocity of Sound in a Tube. 

applying the general equations of elasticity to this case is 
indicated in § 3. In order to diminish to some extent the 
complexity of the analysis, attention has been directed 
mainly to the case where the external radius is infinite. 
This has, moreover, a special interest as forming the 
opposite extreme to the circumstances considered in 
the previous part of the paper. Even here the final 
equation for determining the wave-velocity is of a some- 
what unmanageable character ; but it leads to a very 
simple result when the wave-length is very great compared 
with the circumference of the tube. It is to be remarked, 
indeed, that the more definite results obtained throughout 
this paper are, as a rule, of the nature of limiting forms 
which are approximated to more closely the greater the 
wave-length. In some of the experiments on the subject, 
the ratio of the wave-length to the circumference of the 
tube cannot be said to be very great ; a correction on this 
account, when the ratio is moderately large, might be 
investigated without much difficulty. 

I. Let the axis of x be taken along the axis of the 
tube, whose thickness (//) will for the present be assumed 
to be small compared with the radius {a). In the defor- 
mations to be considered, the displacement of any point 
of the wall will be in a plane through the axis, and if u 
and w denote its components in the directions of the 
generating line and of the radius, respectively, these 
quantities will be functions of x and / only. The linear 
extensions in the tangent plane, along and perpendicular 
to the generating line, will be dujdx and wja, respectively. 
Hence if a denote Poisson's ratio (of lateral contraction to 
longitudinal extension in a bar of the same material), the 
tensions called into play in these two directions wdll be 

* See Proc. Lo7id. Math. Soc, t. xxL, pp. 137, 138 (1890.) 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 9. 3 


^- \ + 2^ .... (2), 
the elastic constants A and /.t being those of Lame, viz. fj, is 
the rigidity, and X is a constant such that A + |/i measures 
the elasticity of volume. In terms of the same quantities, 
we have 

^=^ • • ■ (3). 

If p be the volume-density of the material of the wall, 
the equations of motion of the tube will be 

where/ denotes the excess of pressure on the inner surface. 
Substituting from (i) in (4) we obtain 

Brdhi a_ dw\ 


dt'^ p V dx^ "^ a dx) 

dhv p Bi(T du '^ ' 
dfi ~ hp p\a dx 

If we now assume that tc, w, and/ all vary as 
we have 

^\ ifr B 

u + ~w - o, 

p / 77ia p ' 

u -V 

ma p 

V I'l'ci^ P J ~ mVip j 
Here in is a constant such that 2iT\7n is the wave-length ; 
and c is the corresponding wave-velocity. 

It will tend to make the subsequent results more 
intelligible if we recall the known solutions of these 
equations when p = o. The formula (6) then gives, on 
eliminating the ratio ulw, 

'^-V'-^^Jy'^^j) =- ' • (7), 

* The flexural terms are here omitted. They are quite unimportant 
unless the wave-length of the disturbance be very small. 

''-^,- • ■ ■ (9). 

4 Lamb, Velocity of Sound in a Tube, 

a quadratic in c^. If, as is assumed throughout, the wave- 
length be large compared with the circumference of the tube, 
m^a^ will be a small fraction, and the roots of (7) will be 

.2^(,_^2)^^^ . . . (8), 

P P 

where E denotes Young's modulus, and 

respectively. In the case of (8) we have, by the former 
of equations (6), 

w/u= - lama . . . (10), 

This ratio is therefore small, and the vibrations are mainly 
longitudinal. The wave-velocity given by (8) is, in fact, 
that of longitudinal vibrations in a bar. If we continue 
the approximation, we find, in place of (8), 

^2 = (i-A2V)^ . . . (11). 

On the other hand, the solution (9) makes 

ulw= - iama . . . (12), 

so that the vibrations are chiefly radial. The corresponding 
type of motion is, indeed, best described as a radial 
vibration, with a very gradual variation of phase as we 
pass along the tube ; and the result is best expressed in 
terms of the " speed." Thus if we put n = 7nc, so that n/27r 
measures the frequency of the vibrations, we have 

.^=1 ., . . . (13)* 

The next approximation gives 

n^={i+a^m^a^)^^ . . . (14). 

* The results (8) and (9) are given by Love, Theory of Elasticily,. 
t. ii., p. 259. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. ( 1 898), No. 0. 5 

Let us now suppose that the tube contains an elastic 
fluid of density o^. The pressure/ is subject to an equation 
of the form 

i) jd'~p d^'p idp\ . - 

where r denotes the distance from the axis, and c^ is the 
velocity of waves of expansion in an unlimited mass of 
the fluid ; viz., if we denote by k the cubical elasticity of 

the fluid, we have 


■ (16). 


p oc ^""rcH.;^ 

(15) reduces to the form 

^V ^dp „ 
dr^ rdr 



,.=..(. -J) . . . 


The solution of (17) which is finite for r=o is 


• (19), 

where the function /^ is defined by 

2^ 2^.42 

■ (2°)- 

Now, from the hydrodynamical equation 

'V/2 L^J_ • • 

• (21), 

we have 



whence, for the value of/ to be substituted in (6), 

p = 7nH-p^a jTi — ■..w . . (22). 

The complete solution of our problem involves the 
determination of three classes of vibrations ; viz. (I) the 
sound-waves in the fluid as modified by the yielding of the 

6 Lamb, Velocity of Sound zjt a Tube. 

tube, (II) the longitudinal vibrations of the tube-wall as 
modified (very slightly) by the presence of the fluid, and 
(III) the radial vibrations of the system. 

In the cases (I) and (II), c^ is comparable either with 
c^ or with BJQ, and for sufficiently long waves va will be 
a small quantity. The formula (23) then reduces to 

^=^;^ 7e/ . . . (24), 

approximately. If we make this substitution in (6), and 
then eliminate the ratio tcjw, we obtain 

If we substitute the value of v^ from (18), this may be 
put in the form 

This is a cubic in c^, but we are only concerned with the 
two smaller roots. 

For very long waves, one root is very great, and the 
remaining pair are given by the quadratic 

where k has been written for q^c}. In the case of a gas 
enclosed in a metal or glass tube, the right hand side of 
(27) may be neglected, owing to the excessive smallness 
of the ratio k/^.* The roots of (27) are then c^- and Ejq, 
the mutual influence of the vibrations of the fluid and of 
the tube being quite insensible. 

In the case of a liquid, however, the fraction 2aKlhB 
may well have an appreciable, and even a considerable 
value, and the alteration of the wave-velocity in the fluid 

* Its value for air and glass is about 2*34 x lo-^. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 9. 7 

may be important. It is easily seen that the quadratic (27) 
has in all cases two positive roots. If (as we shall generally 
suppose) c^ is less than £'/^, one root will lie between o 
and c^, and the other between EJq and Bj^. The former 
determines the velocity of waves in the liquid, as diminished 
by the elastic yielding of the tube ; the latter determines 
the velocity of longitudinal waves in the tube-wall, as 
increased by the reaction of the enclosed fluid. If (on the 
other hand) c^ were greater than £"/o, one root of (27) 
would lie between o and ^/(>, and the second root between 
c^ and Bl^. An extreme instance of this is afforded by 
water in an india-rubber tube ; the fraction 2aK.lhB is then 
large, and the two values of c are found to be 

{hEliaQof and {BIq)\ 
approximately. The former of these agrees with the 
velocity of " pulse-waves " as determined theoretically by 

If o- were zero for the substance of the tube, the 
constants j5 and^ would be identical, and one solution 
of (27) would be c^ = Bl^, it being otherwise evident that 
the longitudinal vibrations of the tube would be entirely 
unaffected by the fluid. Moreover, the difference between 
B and E is for most solids a small fraction of either. 
Hence the velocity of longitudinal waves in the tube, 
which lies (as we have seen) between the limits (^/p)^ and 
(^/p)*, will not as a rule be more than slightly affected by 
the liquid. On the other hand, since the product of the 
roots of (27) is equal to 


I + 2aKlhB'* 

it appears that the lower root, which determines the wave- 
velocity in the fluid, must lie between the limits 

vh£fhB-''' ^"d -j-^-^i-^..^^ . (,81. 

* Liouvilky 1876 (quoted by Korteweg). 

8 Lamb, Velocity of Sound in a Tube. 

As a numerical example, let us take the case of water 
in a glass tube whose thickness is one-tenth of the radius. 

^'= 2"22 X io'°, ^=6-03x10^^ ^ = 6*46x10" 

in C.G.S. units*, we find that the velocity of longitudinal 
waves in the tube-wall must lie between 

{E\.^Y and i-o35(^/p)*, 

and that the wave-velocity in the liquid will lie between 

•744^, and 770^,. 

If we actually solve the quadratic (27) we find, with 
the same data, that the accurate value of the former 
velocity is 


and that of the latter 


To avoid a possible misconception it may be well to 
point out explicitly that the forced vibrations of the tube- 
wall, due to waves of expansion in the contained liquid, 
are, under the present conditions, mainly longitudinal. 
This follows from the former of equations (6), which shews 
that the ratio wju is of the order 7na. An increase of 
pressure in any part of the tube tends (it is true) to produce 
in the first instance a radial enlargement, but this in turn 
tends to produce a longitudinal contraction ; and, owing 
to the length of the waves, and to the relatively great 
velocity of wave-propagation in the solid, this latter effect 
is cumulative. 

If we had assumed that the strains in the tube have 
at each instant the statical values corresponding to the 

* The numbers refer to a specimen of flint glass whose elastic constants 
were determined by Everett (see his Units and Physical Constants). 

Mmtchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 9. 9 

actual distribution of pressure on the inner surface, we 
should have had, in place of (5), 

dii, w 
ax a 

dii w pa 
dx a ~ JiB 

) ' ' ' (29X 

and thence, on the supposition that u, w,p vary as e 


h-n'^hB hE , , 

/ = ^2 ^£' = -^W . . (30). 

Combined with (18) and (24) this leads to 

^2= — i^:— . . . (31). 

I + iKaj/iE 

This is the formula obtained by Korteweg, on the assump- 
tion just stated. It may easily be shown that the right 
hand side of (31) is an upper limit to the smaller root of 
(27). In the particular case previously considered, it gives 


The assumption referred to may be justified (as a first 
approxim.ation) by an appeal to a fundamental theorem 
in Vibrations,* In the cases at present in view, the 
motion of the tube-wall may be regarded as a forced 
vibration whose period is considerably longer than that 
of the free vibration of the same type (i.e., of the same 
wave-length), so that the deformations have practically the 
"equilibrium values" corresponding to the instantaneous 
distribution of force. 

It remains to notice the various modes of radial 
vibration of the system. These are found by putting 
u = o, dwldx = o, in (5). If the time-factor be e'''\ we find 
from (5) and (23), 

c ap, /Jva) 1 B ' 

''V^IT7a77{^)f='^^ • • (32), 


y = in/c, .... (ss). 

• See Lord Rayleigh's Sound, § 100. 

lo Lamb, Velocity of Sound in a Tube. 

Hence we may put 

n = zcja .... (34), 

where ^ is a root of 


,f ap, Jjz) \ B 
V hp zj:{z)]-pc,^ 


Jq denoting the ordinary Bessel's Function of zero order. 
If the fraction a^J/tg were small, one root of this would be 

approximately ; this root determining the frequency of the 
radial vibrations of the wall as modified by the presence of 
the fluid. The remaining roots are in the neighbourhood 
of those of 

and correspond to the various radial vibrations of a 
cylindrical mass of elastic fluid, as modified by the want 
of rigidity in the boundary. It is easy to continue the 
approximation, and so to estimate the extent of the modi- 
fication in the several fundamental types of radial vibra- 
tion, but it is hardly worth while to write down the results, 
as in cases of any interest the fraction a^JIiQ would not 
be small. The only plan would then be to solve (35) by 
iheans of the tables of Bessel's Functions. 

2. We have so far investigated only the case of fluid 
internal to the tube. When, as in Wertheim's experiments, 
the tube is immersed in liquid, we shall have in place of (6) 


where/' denotes the external pressure. The solution of 
(17) appropriate to the external space is 

ii = DKlvr) . . . (37), 


B\ iaB 

\u^ w- 
p / map 





~u + 


iB \ 

—5—,— mi-- 
m^a^ p J 



Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. 9. 1 1 

where K^ is defined by 

KJ^z) = / cos (2 sinh ti)du 

the latter series being of the "semi-convergent" class, 
and therefore only available for large values of ^. For 
small values of .s we may use the form 

K{^) =-{7+ log l^Voi^) + 5 + 2^2(1 - ^) + • ■ • (39), 

where 7 = -57721... . The condition analogous to (23), to 
be satisfied at the external surface, is 

The effect of this is that, in our previous work, we must 


I,{va) _ K,[ra) 
val^{va) vaKJ [vo) ' 

or, for sufficiently small values of va, 

—2 - log va, 

where only the most important term in each fraction has 
been retained. When the wave-length is at all consider- 
able as compared with the circumference of the tube, 
the second fraction is small compared with the first ; ie., 
the effect of the external fluid may be neglected. 

3. It has been assumed, so far, that the thickness of 
the tube is small compared with the radius. When this 

• See Gray and Mathews. Bessel Fzinctions, pp. 67, 68. 

1 2 Lamb, Velocity of Sound in a Tube. 

restriction is abandoned we must fall back on the general 
equations of Elasticity.* 

In a usual notation, the equations of motions of an 
elastic solid free from extraneous force are 


dx dy dz ' ' ' ^^ '' 

If the time factor be ^*""'*, it is known that the general 
solution of these is of the type 

I ^^ \ dl \ dl 

''^-J'Jx'-"' ^=-1^^ + ^' ^=-/P^ + "'- (43), 

where S is the solution of 

(v2 + ^2)a = . . . (44), 

and u, V, w constitute the general solution of the system 

diL dv dw 
dx dy dz~ 


The constants h, k, which appear in these equations, 
are defined by the relations 

ii' = mh^p!{\+2fx), k^ = mh''plfx . . (46). 

In the case of symmetry about the axis of x, the 
equation (44) takes the form 

d^ d'-h I dh ^^^ 

^2 + ^2 + ;^+/^^^ = o . . . (47), 


r={y^ + zy. 
We may also write 

- = ^-^^^x. --j^y -=^:i, . (48), 

* It has not been found possible, in the investigation which follows, to 
preserve altogether the notation of the previous part of this paper. 
t Cf. Proc. Loud. Math. Soc, t. xiii., p. 192 (1882). 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. 0. 13 

where x is a function of x and r satisfying the equation 
(V- + ^-)X = 0, or 

^~^^+^r^'^;^^ + ^^X = o . . (49;- 

If we now assume that, as regards dependence on x, 
all our functions vary as ^"""^j then, writing 

so that r denotes the radial displacement, we have 

^'^^^ /Z.0 ox \ dl dx , , 

a = - yj + (^- - ;;r)x, r =^ - /^, 7r+^'Vr ' ^5o). 

The normal stress across any plane perpendicular to 
;' is then given by 

= ( X +2^- 2-p- le + 

2^ ^3 
^V ~dr 

-./,,«(^^-,«^)x-^| . . (5x); 

and the shear parallel to x and r by 

^a d- 2im dl ^^^ dy 

In the reduction of (51) use has been made of the 
differential equations (47) and (49). 

The pressure in the fluid is subject to the same 
equation (17) as before, and we find, as the condition to 
be satisfied at the inner surface (r=a) of the cylindrical 

p„^^,^.-§^;^. . .(S3).* 

There is a similar condition to be satisfied at the 
external surface, if the influence of the surrounding fluid 
is to be taken into account ; see § 2, above. 

* The change of sign, from (23), is due to the fact that p denotes a 
pressure, and/,.r a tension. 

14 Lamb, Velocity of Sound in a Tube. 

For sufficiently long waves (53) reduces to 

Prr---^^r . . . (54); 
and the conditions to be satisfied for r = a are therefore 



2Ltw2\ 2u dc . ,,0 o 2ta7n dw 

2iin dl ,^„ „,^y , ^. 

The conditions to be satisfied at the second surface may 
be obtained in a similar manner. 

If we write 

m^-H^ = i]^, 7?t^-k^ = e . . . (57), 
the differential equations to be satisfied by the functions 
^ and ^ take the forms 

^'^ I ^? „. , ^, 

d?^'7dr-''^' = ^ ' • • (58), 

d^X I '^Y o 

^. + p^-4\ = o . . . (59). 

If we aim only at a determination of the wave-velocity in 
the fluid, as modified by the elasticity of the tube, <: will be 
less than c^, and a fortiori less than the velocity of free 
waves, whether of expansion or of distortion, in an infinite 
elastic solid. Hence the quantities v, rj, Z, will be real. 

The case where the internal and external radii are both 
finite leads to some rather complicated equations. The 
problem is a little simplified if we suppose the external 
radius to be infinite, i.e., we consider a tunnel bored in an 
infinite solid. This case is also of some interest as forming 
the other extreme to the state of things considered in § i 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 9. 15 

above. The solutions of (58) and (59) which are finite 
for r = oo may be written 

where A, B are arbitrary constants. Substituting in (55) 
and (56), and eliminating the ratio AjB^ we find 

This equation, in conjunction with (18) and (57), deter- 
mines the wave-velocity c. 

In the present investigation, rja and Za are real, and 
less than 7na, which is by hypothesis small. Now we 
have seen from (39) that for small values of ^ the fraction 

is of the order log ^. The terms in (61) which have a 
coefficient of this form are therefore of the order ^^ log ^ 
as compared with the remainder, and may (for sufficiently 
long waves) be neglected. The equation then takes the 
simple form 

^v''-lvfi = g/ = y:c'\c^ . . . (62), 

where k denotes the cubical elasticity of the fluid. If we 
substitute the value of v^ from (18), this gives 

^r^^i^ ■ • •, ■ <^3)- 

The value of ^ for glass is (roughly speaking) about 10 
times the value of k for water. This would give a 
diminution of about 5 per cent, in the velocity of sound in 
the water. 

The formula (6^) is precisely what we should obtain 

i6 Lamb, Velocity of Sojtnd in a Tube. 

on the hypothesis that the strains in the sohd have at each 
instant the equilibrium values corresponding to the internal 
pressure. In the case of a cylindrical cavity bored in an 
infinite solid, the statical value of the displacement at the 
surface {r = a) due to an internal pressure/ is 

W=pal2y. . . , . (64).* 

Comparing this with (24) we obtain the results (62) and 


The corresponding approximation for a tube whose 
internal and external radii {a and U) are comparable with 
one another is easily investigated. If the tube be subject to 
a statical pressure on the interior, the radial displacement 
{w) at the inner surface is found, on the hypothesis that 
the tube is free to contract longitudinally, to be 

^= 2^(3\+2;.)l^2_^2) PC^ . • (65). 

Compared with (24), this gives 

c^ r .• . (x+2^K + (3X-f2^)^2 ) 

?='"^\''-/. " (3X + 2;.)(^^-^^) j • (^^)- 
In the case oi b = a-\-h, where h\a is small, this becomes 
c^ I 2aK\ . 

in agreement with (31). 

See Love's Elasticity, t. i., p. 226. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 10. 

X. The New Gold Discoveries. 

By Eduard Suess (Vienna), 

Honorary Member oj the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. 
Received and read April ^th, i8g8. 

Reference has lately been made in the Proceedings of 
the Society to my small book on "The Future of Gold," 
published in 1877, ^.nd a desire has been expressed to 
learn my opinion on the present situation. My opinion is, 
that the succession of rich discoveries and the energy of 
mining operations accelerate the exhaustion of the 
resources in gold offered by nature to mankind, and at 
the same time hasten the approach of a universal economic 

When Germany, after the war of 1870, adopted the 
gold standard, the Government was supported by dis- 
tinguished men, of well-deserved renown in economical 
affairs, but without the necessary deference to the geo- 
logical side of the question. That is why, in 1877, I 
ventured to remind them that the production of silver 
would not be reduced in the ratio of the fall in its value, 
that the source of available gold would not be sufilicient 
to provide a gold standard for the whole world, and that 
the epoch was inevitable, probably after a few centuries, 
when the production of gold must diminish steadily and 
in a high degree, and this metal, with increasing rarity, 
would no longer be able to retain its present economic 

The evidence seems very clear. The Greek philoso- 
phers knew that gold was only found on the utmost 

■^ 13th, i8g8. 

2 SUESS, The New Gold Discoveries. 

frontiers of civilisation, and Humboldt emphasized the 
fact that all subsequent centuries have proved the truth 
of this observation. The same experience has occurred, 
since Humboldt's time, in Eastern Siberia, in the Rand, in 
Western Australia and on the Yukon, up to the present day. 
The rich discoveries have always been dependent on 
geographical expansion. Each such discovery has yielded 
gold to mankind through a certain time, according to the 
richness of the deposit and the energy of working, and 
has then ceased. Now, as the extent of unexplored 
country is limited, and the distribution of gold-bearing 
rocks within these districts is also limited, it must never 
be forgotten that the entire sum of gold still attainable 
by man is also a limited figure. 

This constant displacement of mining operations 
forces them beyond the regions of congenial climate. 
The consequences are well shown in Mr. Goodrich's de- 
scription of gold-mining on the Yukon, contained in 
Spurr's excellent Alaskan Report to the U. S. Geological 
Survey. Firstly, we must remember that all gold from 
the Yukon comes from placers, and consequently cannot 
be compared to the gold won at the Treadwell Mine, 
Alaska, which is mined under wholly different and 
exceptionally happy circumstances on Douglas Island, near 
the entrance to Lynn channel. The Cassiar district, near 
Dease Lake, British Columbia, is of the same type as the 
Yukon placers. This district gave 1,000,000 dollars in 
1874, then receded gradually to 22,000 dollars in 1895, 
and is now exhausted. Cassiar has given experienced 
prospectors and miners to the Yukon district. But here, 
on the banks of the Yukon, frost reigns through eight 
months of the year. 

The prolonged and intense cold is a serious impedi- 
ment to placer work and only the richest deposits can pay. 
Gold of coarse grain is, by the high specific gravity of the 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 10. 3 

metal, much easier to separate from the wash dirt, than 
the fine gold particles of even a rich silt. Therefore, the 
prospectors push up to the higher parts of the creeks, 
where frost and snow are even more excessive, food is 
wanting, and every sort of transport becomes extremely 
difficult. In some places, the miners melt the frozen 
ground by fire, sink shafts and throw out the pay-dirt for 
washing during the short summer. But, as the number of 
persons who endure all these hardships is small, only the 
richest places are worked, and every new and better find 
causes the desertion of the old place. 

In 1886 Stewart River was abandoned when Forty 
Mile Creek was discovered, and in 1896 Forty Mile Creek 
was quitted for Klondike. The consequence is a very 
incomplete harvest. It is improbable that hydraulic 
arrangements in this severe climate will pay, and the 
establishment of quartz mining is likewise held improbable 
by authorities. 

The production from the placers of all the Alaskan river 
valleys in 1896, together with the Yukon creeks on British 
territory, but without those on Cook's Inlet on the sea- 
board, was estimated by the Alaskan Mining Record at 
2,170,000 dollars, and by Mr. Goodrich at 1,700,000 
dollars, showing how difficult it is to obtain trustworthy 
figures from districts of this kind. 

In comparing the various fluctuations which the 
world's production of gold shows since the early ages, I, 
in 1877, thought myself entitled to suppose that these 
fluctuations would continue during the next few centuries 
until the time of final exhaustion. This supposition was 
erroneous. The facilitation of every sort of communica- 
tion which has taken place during these 21 years, the im- 
mense expansion of the white race, the magazine rifle, the 
increased experience of the prospector, the fabulous credulity 
of the mass risking thousands after thousands in ;^i shares 

4 SUESS, The New Gold Discoveries. 

on enterprises with but the faintest spark of hope, and 
many other circumstances, combine to the effect that, in 
place of the continued fluctuations^ presumed by me in 1877, 
the whole production of the world now tends to unite into one 
great wave^ and, consequently, to hasten the end and to 
increase the danger. It is a further consequence of this 
state of things, that the distance of this end may no 
longer be measurable by centuries. 

But, along with this increase of the world's production, 
every sort of activity has increased all over the world, 
hundreds of new exigencies have arisen, and the question 
may be raised, whether the production of gold and the 
new necessities have grown in a comparable manner 
during recent years. 

Every figure in these matters can only be more or less 
rudely approximate. The figures of production, of export 
and import of gold, which I beg leave to cite below, are taken 
from the last excellent publication of the U.S. Director of the 
Mint, Mr. Preston. I am aware, that in these figures 
the production of gold for the United States is given 
for the calendar year, as for the rest of the world, and 
the figures of export and import are given for the U.S. 
fiscal year ending June 30th. This may displace a part 
of the figures, but cannot affect the general conclusion. 

In 1887 the world's production had decreased to 21 '8 
millions sterling, and from that time the rise was constant, 
until in 1897 50 millions sterling was reached ; the 
estimate for 1898 is 55 or 56 millions sterling. 

Three-quarters of this sum is produced by four parts 
of the world : Australia, South Africa, Russia, and the 
United States. It is a very wide-spread delusion that 
these four countries really deliver up all their gold to the 
world's use. In reality, the case is very different. 

Let us only consider the last four years, 1893-96. for 
which we possess the necessary figures. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 10. 5 

The net export of gold from Australia during these 
four years teaches that one-half of the production (82 million 
dollars out of 167 million dollars) was retained for home 
purposes, and only one-half was exported. 

South Africa, in the same time, retained about 31 per 
cent, of her production, and delivered up 69 per cent. (108 
million dollars out of I58'2 million dollars). 

Russia, during all these years, shows high figures of 
net import. We see that Russia retained all her own 
production, and continued to draw gold from other parts 
of the world. 

The United States have, under the influence of 
economic changes, exported in some years a greater and in 
others a smaller part of their production ; it has even 
happened that they have exported more gold than was 
produced. But since the middle of 1896 the current has 
wholly changed. Since that time they also have retained 
all their production, and drawn on the rest of the world. 

If you will take the trouble to subtract the production 
of these four countries from the production of the world, 
and add their net export to the rest (always basing on 
Mr. Preston's figures), you may obtain the approximate 
sum of new gold really left to the disposal of the rest of 
the world during this time. 

These figures are : — 

1893, world's production 330 millions sterling reduced to 

i6'8 millions sterling. 

1894, world's production 380 millions sterling reduced to 

I4"i millions sterling. 

1895, world's production 4r8 millions sterling reduced to 

287 millions sterling. 

1896, world's production 42-6 millions sterling reduced to 

minus 17 millions sterling. 

This means a world's production of 387 millions sterling 
per annum, out of which only I4"5 millions sterling per 

6 SUESS, The New Gold Discoveries. 

annum were at the disposal of the world excepting the 
four countries named. At the same time the variability 
of the reduced figures may be seen (one of them showing 
even a negative result), and the treacherous character of 
averages. But, although the production varies, the vari- 
ability of demand is incomparably greater, having regard 
to quantity as well as to origin. It may be said, that the 
bad harvest in Europe, and Russia's preparations for a gold 
currency, are claims of a temporary and passing character 
which give abnormal figures. But the demands are very 
often of a temporary character, and it is a justifiable 
requirement that the disposable quantity of gold should 
be adequate even to meet much stronger claims ; let us 
not speak of war. 

In 1897 the position was no better, and it is hard to 
assume that it will be much improved in 1898. 

In Australia the export of agricultural produce is 
rather retrograde, English capital has also been withdrawn, 
and therefore Australia gives more gold ; the export of 
gold to Europe has been strong in 1897 and is expected 
to be considerable in 1898 (say 11 to 13 millions sterling). 

South Africa delivers up a great part of her increasing 
production, but part of the outcrop mines on the Rand have 
already closed up ; the life of others is reckoned approxi- 
mately to last four or five years longer. The life of the 
deep levels is estimated by mining authorities at about 25 
years. Let us accept these figures. South Africa is now not 
only one of the very first producers, but also delivers up the 
greatest part of her gold, and let us ask. What after 25 years? 

Russia has continued her gold policy, she has retained 
her own produce (6*5 millions sterling or more) and has 
continued to import foreign gold. Mr. Witte's last 
report says, that in 1897, iO'9 million dollars have been 
added to the Government's gold treasure, besides very 
large sums of gold which entered into commerce. 

♦ Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. {\Z<^%'), No.\^. J 

The United States in 1897 likewise retained their own 
production (11 miUions sterling), and continued to draw 
on the rest of the world. Their net export in trade in 
1897 amounted to about 70 millions sterling. During 
recent years a certain amount of American railway 
securities seems to have returned homewards, thus 
narrowing one of the channels by which Europe received 
American gold. 

Besides these variable contingencies, and besides the 
hoarding of gold treasure by Austria-Hungary and Japan, 
there appear a great number of exigencies which are not 
temporary but are constantly increasing. I first mention 
the consumption of gold in the arts and industries, which 
for the world (excepting the said four countries), is 
estimated at about 9 millions sterling per annum. Then 
comes the increasing demand for circulation in the very 
few parts of Europe which possess a gold currency. 
Everybody feels the necessity of reinforced metallic 
reserves for banking institutions to face the quite incal- 
culable quantity of paper values and the manifold kinds 
of liabilities. Let me call to your mind that the increase 
of business of the Deutsche Reichsbank in 1897 alone 
amounted to 500 millions sterling, that the demands 
for new capital at London were 49'! millions sterling in 
1893 ^"d rose to 9r8, 1047, 152-8 in the three succeeding 
years respectively, and in 1897 to I57'2. I do not add 
more figures, as we all live in the midst of the bee-hive 

The effect of all this is that, although the world's pro- 
duction of gold is more than tzvice as great as it was te7i 
years ago, still the struggle for gold is, to say the least, quite 
as sharp as it was then. 

But all this is only one side of this disastrous affair. 
Now come the consequences of the yearly increasing 
difference in the relative values of gold and silver. I do 

8 SUESS, The New Gold Discoveries. 

not intend to speak of the influence of this fact on prices, 
nor on different branches of industrial and agricultural 
activity, but I wish to say a few words on Asia. 

India has from 1893 to 1896 produced 18-55 millions 
sterling of gold. Exports and imports of gold have been 
extremely variable ; still India had a net import of 2*29 
millions sterling for these years, so that the Indian pro- 
duction also was not delivered up to Europe. But this 
home production is of small account for the country. 
India, deeply and innocently injured by the fall of silver, 
now hardly strong enough to bear the burden of her debts 
amounting already to about 18 millions sterling in gold 
per annum, loaded with new gold debts to pay old 
interest and with new experiments ; the same India 
to which in 1892 an eminent Indian statesman thought 
to assure a gold circulation by means of merely 15 
millions sterling, and which is now, six years later 
and after the great increase of the world's production, 
haunted by the spectre of a gold standard without gold ; 
this vast and rich empire, blessed by nature and sprinkled 
with the blood of so many of England's noblest children, 
is at this moment a deterring way-mark on the path v/hich 
China is being forced to enter. Can any earnest man, 
casting his eye over the world's increasing traffic, and over 
this great and increasing gold monetary movement, which 
we are witnessing, I say, can anyone believe that this 
process may be called upon by a modern Joshua to 
stand still at is. 4d.? But is not this forced application 
of a foreign standard the resurrection of that colonial 
policy of past times, condemned by history and by civili- 
sation? Does advanced Europe, proud of her Christianity, 
indeed think of subduing foreign nations by giving to 
each of their liabilities an ulcerating character? Do 
enlightened statesmen not perceive, that in Asia, that ocean 
of mankind, no reasonable policy of whatever direction is 
compatible with a gold standard ? 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 10. 9 

These are the conditions under which we float towards 
a great monetary crisis. Yukon will not be the last of the 
rich discoveries. Some others probably are still reserved 
for the near future, be it on the north of the Kuenlun 
Range, or in Central Africa, in Siberia, or in any other 
distant part of the world. Other sources will decline, 
but, in toto, the world's production will for some time 
continue to increase. The necessities of mankind will also 
continue to increase, and probably even in a higher degree. 
Then the apex of the wave of production will be attained, 
the final decrease of gold will begin, but the necessities of 
mankind will continue to increase. Perhaps America will 
in the meantime decide upon the free coinage of silver, and, 
setting up a monetary barrier right across the traflic of the 
world, will defer the final crisis of gold. We cannot 
foresee the single events, but we can see the line of drift. 

Germany has loosened the old tie of gold and silver, 
without anticipating the consequences. In the long run 
the profits have, without any merit, fallen to the bond- 
holders, and the losses, without any fault, to the debtors. 
The holders of foreign securities in England are actually 
in the first line responsible to the world for the continuation 
of this state of monetary affairs, so perilous also for 

I know well, that personal interest is a very strong 
item, but national interest is a stronger item, and when 
national interest speaks, personal interest must rest silent. 
But the interest of humanity is a stronger item still, and 
even if national interest should eventually point another 
way, which I contend is not here the case for England, 
the common interest of humanity must prevail. A great 
nation, claiming to be a leading member of mankind, 
must feel this as a duty. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 

XL Hymenoptera Orientalia, or Contributions to a 
knowledge of the Hymenoptera of the Oriental 
Zoological Region. Part VII. 

By Peter Cameron. 

\Communicated by J. Cosmo Melvill, M.A., jF.L.S.] 
Received January i8th. Read January 2^th, i8g8. 

Since the publication of Part VI. of this series of 
papers on the Hymenoptera of the Oriental Zoological 
Region, there has appeared Col. C. T. Bingham's " Fauna 
of British \nd\3., Hy7nenoptera," Vol. I., which deals with 
the x^culeate Section of the Order, except the Ants. To 
facilitate reference I have, in this paper, followed 
Col. Bingham's arrangement, giving indications of the 
positions my new species will occupy in the system 
adopted by him. Further, I have pointed out certain 
omissions and corrections in his work. 

It is necessary to say here that Col. Bingham's book 
only refers to British India, Burma and Ceylon, whereas 
the scope of my papers includes the Oriental Zoological 
Region as defined by Mr. A. R. Wallace — a very much 
wider area. 


Long. 8 mm. 

Hab. Trincomali, Ceylon ( Yerbiiry). 
Allied to M. niveosignata, but differs in the basal seg- 
ment not being "almost bare" at the base, but covered 

September 13th, i8g8. 

2 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

with long black hair, although not so thickly as at the apex, 
where it is densely covered with long fulvous hair, in the 
second segment beneath not having three longitudinal 
keels, in the ventral segments and legs being distinctly 
piceous, and in being two mm. smaller. 

Head slightly wider, but not quite so long as the 
thorax; rounded in front, but not quite so much so 
behind, very coarsely rugosely punctured, the punctures 
longest and deepest in the centre of the front and vertex; 
behind the eyes it' is developed to a greater extent than 
their greatest length; the eyes are small. Front and 
vertex covered with long black hairs ; above the antennae 
more thickly with silvery hair ; on the clypeus it is equally 
long and pale golden. Antennal tubercles piceous at the 
apex, shining. Clypeus reddish, the apex bordered with 
black. Mandibles broadly red in the middle. Antennae 
longer than the head and thorax united ; distinctly tapering 
towards the apex ; the scape shining, thickly covered with 
long silvery hair ; piceous at the apex ; the flagellum bare 
of hair except at the base, distinctly pruinose towards the 
apex; black, the apical joints rufous beneath; the third 
joint about one-third longer than the fourth; thorax 
quadrangular, scarcely widened towards the apex ; the 
mesonotum, with a semicircular space on the top of the 
median segment, reddish, coarsely punctured, the punc- 
tures large and deep; the pronotum bearing long, blackish 
hairs ; the mesonotum with depressed, pale golden, shorter 
hairs; the top of the median segment rounded, and bearing 
a row of large, deep punctures ; the rest of it oblique ; the 
sides with a row of large areae ; the centre has a blistered 
appearance and an indistinct keel down its centre ; 
it is sparsely covered with long blackish hairs. Propleurae 
reticulated ; the metapleurae also reticulated, but with the 
reticulations much larger and deeper ; the mesopleurae 
smooth, the lower part densely covered with long silvery 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No, 11. 3 

hair ; over the middle coxce it is rufous. Legs black ; the 
anterior coxae and femora rufous ; the other femora, tibiae 
and tarsi more or less piceous ; the femora more sparsely, 
the tibiae and tarsi much more thickly covered with long 
silvery hair ; the tibial spines thick, testaceous ; the 
calcaria white. Abdomen as long as the head and thorax 
united ; the basal segment irregularly reticulated ; the 
base covered, but not thickly, with long, black hair ; the 
apex fringed with long, fulvous, golden hair, which extends 
on to the base of the second segment ; the second segment 
coarsely irregularly reticulated, most strongly at the sides, 
thickly covered with long, black hair ; in its centre, in 
front of the middle, are two oval marks of silvery pubes- 
cence ; the other segments are covered with long, black 
pubescence ; on the third, are two marks of silvery 
pubescence, but wider and shorter than those on the 
second ; the apical segments are slightly fringed with 
silvery hairs at their apices ; the pygidial area smooth, 
shining, impunctate ; covered thickly at the sides with 
long, black and a few silvery hairs. The first and second 
ventral segments piceous ; the basal obliquely triangularly 
raised in the middle ; the basal part depressed before the 
apex ; the second segment broadly depressed in the 
middle at the base ; its apical half bearing large, deep, 
irregular punctures ; sparsely covered with long, white 
hairs ; the other segments closely punctured at the apices, 
thickly covered with long, silvery hair. The apices of the 
third and fourth ventral segments are obscure testaceous 
in the middle. 


Long, fere 7 mm. 

Hab. Trincomali, Ceylon ( Yerbury). 

A species very similar in form and markings to M. 
rotJmeyi Cam., but may be known from it by the median 
segment not having "a single central spine posteriorly." 

4 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

Head large, subquadrate, very slightly narrowed 
gradually behind the eyes; black; the vertex broadly in 
the middle, and the front broadly, in the centre to the 
middle of the eyes, red, sparsely covered with long, fuscous, 
intermixed with shorter silvery, hair ; the front and vertex 
strongly and distinctly longitudinally striolated, the striae 
running into coarse punctures over the antennae ; the striae 
behind the eyes stout, sharp, slightly oblique, and not 
extending below the level of the eyes; the antennal tuber- 
cles very smooth, rufo-piceous. Oral region piceous-red; 
the clypeus in the middle incised, the sides of the incision 
forming two stout projecting teeth. Mandibles ferru- 
ginous; the teeth black; except at the apex, sparsely 
covered with long, pale golden hair; thorax at the base very 
slightly narrower and not very much longer than the head, 
of nearly equal width throughout ; the mesonotum, except 
at the base and at the sides, rufous, the black on the base 
being broader than on the sides, very coarsely longitu- 
dinally reticulated, the reticulations becoming wider and 
larger towards the apex ; the median segment with an 
oblique slope ; reticulated, the reticulations much larger 
than on the mesonotum. The sides of the mesonotum above 
with projecting teeth ; those at the base indistinct ; the 
central very large, straight, sharp at the apex ; that behind 
it blunt, curved, longer ; the teeth on the median seg- 
ment finer, curved, five in number ; the central being 
the longest. Pleurae not excavated, smooth, shining, im- 
punctate ; the propleurae at the apex piceous ; the base of 
the meso- and the meta-pleurae thickly covered with 
longish, silvery pubescence. Antennae longish, distinctly 
tapering towards the apex ; the under side of the 
scape of the second, and of the base of the third joint, 
rufous ; the scape punctured, thickly covered with longish 
silvery hairs ; the flagellum thickly covered with a silvery 
down ; the third joint twice the length of the fourth. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 5 

Legs black, thickly covered with longish, silvery hair ; 
the tarsi towards the apex more or less rufous ; the 
calcaria white. Abdomen as long as the head and thorax 
united, black ; a silvery spot on the apex of the basal 
segment at the apex ; a large, round, central and a smaller, 
more elongate mark on the side of the second segment, 
and the centre of the fourth and fifth segments broadly in 
the centre, covered with silvery pubescence ; the basal 
segments punctured, sparsely covered with long black 
hairs; the pygidium shining, covered with long, black 
hairs ; the centre slightly raised, impunctate ; the rest 
punctured, the punctures large, moderately deep and 
clearly separated. The basal ventral segment testaceous ; 
the apical three-fourths keeled down the middle ; the keel 
black, dilated at the base, but not much ; the second 
segment with large, shallow punctures, sparsely covered 
with long, pale hairs ; towards the apex the middle 
projects into a stout, somewhat triangular, tooth ; the other 
segments closely and rather strongly punctured except at 
the base, and covered with long hair ; the hypopygium 
closely punctured and for the greater part testaceous. 

Might be the ? of M. cedipus, but this is a point which 
can only be settled by direct observation. 


Long. 10 mm. 9. 

Hab. Mahaganay, Ceylon {Yerbury). 

Belongs to the limited group of Mutilla kanarcB Cam. 
and M. atomiis Andre, distinguished by having no spots 
on the abdomen, having instead broad bands of reddish- 
fulvous pubescence ; the legs red, the antenncie black, 
reddish at the base. M. kanarcs is a larger species than 
this, its thorax is red : the head covered above with fulvous 
pubescence ; and the second abdominal segment fulvous 

6 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

at the apex only ; M. atomus has also the head red, and 
the antennae and thorax entirely ferruginous. 

Antennae stout, the basal three joints ferruginous ; 
the scape sparsely covered with longish, pale golden hair ; 
the flagellum with a white, microscopic pile. Head as 
wide as the thorax ; dark ferruginous, darker on the 
vertex ; coarsely punctured, sparsely covered with long, 
pale golden hair ; the third joint of the antennas as long 
as the following two united. Thorax rounded in front, 
not much narrowed behind, the sides straight ; above 
coarsely rugosely reticulated, sparsely covered with long, 
black hairs. Legs entirely ferruginous-red, covered with 
long, white hair ; the spurs pale ; the tibial spines stout, 
reddish. Abdomen black, velvety ; the apex of the basal 
segment covered rather densely with long, pale golden 
hair, the second segment broadly at the base, and the third 
and fourth entirely with golden, depressed pubescence ; 
the other segments black, and bearing black hairs ; the 
pygidial area strongly longitudinally striolated. 

The thorax in my only example is somewhat crushed, 
and I cannot satisfactorily describe its sides; the meso- 
pleurae appear, however, to be smooth ; the median seg- 
ment coarsely punctured, and sparsely covered with long, 
white hair. 


Col. Bingham (/.<:., p. 27) gives Mutilla cedipus Cam. 
(he calls it contracta) as the c^ of M. 7'othneyi Cam. 
There is, however, no evidence, except surmise, that 
this is the case; and, like so many other species, it 
had better be kept distinct until direct observation 
shows what its female really is. Col. Bingham states 
further that it is not really apterous — that its wings 
have been torn off. There is nothing novel in the fact of 
there being an apterous male Mutilla, for there is more 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), A^^. 11. 7 

than one undoubted instance known ; and, when such is 
the case, the form of the thorax in the $ approximates to 
that of the females. Such is certainly the case with M. 
ocdipiis, in which I am not only unable to find any trace of 
there having been wings, but so far as the hind wings are 
concerned, I cannot see where they could have been 
attached. The contracted thorax is well shown in my 
figure {Majich. Memoirs, vol. xli., No. 4, pi. 4, f 13). A 
comparison of my figure with that of M. perfecta Rad., 
shows great similarity between these apterous males in 
structure of the thorax.* 

Miitilla acidalia Cam., described {MancJi. Memoirs, 
I.e., p. 56) in both sexes by me, is omitted entirely by 

Col. Bingham also has overlooked my description of 
both sexes of Miitilla opulenta {JMancJi. Memoirs, I.e., 
P- 57). 


This species is not mentioned by Bingham under 
this name, unless he regards it as identical with M. 
pedunculata Klug {I.e., p. 51). If so, his description 
of the latter is defective in a very important point, 
namely, he says nothing about the petiole being serrate, 
or irregularly armed with teeth beneath, this being one of 
the most specific features whereby M . peduneulata is dis- 
tinguished from the very closely-allied M. ehlorotiea Grib. 
1 have not at hand King's original description, but M, 
apicipennis does not agree with Gribodo's description of 
M. peduneulata, e.g., the second abdominal segment is not 
coarsely and strongly rugosely punctured, M. apieipennis 
having it only irregularly roughened at the base ; in M. 

* For details regarding the apterous males, as well as the generic position 
of MiUilla apicipennis and its allies, see the work of Radoszkowski, Horce 
Soc. Ent. Ross., XIX. 1885, and the more recent paper by M. Ernest Andre, 
Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 1 896, pp. 261-277. 

8 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

pedtmculata the epipygium is said to be smooth, longitu- 
dinally carinate in the middle ; in M. apicipennis it is only 
smooth at the base, the rest closely rugosely punctured 
and without a trace of a keel {cf., Gribodo, Ann. Mus. 
Civ. Genova, xx., p. 390). M. pedunculata is known from 
Arabia and Berbera. It, with M. cklorotica Grib., and 
perhaps M. asiatica Rad., forms the genus or subgenus 
Tricholabiodes Rad. 

When I described M. apicipennis, I relied (not having 
Klug's work to consult) on the description of M. pedun- 
culata given by Sichel and Radoszkowski in their Mono- 
graph of the Old World Mutillidce. Their M. pedunculata 
is assuredly not M. apicipennis, but is perhaps M. cklorotica 
Grib. It has not the petiole serrate beneath, nor is any 
mention made of there being two furrows on the meso- 
notum. M. cklorotica (also from Arabia) differs from M. 
apicipennis in having the abdomen without any black, the 
petiole without teeth, and all the abdominal segments 
obliquely punctured. It seems to me therefore clear that 
M. peduncidata Klug must be deleted from the lists of 
Oriental Mutillidce, unless the example from " Western 
India" recorded by Bingham, be the true M. peduncidata, 
in which case his description does not fit it. 

Long. 4*5 mm. 

Hab. Trincomali, Ceylon ( Yerbury). 
In the table {Manckester Memoirs, Yo\. 5 (i892),p.i23-4) 
this species comes in at "15. Head red, wholly or in part." 
16. Abdomen with one spot and one band. 
16a. Head and thorax with golden hair; antennae 
entirely rufo-testaceous ; pygidial area black, not longi- 
tudinally striated. Length 7 mm. M. poonaensis Cam. 
i6<^. Head and thorax without golden hair ; antennae 
at the base pallid testaceous, fuscous towards the apex ; 
the pygidial area testaceous, distinctly longitudinally 
striated. Length 4-5 mm. M. posthuma. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. 11. 9 

The little M. atomus Andre is readily separated from 
it by the pygidium not being striated. Antennae stout, 
thickened towards the apex ; pallid-testaceous, infuscated 
towards the apex, sparsely pilose, the third and fourth 
joints equal in length. Head, if anything, wider than the 
thorax ; the front and vertex strongly punctured, dark 
rufo-testaceous ; the oral region and the tubercles pallid- 
testaceous, as is also the base of the mandibles ; the 
tubercles large, shining ; behind, the head is developed 
one-half the length of the eyes. Thorax, with the sides 
above, straight, slightly and gradually narrowed towards 
the apex ; the mesonotum coarsely punctured ; the median 
segment with a slight oblique slope, rounded at the top. 
Pleurse slightly excavated, smooth and shining ; the 
middle with long, white hair. Legs thickly covered with 
long, white hair ; testaceous, the femora darker, the tarsi 
paler. Abdomen a little longer than the head and thorax; 
black, with a slight violaceous tinge ; the base and apical 
segments rather thickly covered with long, pale hair ; the 
anal segment rufo-testaceous, strongly longitudinally 
striolated. Ventral surface black ; the basal segment 
testaceous, with a straight, blunt centre ; the other 
segments fringed thickly with long, white hair. 


Long. 5 mm. ?. 

Hab. Trincomali, Ceylon ( Yerbury). 

Agrees closely with M. posthuma; but instead of the 
apex of the second abdominal segment being entirely 
covered with silvery pubescence, it has only a square mark 
of it in the centre, there being also similar marks on the 
fourth and fifth ; the anal segment is black and is only 
finely, not strongly, punctured, and, at the sides, is thickly 
covered with longish, stiff, black hairs ; the apex of the 
median segment is more sharply oblique, and not rounded 

10 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

at the top ; the vertex is not so dark, nor the base of the 
antennae so light, in tint. It also resembles M. regia Sm., 
but that is much larger; its abdomen has a very decided 
bluish tint; its mesonotum has in front a large mark of 
silvery pubescence, and the median segment has a rounded 
slope. M. poonaensis may easily be known by its thorax 
being longer and distinctly narrowed towards the apex, 
the thorax of M. consociata being of uniform width. 

Head as wide as the thorax ; the front and vertex 
coarsely punctured, the vertex slightly infuscated ; and 
with only a few short, black hairs ; the oral region with 
some long silvery hairs ; the tips of the mandibles black. 
Antennae stout, rufous, blackish towards the apex ; the 
scape with a few large punctures and a few silvery hairs ; 
the third joint twice the length of the second and one- 
half the length of the fourth. Thorax short, of uniform 
width ; the mesonotum strongly punctured, sparsely 
covered with long, silvery hair ; the median segments with 
a sharply oblique slope ; reticulated, and bearing long, 
fuscous hair ; the reticulations are weaker and smaller on 
the bottom. Pleurae shining, not excavated ; the middle 
thickly covered with long, depressed, silvery hair. Legs 
rufo-testaceous, thickly covered with long, white hair ; the 
hinder knees infuscated. Abdomen hardly so long as the 
head and thorax united ; deep black ; an elongated ^xiark 
of silvery pubescence in the centre of the second segment, 
a transverse one at its apex, and one in the centre of the 
fourth and fifth segments ; the anal segment finely longi- 
tudinally striated ; the centre in the middle piceous ; the 
ventral segments thickly covered with long, white, silvery 

MUTILLA INDECORA, Sp. nov. (PL 4, fig. I.) 

Long. 4 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon, Trincomali ( Yerbury). 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. 11. ii 

Agrees with M. serratula Cam. and M. veda Cam. in 
having the thorax spined and the abdomen with golden 
markings. From M. serratula it may be known by its 
head being red, not black, by having only a golden 
mark on the apex of the second abdominal segment, not a 
complete band, and by the metapleurae being coarsely 
punctured ; M. vcda is to be known from it by the large 
belt of golden pubescence on the apex of the second 
abdominal segment, by the much less strongly punctured 
metapleurae, and by the apical abdominal segment above 
being densely covered with golden pubescence. 

Head, if anything, wider than the thorax ; dark 
rufous, slightly infuscated on the vertex ; strongly and 
coarsely punctured, thickly covered with long fuscous hair; 
the space behind the eyes as long as the eyes; the oral 
region thickly covered with long, white hair. Mandibles 
rufous, their apices broadly black. Antennae stout, the 
flagcllum blackish ; the scape rufo-testaceous, shining, 
sparsely covered with longish, white hair, and having some 
large punctures. Thorax somewhat narrower than the 
head and about double its length, of nearly equal length 
throughout, closely rugosely punctured ; the median seg- 
ment with an oblique slope, and punctured all over, the 
punctures distinctly separated; at the top is one large 
ceni. al tooth and four smaller lateral ones. Pro-, meso- and 
base of meta-pleurae shining, impunctate ; the rest of the 
metapleurae strongly punctured, the punctures large and 
deep. At the apex of the mesopleura^ above is. a large 
tooth ; on the sloping part of the metapleurae are six 
smaller teeth also above. Legs stout, rufo-testaceous, the 
spurs paler; thickly covered with long, pale, fuscous hair; 
on the hinder tibiae are four long, sharp spines. Abdomen 
broad at the base; closely punctured; on the apex of the 
first segment is a roundish spot of golden pubescence; on 
the apex of the second in the middle is a similar mark, 

12 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

double its size, and narrowed at the base; on the centre of 
the third is a small patch ; and the apical segment is 
entirely covered with a long, pale golden hair. Ventral 
segments punctured, closely covered with long, white hair. 


Long. 5 mm. 

Hab. Trincomali, Ceylon ( Yerbury). 

Belongs to the group of M. serratula Cam., except that 
the head is not black, only dark ferruginous. From 
M. veda and M. indecora, it may be known by the darker 
colour of the head and thorax, by the deeper tint of the 
abdominal marks, and by the second abdominal segment 
being distinctly longitudinally striolated. 

Head as wide as the thorax ; the sides behind the 
eyes straight, and as long as the eyes ; strongly punctured, 
shining, sparsely covered with long, fuscous hair ; the 
antennal tubercles shining, smooth, piceous at the apex. 
Oral region piceous ; mandibles ferruginous, broadly black 
at the apex. The scape and basal two joints of the 
flagellum ferruginous ; the flagellum brownish beneath ; 
the third joint is distinctly longer than the fourth. Thorax 
about twice the length of the head and of about the same 
width, scarcely narrowed towards the apex ; above coarsely 
rugosely punctured ; at the base the sides project into 
a stout, blunt, triangular tooth, in the middle there is 
a smaller triangular tooth, and at the top of the median 
segment on the sides are a few teeth, the lower indistinct. 
The median segment has a sharp oblique slope, which is 
for the greater part blackish ; the top serrate, the three 
middle teeth being much the larger. Except the apex 
of the metapleurse, which is strongly punctured, the 
pleurae are shining and impunctate. Abdomen black ; the 
apex of the first segment with a small, the second with 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol.xlii. {iZgZ), No.W, 13 

a much larger, semicircular mark of deep orange pubes- 
cence, mixed with pale golden hairs ; the second segment 
longitudinally striolated. 


Long. 8 mm. ?. 

Hab. Trincomali, Ceylon. 

In Bingham's table, this species comes in on p. 4 — 
" Second abdominal segment with two spots, the spots 
medial, one above the other." 

The spots golden. 

Legs and scape of antennae red. M. pulla Andre. 

„ „ „ black. M. litigiosa. 

Antennae stout, tapering very distinctly towards the apex, 
the scape sparsely covered with longish white hair ; the 
flagellum bare, or with a microscopic pile ; the apex of 
the scape and the base of the flagellum rufous beneath ; 
the third joint nearly one-half longer than the fourth. 
Head as wide as the middle of the thorax ; coarsely 
rugosely punctured ; sparsely covered with long, fuscous 
hair on the vertex ; on the face and oral region the hairs 
are paler, silvery white and more numerous ; the base of 
the mandibles piceous. Thorax rufous, except on the 
sternum ; rounded at the base and apex, becoming 
gradually, but not very much, thicker towards the apex ; 
above coarsely rugosely punctured ; the pleurae excavated, 
smooth and shining ; their lower part black, and thickly 
covered with long, white hair ; the median segment 
broadly rounded at the top, and with an oblique slope. 
Legs black ; the tarsi more or less rufous towards the 
apex ; the femora sparsely, the tibiae more thickly, 
covered with white hairs, the tarsi with the hairs thicker 
and stiffer ; the calcaria pale. Abdomen longer than the 
head and thorax united ; black ; a fringe of long-ish, 

14 Cameron, Hymenoptera Ortentana. 

golden hair on the apex of the first segment ; a roundish 
mark near the base of the second segment in the middle ; 
a semicircular one on the extreme apex ; and a broad belt 
of golden pubescence on the apex of the third ; the other 
segments at the sides with long, pale golden hair ; the 
pygidial area rufous in the centre, strongly and uniformly 
longitudinally striolated. The basal ventral segment 
rufous at the sides ; the base with two stout curved keels ; 
shining ; the central keel stout, straight ; the second 
segment stoutly punctured ; the other segments at the 
base finely transversely striated ; their apices closely 
punctured, as are also their sides ; and they are covered 
sparsely with long, pale hair. 

This species has a considerable resemblance to M. 
buddha Cam., but that is longer; its legs are stouter 
shorter and more thickly haired; the basal abdominal 
segment is wider compared with the second and more dis- 
tinctly separated from it, the second segment itself being 
of equal breadth at base and apex, whereas in M. litigiosa 
the base of the segment is narrower than the apex ; and 
in M. buddha the pygidium is not striolated. 


Long. 7-8 mm. 

Hub. Trincomali, Ceylon ( Yerbury). 

Similar in form and coloration — black, with the thorax 
red above, the second abdominal segment with two white 
round spots, the one behind the other, and the whole of 
the third segment covered with silvery hair — to M. coii- 
stancicE, but easily separated by the very roughly tubercu- 
lated median segment Is also not unlike M. litigiosa 
described in this paper, but that has the pleurae red, the 
head more coarsely and not so thickly punctured, and the 
base of the thorax above is not black. Also not unlike 
M. dives Cam., but differs in the tuberculated median 

MancJiester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 15 

segment, in the densely pilose head, and in the median 
segment not being so sharply oblique. 

Head nearly as wide as the thorax ; rugosely punc- 
tured; rather thickly covered with longish, silvery and 
more sparsely with longer, fuscous hairs ; the antennal 
tubercles and the basal half of the mandibles above, rufous ; 
rounded at the sides behind, it being there nearly the 
length of the eyes ; the scape of the antennae covered with 
long, silvery hair ; the flagellum covered with a close, white 
down; the third joint is a little, but still distinctly, longer 
than the fourth. Thorax twice the length of the head; 
black ; the meso- and meta-notum red, except the base 
and sides of the former; the mesonotum coarsely rugosely 
punctured, sparsely covered with short, depressed, golden 
hairs; the median segment with a rounded slope, almost 
oblique towards the apex, where it is black; coarsely 
reticulated ; the base coarsely tuberculated, the tubercles 
largest in the middle. The sides of the thorax above 
almost straight, rough ; the eyes bearing very long, blackish 
hairs. The pleurae above rugosely punctured; the rest 
smooth and shining; their lower part thickly covered with 
long, silvery hair. Legs thickly covered with long, silvery 
hair; the spines on the hinder tibiae long, sharp. Abdomen 
as long as the head and thorax united; deep, velvety 
black; the basal segment thickly covered with silvery 
pubescence; there is a spot of silvery pubescence on the 
second segment in the centre ; there is a mark, broader 
than long, a smaller almost square one in the centre, and the 
whole of the third segment is covered with silvery pubes- 
cence; the segments are also sparsely covered with longish, 
black hair. Pygidial area longitudinally striolated, rufous 
in the centre. Petiole beneath with a blunt, slightly curved 
keel ; the second segment somewhat thickly at the apex, 
and the other ventral segments thickly covered with long, 
silvery hair. 

1 6 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 


Long. 8 mm. ?. 

Hab. Trincomali, Ceylon ( Yerbury). 
In Bingham's Table, {I.e., p. 5) this species comes in at 
" b\ Spot silvery white, b'^. First abdominal segment not 
ciliated with white hairs, a^. Second abdominal segment 
with a transverse band of white pubescence on its apical 
margin in addition to the spot," but it is very different 
from M. decora Sm., the representative of this section. 
With M. trimaculata it has no near relationship; but, 
judging from the descriptions, it must be nearly related 
to M. eoronota Bingham. It is not M. stridula Rossi, 
sec. ^■did. = eoronota Fab., for that has the first segment 
"arme de dents et carene," which is not the case here; nor 
has it the pygidial area "ovale, assez grand, finement strie," 
nor are the tarsi reddish. It is not the eoronota of Saussure, 
Reise der Novara, Hymen, p. 106, who quotes his Ceylonese 
species as doubtfully identical with M. eoronota Fab. 
M. eoronota Sauss. has the pleurae "omnis excavata et 
polita, postice ad marginem leviter rugulata," while in the 
present species, the pro- and meta-pleurae, are strongly 
and coarsely punctured. 

Head wider than the thorax; black, the tubercles and 
the middle of the mandibles broadly rufous; coarsely 
punctured, the punctures large and deep; there is a dis- 
tinct keel down the middle of the front; thickly covered 
with long, fuscous hair; the tubercles large, shining, im- 
punctate, a fine keel between them; over them is a 
moderately thick, curved keel; behind the eyes the head 
is obliquely narrowed. Antennae stout, the scape shining, 
sparsely covered with longish, pale hairs; the flagellum 
opaque, covered with a white down. Thorax distinctly 
narrower than the head, narrowed towards the base and 
apex; the pro- and meso-notum coarsely longitudinally 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No, 11. 17 

punctured, sparsely covered with short,' black hair; the 
median segment has the hair much longer, especially at 
the base ; the base is rounded, the apex oblique and has 
down its centre a keel ; reticulated, the reticulations larger 
at the base ; at the apex of the scutellar region is a trans- 
verse keel ; and, in the centre of the median segment at 
the top, is a curved scale-like projection. At the apex of 
the mesothorax and at the base of the median segment is 
a small, projecting, roundish tubercle. The propleurae 
rather coarsely punctured ; the mesopleurae not much 
excavated ; smooth and shining, except over the middle 
cox3e, where it is punctured; in the middle on the lower 
half is a black, curved, oblique furrow; the metapleurae 
coarsely punctured behind the oblique furrow. Legs 
black, thickly covered with pale hair ; the tibial spines are 
few and longish; the spurs pale. Abdomen not much 
longer than the head and thorax united ; a mark of white 
pubescence on the base of the second segment, which is, 
at the apex, thickly covered with white hair, forming a 
broad belt; the penultimate segment covered with long, 
white hair; the pygidial area smooth, shining, impunctate; 
the second segment is strongly punctured. Petiole beneath 
more or less piceous, the apical parts bluntly keeled ; the 
apex itself obliquely pointed, the second ventral segment 
coarsely punctured, sparsely covered with short, white 
hair ; a reddish transverse band before the apex ; the 
third and following segments covered with long, white 
hair ; the apices of the other segments (including the last) 
strongly punctured. 



Long. 8 mm. ^ . 

Hab. Poona ( Wrong] itori). 

In Bingham's table (/.r.,p. 57) this species comes into the 

1 8 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

section : " Wings hyaline or flavo-hyaline : U^. Median 
segment with three longitudinal carinae ; a^. Clypeus incised 
at apex : " 

The area on the median segment nearly as broad as long : 
the metapleurse with only 8 semi-oblique keels at the top ; 
apex of abdomen not densely covered with fulvous hair. 

T. incisa Cam. 

The area on the median segment distinctly longer than 
broad : the metapleurae strongly obliquely striolated all 
over, with much' more than eight keels, the apical 
abdominal segments densely covered with fulvous hair. 


Head shining, rather thickly covered with longish 
fuscous hair, above the antennae closely rugose, the front 
and vertex with large, deep punctures, which are more 
numerous and closer together near the eyes ; the clypeus, 
except at the apex, closely punctured, thickly covered 
with long, white hair ; the apex in the middle smooth, 
and shining, and with a wide, distinct incision. Mandibles 
black, towards the apex broadly rufous : covered with 
long, white hair ; the palpi testaceous. Antennae stout, 
the scape strongly punctured, covered with longish, fuscous 
hair ; the flagellum fuscous beneath, almost glabrous. 
Pronotum in front shining, the base impunctate, the rest 
of it covered with large, distinctly separated punctures, 
except a broad impunctate band on the apex ; 
mesonotum with the punctures larger and more widely 
separated than on the pronotum ; the scutellum punctured 
like the mesonotum, but with the punctures more widely 
separated; the post-scutellum punctured like the scutellum, 
but with the punctures smaller. The central area on the 
median segment with two keels : the space inside them 
transversely, rugosely punctured, except for a small shining 
depression at the apex ; the inner side of the lateral areae 
rugose, the outer aciculated ; the apex crenulated ; the 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. {\Z<^Z), No. 11. 19 

ap&x of the segment has an oblique slope and is closely 
rugosely punctured. The base of the propleurae acicu- 
lated longitudinally, the upper part with large, deep 
punctures ; the apex, except at the top, closely longi- 
tudinally striated, this part being separated from the rest 
by a curved furrow ; the lower part, under the larger 
punctures, smooth, impunctate. Mesopleurae strongly 
punctured, except immediately under the wings, where 
there is a small impunctate space, separated from 
the rest by a deep, wide, curved furrow. Legs thickly 
covered with long, white hair ; the fore knees, tibiae and 
tarsi more or less rufous. Wings hyaline, with a decided 
greyish-fuscous tinge towards the apex ; the stigma black, 
the nervures fuscous. Petiole shining, marked with 
scattered punctures, the apex, especially in the middle, 
almost impunctate ; the second segment punctured, except 
in the middle towards the apex ; its base obliquely 
depressed : the third and following segments opaque, 
closely and strongly punctured, thickly covered with long, 
pale fulvous hair. The ventral segments punctured, the 
punctures becoming smaller and more numerous towards 
the apex ; the last segment with an impunctate line down 
the centre. 

The rufous colour on the fore legs is not a specific 
character in this, or in the allied species, as the amount of 
it varies considerably. The same remark applies to the 
quantity of rufous or brownish in the colour of the 
antennae. There is no trace of a central keel on the 
median segment in the present species. 

TipJda tarsata Cam. and T. magretti Cam. are omitted 
by Bingham ; so also is T. femorata Fab., a European 
species recorded by Magretti, from Burma {Ann. Mus. 
Civ. Genova, (2) xii., 248). 

20 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

Myzine bengalensis, sp. nov. 

Long. 15 mm. $. 

Hab. Poona, Bengal ( Wroughton). 

Bingham (/.r.,p.65) has been unable to assign the males 
of the Indian species to their respective females, and 
describes 7 males and 7 females as distinct species. 
Doubtless direct observation will be necessary to unite the 
sexes correctly ; and, in default of this information, there 
is no course open but to treat them as distinct species. 
Of males, no species is described with red on the abdomen ; 
but of females, there are three with the abdomen red 
wholly or in part. Of these the present species comes 
nearest to M. mandalensis Magretti, but that has segments 
1-5 of the abdomen red and both wings hyaline at the 
base, the anal segments fuscous, the posterior wings 
*' hyaline, the extreme apex somewhat fuscescent," the 
tegulse flavo-testaceous, and, in length, it is only 9-10 mm. 

Head shining, rather thickly covered with long, white 
hair; the vertex v\^ith scattered punctures, except in the 
centre behind the ocelli ; the ocellar region being also 
without punctures ; the front more closely and strongly 
punctured ; the clypeus strongly punctured except the 
apex ; its middle carinate. Mandibles black, slightly 
rufous in the middle ; the palpi dark testaceous. Scape 
of antennae shining, sparsely covered with long, pale 
fulvous hair, and with large, deep punctures ; the second 
joint also shining and punctured ; the flagellum opaque, 
thinly covered with a pale down, the under side brownish ; 
the basal joints produced on the under side beneath. The 
base of the pronotum transversely aciculate ; the apex 
bearing all over lar^e, deep punctures, and sparsely covered 
with long, pale fulvous hair. Mesonotum shining, having 
some large, deep punctures ; and a deep, wide inner and a 
much narrower outer furrow on its apical two-thirds. Scu- 
tellum shining, its sides and apex bordered with large, 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 21 

deep punctures ; near the centre there is one distinct row 
and a few other punctures. Post-scutellum shining and 
sHghtly punctured in the middle ; the sides strongly acicu- 
lated. Median segment strongly aciculated, the apex with 
the sides closely transversely striated ; down the centre at 
the base are two flat, irregular keels. Propleurae punc- 
tured ; the apex closely obliquely striolated except at the 
top, which is punctured ; the metapleurae stoutly obliquely 
striolated ; the upper part closely and finely at the base 
above. The coxae and femora shining, sparsely covered 
with long, white hair, this being also the case with the fore 
tibiae and tarsi ; the four hinder tibiae very thickly covered 
with stiff, white hair; their calcaria pale fulvous ; the tarsal 
hairs silvery, their spines pale fulvous. Wings violaceous, 
the base of the hinder pair hyaline. Abdomen ferruginous, 
the two apical segments black ; the sides and apex rather 
thickly covered with long, white hair; the basal segment 
with shallow, widely separated punctures ; the other 
segments with the punctures fewer in number and more 
widely separated ; the pygidium coarsely punctured, 
except at the apex, which is pale yellow, dull rufous 
behind ; the ventral surface covered, not very thickly, with 
long, white hair. 

A smaller species than M. violaceipennis, to which it is 
closely allied ; but from which it is very distinct, differing 
greatly in the sculpture of the thorax, the pronotum in 
M. violaceipennis being very coarsely longitudinally strio- 
lated, and the scutellum very coarsely punctured ; while 
in the present species those parts bear only scattered 
punctures ; the punctures on the head are also fewer, and 
neither so large nor so deep. 

MYZINE violaceipennis, Sp. 710V. 

Long. 19-20 mm. ?. 

Hab. Poona, Bombay ( Wroughton), 

22 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

In Bingham's table {I.e., p. 65), it comes in at " a^. Black, 
2nd, 3rd, and base of 4th abdominal segment red, hind 
wings hyaline at base." 

Which will now have to be sub-divided, as the terms 
will apply to two species. 

1. Mesonotum rugose, post-scutellum and median 
segment smooth and shining. M. madraspatana Sm. 

2. Mesonotum smooth, except for a few large, scattered 
punctures at the apex \ post-scutellum rugose, with a few 
large punctures in the middle; the median segment opaque, 
uniformly finely rugose. M. violaceipennis. 

Head black, shining ; the middle of the vertex with a 
large, smooth space, except for four small punctures 
placed in a curve in front of a large, deep one ; the rest of 
the front and vertex with large, deep, widely separated 
punctures, being, if anything, larger and distinctly more 
numerous over the antennae, clypeus coarsely punctured, 
except at the extreme apex ; the middle not carinate, 
mandibles entirely black, fringed with long, pale golden 
hair; the palpi dark testaceous. First and second joints 
of the antennae shining, bearing some large, deep 
punctures; the flagellum pruinose, the microscopic pile 
giving it a whitish appearance. The base of the pronotum 
transversely coarsely aciculated; the vertical part smooth, 
impunctate; the basal part very coarsely rugose, the 
punctures very large, deep and elongated, running more 
or less into each other; mesonotum smooth and shining; 
on its apical half are a few large, deep, oval and round 
punctures ; on the apical half there is, on each side, a 
narrow but distinct furrow. Scutellum very coarsely and 
deeply punctured all over; post-scutellum coarsely acicu- 
lated at the sides ; its centre with a few moderately large 
punctures, median segment coarsely aciculated, opaque, the 
sides of the basal part obscurely transversely striated; the 
apex sharply oblique, its sides punctured, but not strongly; 
down the middle of the basal part runs a straight furrow, 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 23 

slightly narrowed towards the apex ; its sides bordered by 
sharp keels, its centre with stout transverse keels. Pro- 
pleurae strongly punctured at the base ; the apical half 
strongly longitudinally striated ; the mesopleurae coarsely 
punctured, except at the apex ; the metapleurae strongly 
closely obliquely striated all over. Wings uniformly 
deeply violaceous, except the hinder pair at the base. 
Legs entirely black, shining, the femora sparsely covered 
with long, pale hair ; the outer side of the hind tibiae 
thickly covered with white hair and more sparsely with 
thick, pale fulvous spines ; on the apex of the posterior tibiae 
on the inner side is a thick patch of depressed, pale hair, 
and in front of the calcaria are four stout, pale fulvous 
spines; the calcaria pale fulvous: the tarsal spines rufous. 
Abdomen shining, smooth : the petiole black, except 
at the apex, which is red like the 2nd, 3rd, and the basal 
three-fourths of the 4th segment. The pygidium coarsely 
irregularly longitudinally striolated, the striae becoming 
smaller and less distinct towards the apex ; its sides bear 
long, pale hairs. The ventral segments are coloured like 
the dorsal ; the third, fourth, and fifth finely punctured at 
the base and apex : their middle with some large punctures ; 
the sixth with the punctures fewer and more scattered. 


This is probably the species described by Bingham 
{I.e., p. no), S.S Pseudagenia deceptrix Sm. The two in 
my opinion are not identical, and my type does not 
agree with Smith's (now in the Oxford Museum). P. 
deceptrix is from Celebes. 

Larrada EXTENSA Walker. 
This species is omitted by Bingham. It is from 
Ceylon. {Cf. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. v. (i860), p. 305.) 

24 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

Sphex rothneyi Cam. 

Bingham regards this as identical with Sphex viciniis 
Lep., a species very badly described, and placed by Kohl 
in his Monograph among the unidentifiable species. 6". 
rothneyi is, however, very probably only a local form of 
Sphex pruinosus Germar, a species recorded from South 
Eastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa (Syria, 
Caucasus, Soudan). If the two be identical kS. pruinosus 
has a very wide range, as have a few other species of the 
same genus. 

Sphex xanthopterus Cam. 

* When I described this species as new (^Manch. Mem., 
(4) ii., p. 109) I was quite justified in doing so, as no such 
species had been recorded from the old world, and my 
name has been adopted by Kohl and Bingham. Kohl, 
however, has since (Ann. k.k. Hofmus. Wien, x., p. 52) 
recognized it, by an examination of the type in the Berlin 
Museum, as the same as Sphex cinerascens Dahlbom (Hym. 
Eur., i., pp. 25 and 436). From this it follows that the 
American locality given by Dahlbom must have been 

Sphex flavovestitus Sm. 

This Indian species is omitted by Bingham. The 
description {Cat. Hyjn. Ins. Brit. Mus., iv., p. 253) is not 
very satisfactory; but, as the type is in the British Museum, 
an examination of it would either establish its specific 
distinctness, or give it decent burial in the synonomy. 

Sphex deplanatus Kohl. 

This species is omitted by Bingham. The following 
is Kohl's description (Ann. k.k. Hofmus. Wien, x., p. 53). 

"c^. Niger; abdomen ex parte rufum. Pedes nigri. 
AlcB infuscatce violaceo-resplendentes. Caput et thorax 

MancJiester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. {\%gZ), No.W. 25 

albopilosa, segnientinn niedianmn sjipra albo-villosa. Clypeus 
pubescentia argenteo-alba adpressa. Oculorwn niargines 
interior es ad verticevi longitudine flagelli articuli 2^^ + 
duaricni tertiaruni 5^" ad cljpeicm paulhtlo minus approxi- 
mati siitit. Saitellum hand convexum, fere deplanatum. 
Post-scutellum non sellce instar nt in Sph. aurulento 
impressnni. Area dorsalis segmenti mediani rugis quinque 
transverse rngosa. Petiolus aliqitantum brevior est qnani 
ill Sph. aurulento F., multo brevior qiiam in Sph. pruinoso 
G.: longitudine antenyiarum flagelli artiado secundo 
aequalis ; paullulum brevior tarsi postici secundi, sedpaullulo 
longior tertioT 

Long. 20 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

Allied to vS. prtiinostis and 6". auriilentus. 

Alyson RUFICOLLE, sp. nov. 

Nigrum^ prothorace, inesonoto cum scutello inesopleuris- 
que rufisy ore flagelloque antennartim siddus flavis ; alls 
hyalinis, nervis fuscis, $ . 

Long, fere 5 mm. 

Nab. Kandy, Ceylon ( Yerbury). 

Head black ; a line on the inner orbits of the eyes 
from near the top, labrum, clypeus, mandibles, and 
palpi, yellow ; the tips of the mandibles black ; front and 
vertex closely punctured, thickly covered with black hair ; 
the clypeus and mandibles with much longer white hair. 
Pro- and meso-notum closely, but not strongly, punctured; 
the prothorax entirely, except a black mark on the base in 
front, the mesonotum with the scutellum and post- 
scutellum and the mesopleurai, red ; the median segment 
with two stout converging (but not uniting) keels in the 
centre, inside of which are two oblique keels, which unite 
to them shortly beyond the middle of the basal region ; 
inside of these there are some stout transverse keels. 

26 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

except at the apex ; the apex is rounded ; down the 
middle is a straight stout keel ; across the middle a stout, 
transverse one, at the side of this are two short, curved, 
irregular keels; at the apex itself there is, on each 
side, a stout, oblique keel. The base of the propleurse 
distinctly aciculated ; in the centre of the mesopleuras is 
a wide, moderately deep, oblique depression. Legs black ; 
the apex of the anterior coxae white ; the anterior knees, 
tibiae and tarsi pale testaceous ; the apex of the posterior 
coxae, the apex of the trochanters and a broad band near 
the apex of the tibiae, testaceous ; the extreme apex of 
the hinder femora and its large tooth, piceous. Wings 
hyaline, but with a faint fuscous tint ; the nervures 
fuscous ; the recurrent nervures interstitial ; abdomen 
shining, impunctate ; the maculae large, pallid yellow. 

A very distinct species from A. amndipes, being 
readily known from it by the red collar, and by the 
absence of a fascia in the anterior wings. 


Niger ^ nitidus, segmento mediano striolato; mandibulis 
tegulisque flavis ; bast tibiaruni testaceo ; alls hyalinis, 
nervis fuscis, stigmate nigro. % 

Long. 4-5 mm. 

Hab. Mussooree, 6,000 ft. {Rothney). 

Comes near to D. striolatus Cam. from Lahore (^Man- 
chester Memoirs, xli., p. zp), but readily separated from it 
by the pro- and meso-pleurae not being striated, by the 
four hinder tibiae being black, except at the base, and by 
the strongly transversely and longitudinally striolated 
median segment. 

Head large, wider than the thorax ; almost shining, 
bearing some shallow, not very distinct, punctures ; the 
front and vertex with a sparse, microscopic black pile ; the 
oral region with a silvery pubescence and with long, white. 

Manchestei' Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), A^"^. 11. 27 

soft hairs ; the clypeus with a small tooth on either side, 
the centre not being incised. Mandibles large ; the basal 
half yellow ; the apical piceous ; the palpi dirty yellow ; 
antennae entirely black ; the scape shining, bare, im- 
punctate; the flagellum covered with a microscopic down; 
the third and fourth joints equal in length. Thorax shining, 
glabrous, except for a very slight microscopic pile ; the 
median segment strongly aciculated, and with six longish, 
and three very short, irregular, longitudinal keels in the 
centre, the lateral pairs being united at the apices by a 
curved keel ; the apex has an oblique slope, is irregularly 
transversely striated and has an elongated fovea in the 
middle ; it is closely covered with a short, fuscous pile. 
Pro- and meta-pleur^ shining; the mesopleurae sha- 
greened ; the metapleurae with a few oblique, not very 
distinct, keels. Wings clear hyaline ; the second cubital 
cellule half as long at the top as it is at the bottom ; the 
second recurrent nervure is received very shortly beyond 
the middle of the cellule. Legs stout, covered with a 
white pubescence ; the tarsi more or less rufo-testaceous ; 
the base of all the tibiae testaceous all round ; and the 
anterior more or less testaceous in front ; the hinder pair 
only testaceous at the base and bearing fine stout spines. 
Abdomen somewhat shorter than the head and thorax 
united, shining, pruinose ; the pygidial area strongly 
aciculated ; the sides distinctly keeled. 

Passaloecus RETICULATUS, Sp. nov. (PI. 4, fig. 2.) 

Nigro-caeriileiLS ; genicitlis, tibiis tarsisquc testaceis, 
alis hyalims, stigmate fiLSCo, nervis pallide flavis. ?. 

Long. 5 mm. 

Hab. Barrackpore {Rothney). 

Head shining, apparently bare ; black with a greenish 
hue ; the front broadly hollowed ; the hollow bordered by 
a stout keel, which originates in the front of the anterior 

28 Cameron, Hymefioptera Orientalia. 

ocellus, where it bifurcates ; from the side of the fore ocellus 
a narrower keel runs to the side, uniting with the larger 
keel before the eyes ; the space between the keel and the 
eyes is stoutly crenulated. On the upper half of the eyes, 
but not touching them, is a narrow furrow ; behind, on the 
upper half is a much wider, deeper, crenulated furrow ; 
the lower part of the eyes on the inner and apical side is 
distinctly margined by a keel. Antennae black, the scape 
slightly, the flagellum broadly, testaceous beneath. Thorax 
black, with a greenish tinge ; the mesonotum shagreened ; 
a fine transverse furrow at the base of the scutellum ; 
down the centre of the mesonotum are two wide furrows 
which slightly converge towards the scutellum and are, 
towards the apex, slightly crenulated ; in the centre are 
two obscure longitudinal furrows ; and, outside the central, 
there are two narrower, complete furrows, which are dis- 
tinctly curved towards the base of the thorax. At the 
base of the scutellum there is a wide, deep, straight furrow 
behind the narrower one. Scutellum large, indistinctly 
keeled down the middle ; the sides straight, distinctly 
margined ; post-scutellum distinct; the sides obliquely 
truncated towards the apex. Median segment with a 
decided coppery-greenish tint ; the base completely areo- 
lated ; all the areae being distinctly defined ; the middle 
portion is entirely occupied by a deep pentagonal area, 
wider than long and, of which, the apex is rounded 
inwardly ; down its centre is a narrow furrow, and near its 
apex are two stout, transverse, somewhat curved keels ; 
the apex itself is perpendicular and transversely roughened. 
In front of the tegulae are two or three stout keels, and 
inside of these a few large, round punctures. Wings clear 
hyaline, the stigma fuscous, paler above ; the costa in front of 
it fuscous, the rest of it and the nervures yellow ; the second 
cubital nervure narrowed on the lower side ; the second 
recurrent nervure almost interstitial. Femora sparsely 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 29 

covered with white hair ; the trochanters, apex of femora, 
tibiae, and tarsi rufo-testaceous. Petiole as long as the 
hinder coxa^ ; coarsely shagreened, the sides distinctly 
margined ; beneath, it is prolonged to the apex of the second 
segment ; the base of the third segment being obliquely 
truncated beneath, it forms, with the apex of the petiole, a 
wide, triangular incision. The rest of the abdomen smooth 
and shining ; the apex without a pygidial area. 

In some respects this species is intermediate between 
Peviphredon and Passaloeais, its petiole being longer 
than it is in the latter, but much shorter than in 
the former, from which it further differs in the hinder 
tibiae not being spined ; in the head not being covered 
with long hair ; in the margined eyes, in the vertex 
and hollowed front bearing keels ; and in the median 
segment having keels which form large distinct arese, 
the lower part of the segment, too, being largely and 
deeply hollowed. The labrum is not emarginate at the 
apex, so far as I can make out from the dense silvery 
pubescence which covers the mouth ; the mandibles are 
large, not furrowed ; oblique at the apex, where there is 
one large, acute tooth, and a much smaller and blunter one, 
next to it. The eyes reach to the base of the mandibles 
and are parallel ; the antennae are situated quite close to 
the base of the clypeus, but not touching it ; the transverse 
basal nervure is interstitial ; on the mesopleurai there is 
one di.stinct, moderately wide and deep, complete, longi- 
tudinal furrow. The second cubital cellule is much 
narrower than it is in either PempJiredrori or Passaloecus 
proper, and is much narrowed on the lower side ; the 
stigma is large ; the radial cellule elongate, lanceolate ; 
in the female, there is no pygidial area. The tubercules 
do not reach to the tegulae. 

This species, having only one longitudinal furrow on the 
mesopleurjie, is a Passaloecus as limited by Verhoeff {^Ent. 

30 Cameron, Hyinenoptera Orientalia. 

Nachr.^ xxiv., p. 383) who forms for the species having two 
longitudinal furrows the sub-genus Coeloecus and for those 
having three the sub-genus Heroecus. 

Only one oriental Passaloecus is known, viz., P. levipes 
Bingham, {I.e., p. 267), from Karennee, Tenasserim, 4,000 ft., 
which is very different from the species here described ; 
e.g., the median segment is tranversely striated, the head 
is without keels, the thorax not punctured, &c. No 
mention is made either in the generic or specific descriptions 
of there being any furrows on the mesopleurae or on the 


Aiger, scapo antennariim subtus, mandibulis, linea 
pronoti, inaculis duahus scittelli, maculis 2 abdominis, tibiis 
tarsisque pro parte flavis ; alis hyalinis, nervis nigris. 9. 

Long, fere 11 mm. 

Hab. Trincomali, Ceylon ( Yerbury). 

This species does not fit into any of the sections in 
Bingham's table (/.r., p. 321). The present species might be 
'following his table) characterized as follows : 

Enclosed space at base of median segment with five 
short, stout, widely separated striae ; coarsely aciculated ; 
the sides of the segment next the enclosed space with 
some oblique striae ; the third abdominal segments with two 
transverse yellow lines at the base. 

Black; alutaceous; the mandibles, except at the apex, 
the scape of the antennae, a broad line, somewhat inter- 
rupted in the middle, on the pronotum, the tubercles, a 
somewhat smaller mark behind them under the tegulae, a 
mark on either side of the scutellum at the base, a smaller 
mark on the mesonotum next to this and nearer the wings, 
and an elongated line on either side of the third abdo- 
minal segment at the base, yellow. Head large, aluta- 
ceous, the front and vertex with a microscopic, fuscous 

Manchester Memoirs, VoLxlii.{\ZgZ),No.\\, 31 

pile; the lower three-fourths of the orbits densely covered 
with a silvery pubescence ; the clypeus covered with 
a longer and denser silvery pubescence. Ocelli . • . 
Clypeus stoutly keeled in the middle, its apex slightly 
projecting ; mandibles yellow ; the teeth black, the part 
at their base piceous. Scape of the antennae shining, 
yellow, glabrous ; the flagellum black, and covered with 
a microscopic down. Pronotum thickly covered with 
fuscous pubescence ; the mesonotum thickly covered with 
a microscopic pile ; the depression at the base of the 
scutellum crenulated ; the post-scutellum closely longitudi- 
nally punctured ; median segment finely rugosely punctured : 
the enclosed space at the base with a shallow, somewhat 
crenulated furrow in its centre ; on either side of this are 
one short, and four longer, longitudinal keels ; at the sides 
are a few oblique keels; the apex of the segment has a 
rounded, slightly oblique slope and is densely covered with 
white pubescence; its centre with a shallow furrow; its 
sides with a sharp keel extending from the base to the 
apex. Propleurae hollowed, glabrous ; the base with three 
stout, curved keels turned towards the base, and one 
turned towards the apex ; the mesopleurse alutaceous, 
densely covered with white pile ; behind the tubercles is a 
sharp, distinct keel, oblique at the base, then following the 
edge of the pleurae to the sternum ; immediately behind 
the yellow mark is a distinct oblique furrow, running to 
the sternum, where it joins the keel. Metapleurce closely 
and uniformly obliquely striated, except at the base, where 
there are, at the top, five longish, and, at the bottom, five 
shorter stria; ; the two sorts being separated by a space. 
Legs black; the fore femora broadly yellow at the base 
and with a line, contracted in the middle, on the outer 
side at the apex ; the tibiae yellow, black behind ; the tarsi 
yellow, more or less rufous towards the apex ; the hind 
tibiae spined ; the middle spines originating from tubercles. 

32 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orient alia. 

Wings hyaline, with a faint fuscous tinge. Abdomen as 
long as the head and thorax united, alutaceous ; the 
petiole somewhat longer than the second segment, nodose 
at the apex ; the third and fourth segments shining at the 
base ; the fifth segment thickly covered, especially towards 
the apex, with fulvous pubescence, the apex of the seg- 
ment itself being fulvous; the base of the pygidial area 
closely rugosely punctured ; the narrowed apex shining, 
smooth, except for a few indistinct striae ; the sides of the 
segment fringed with long, stiff, pale fulvous hairs. On the 
side of the third segment is a large mark broader than 
long, the base rounded, narrowed in the middle, almost 
heart-shaped ; on the side of the fourth segment is a more 
elongated yellow mark ; the outer half broader, and dilated 
posteriorly ; the mark on the side of the fifth segment 
is larger, wider, and projecting backwards on the lower 
side at the base. The ventral surface is sparsely covered 
with longish fuscous hair. 

Only one species of Crabro is recorded from Ceylon 
by Col. Bingham, C. palitans Bing., which also is found 
in North- West India. It is very different from C. taprobance, 
having the abdomen not petiolated. 

Crabro yerburii, sp. nov. 

Long. 6 mm. 

Hab. Trincomali, Ceylon ( Yerbury). 

Belongs to Bingham's section ''A. b. Petiole short, 
subpyriform, gradually widened from base to apex." C. 
odontophora differs from it in the twisted, dilated and, at 
base, dentate basal joint of anterior tarsi, in the median 
segment being strongly aciculated ; the hollows at its 
sides with stout keels. The " enclosed space " on the 
median segment very smooth, shining and glabrous ; 
surrounded by a wide, moderately deep, crenulated furrow, 
and having a similar crenulated furrow down its centre ; 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898;, No. 11. 33 

the sides of the segments are finely transversely aciculated ; 
the apex has an oblique slope and is widely hollowed 
in the middle. Mesopleura^ shining, minutely punctured, 
thickly covered with short, silvery pubescence ; the oblique 
furrow shallow, densely covered with longish silvery hair ; 
the metapleurae shining, almost glabrous, the basal portion 
hollowed ; there is an oblique, not very clearly defined, 
keel over the hinder coxai, above which is a line of fine 
transverse striations. Legs thickly covered with white 
pubescence ; the apices of the four anterior coxae and of 
their trochanters, the apex of the fore femora, and the four 
front tibiae and tarsi, yellow ; the tibiae broadly lined with 
black behind ; the hinder tibiae black, broadly yellow at 
the base ; their spines longish, pale ; their calcaria large, 
the inner one being, at the ^sides and base, finely rugose ; 
the abdomen is marked with yellow. 

C. ardens also differs from it in the base of the median 
segment being finely longitudinally striated, and it has 
" a medial vertically impressed line from the anterior 
ocellus to between the antennae," while the legs and 
antennae are devoid of yellow. 

Head shining, impunctate ; except on the lower part 
of the front, where it is obscurely punctured ; the clypeus 
hidden by dense silvery pubescence ; the vertex with a dense 
microscopic down ; the space between the eyes over the 
antennae bare, glabrous, except at the sides, where there is 
a narrow edging of silvery pubescence ; the mandibles 
yellow, their apices rufo-piceous ; palpi yellow. Prothorax 
shining, neither punctured nor striated ; the apical part 
thickly covered with minute pubescence ; the mesonotum 
with shallow minute punctures ; sparsely covered with a 
microscopic down ; the scutellum, if anything, more 
strongly punctured ; a broad, irregular, yellow, transverse 
mark at its base ; the post-scutellum broad at base, 
narrowed towards the apex ; the apices of all the tarsi 

34 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

incline to rufous. Wings clear hyaline, the stigma 
and nervures fuscous ; the apical abscissa of the radius 
straight, oblique ; the appendicular cellule incomplete 
at the apex. Abdomen nearly as long as the head 
and thorax united ; the petiole slightly longer than 
the second segment, narrowed at the base, gradually 
widened towards the apex ; the apical segments thickly 
covered with a white pubescence ; the pygidial area 
smooth, except for a double row of five large, round 
punctures down the outer side of the centre ; the sides 
keeled ; the ventral segments shining, the apices of the 
segments pale piceous ; the apical half of the hypopygium 

Note. — I have stated above that only one Ceylonese species 
of Crabro is recorded by Col. Bingham in his Manual ; but 
he has omitted from that work all mention of Dasyprodus 
ceylonicus Saussure, described from Ceylon in the Reise der 
Novara ; Hyme^t. p. 8^, pi. iv. f. jz. Dasyproctiis is a Crabro 
with a very long, narrow petiole, not dilated towards the apex, 
as it is in Rhopalum. It is regarded by Kohl in his generic 
revision as a section of Crabro only. 

Crabro revelatus, sp. nov. 

Long, to apex of petiole 6 mm. (in C. taprobance it is 
7 mm.). 

Hab. Trincomali, Ceylon ( Yerbury). 

Comes near to C. taprobancE, and, like that species, 
has an elongate petiole, but here it is more slender; it 
differs further in the post-scutellum being coarsely longi- 
tudinally striated ; in the vertex at the edge of the frontal 
depression being distinctly margined ; and in the furrow 
on the middle of the apex of the median segment being 

Scape of antennae lemon-yellow, shining, glabrous; 
the flagellum black, sparsely covered with a pale down ; 
the second joint yellow beneath ; the third only very little 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 35 

longer than the fourth. Head black ; alutaceous, the vertex 
covered with a dark, microscopic down ; the front deeply 
excavated; thickly covered with depressed, silvery pubes- 
cence, as is also the clypeus; the frontal depression at the 
top with a distinctly-defined margin, the centre of which, 
looked at from beneath, is slightly curved ; the eyes on 
the upper part on the inner side are slightly margined; 
below the middle is a small, human-ear-shaped fovea; the 
ocelli are in a curve. Mandibles lemon-yellow; the apex 
piceous-black ; the basal part sparsely covered with long, 
white hairs. Mesonotum alutaceous, thickly covered 
with a microscopic, fuscous down ; the pronotum with 
longer, fuscous hair; the scutellum like the mesonotum, 
its apex with some longitudinal striae, and a thin keel runs 
down its middle; on its base at the side is a small, and, 
behind this, a larger, transverse yellow mark ; the post- 
scutellum finely rugose; coarsely longitudinally striolate. 
IMedian segment with a rounded slope; the basal area 
clearly defined ; bearing a i^w oblique, widely separated 
keels; those at the sides being more distinct than those in 
the middle and extend beyond the area, outside of which 
the segment is closely, but not very distinctly, punctured ; 
the middle of the apical part has a wide, deep furrow. 
The propleurae at the top have a i^w fine, indistinct striae, 
the lower part in the centre has a few stout, longitudinal 
striae. The tubercles are yellow; the oblique furrow 
behind them straight, narrow; the longitudinal furrow 
narrow, shining ; the oblique furrow on the mesopleurae 
wide, deep, indistinctly crenulated; the apical semi-vertical 
furrow wider, deeper, and distinctly crenulated; the meta- 
pleurae at the base shining, strongly closely obliquely 
striated, the rest of it finely and closely longitudinally 
striated, the striae stronger on the lower side. Legs : the 
apices of the coxae, of the femora, and the tibiae lemon- 
yellow; the tibiae for the greater part black beneath ; the 

"^^6 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

tarsi yellow, suffused with rufous ; the femora covered with 
long, white hair. Wings hyaline, the nervures and stigma 
fuscous. Petiole covered with long, white, soft hair; aluta- 
ceous, the base closely longitudinally striated ; its under 
part keeled down the centre and with a lateral keel between 
it and the edge. In this latter point — in the under side of 
the petiole being distinctly keeled down the centre — it 
differs from C. taprobance. 



This species is omitted entirely by Col. Bingham. It 
comes into his section " C : median segment convex, 
vertical, with a well-marked groove down the middle, 
widening at apex into a deep A-shaped hollow " : and to 
sub-section " a : Petiole long, gradually widening to the 
apex, longer, never shorter than the thorax and median 
segment united" ; but it can hardly be said to be "medially 
with well developed, prominent lateral tubercles." The 
petiole is distinctly longer than the head and thorax but 
not longer than the other segments united ; its basal third 
is distinctly narrowed, becoming gradually wider ; the 
apical third is of uniform thickness. 

It has pretty much the same form and size and colour 
of the wings as E. vishnu ; but differs altogether in the 
colour of the legs, and in the form of the antennal tubercle, 
which here is rounded at the top and has a long pedicle ; 
while in E. vishnu it is much shorter, broader and 
triangular at the top and with a short, broad pedicle. 

Niger, thorace ahdoinineque flavo-maculatis ; alis vio- 
laceis ; pedibus rufis. % 
Long. lo mm. 
Hab. Allahabad {Rothney). 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 37 

Belongs to the small group with red legs. E. 
erythropoda differs from it in being larger, in the thorax 
being largely marked with red ; and in the petiole not 
being distinctly narrowed at the base and in being coarsely 
rugose. The form of the median segment is the same — 
rounded at the base, oblique at the apex — but it differs 
in the middle of the apex, having a deep triangular 

Antennae black, distinctly thickened towards the 
apex ; the scape shining, covered with black, short hair ; 
the flagellum bare, not shining. Front and vertex strongly 
punctured, shining, sparsely covered with longish, fuscous 
hair; the antennal tubercles yellow, large, rounded at the 
base, gradually narrowed from the end of the rounded 
part to the apex. Clypeus with the middle of the apex 
curved, the sides oblique ; thickly covered with silvery 
pubescence ; at its base are two large, oblique, yellow 
marks narrowed on the inner side ; the apex of the labrum 
rufous, as is also the apical half of the mandibles. Thorax 
coarsely punctured; closely covered with white pubes- 
cence; that on the median segment being the longer. On 
the centre of the pronotum is a complete yellow line, a 
little curved round at the edges ; on the sides joined to the 
central line is a shorter, yellow mark, narrow at the base, 
widened gradually to near the apex, which again is slightly 
narrowed, broadly obliquely on the hinder side, more 
rounded on the outer and at the apex; yellow also is aline 
on the keel at the side of the apex of the scutellum ; the 
post-scutellum, a thin line at its side, a mark in front of 
this, a somewhat oval mark on either side near the apex 
of the median segment, and a bullet-shaped mark on the 
mesopleurae, near the tubercles. In the centre of the 
mesopleurae is a furrow, obscurely crenulated at the base, 
widened and smooth at the apex. The base of the meta- 
pleurae smooth and impuiictate, except the space over the 

38 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

coxae, which has some large punctures ; the rest coarsely 
punctured, at the apex running into reticulations. Legs 
ferruginous, the coxae and the four hinder trochanters 
black; the hinder tarsi fuscous. Wings uniformly viola- 
ceous; the nervures and stigma black; at the top the 
second cubital cellule is only very slightly longer than the 
space bounded by the first recurrent and first transverse 
cubital nervures. Petiole slightly longer than the head 
and thorax united; the basal third almost impunctate; 
the rest strongly punctured; the part behind the tubercles 
distinctly narrowed; the tubercles indistinct; the second 
segment is closely and strongly punctured; the other 
smooth and shining; shortly beyond the middle of the 
petiole is an oval mark on either side; the apex is banded 
with yellow; in front of the middle and second segment 
is, on either side, an irregularly triangular mark; its apex 
is belted all round with yellow. 


Niger, basi clypei^ pronoto, scutellis maculis duobus, 
metanoto pedibusque rufis ; alts violaceis. ?. 

Long. 15 mm. 

Hab. Malacca. 

Head coarsely punctured, the apex of the clypeus and 
the labrum smooth ; the front and vertex thickly covered 
with long, fuscous hair ; the clypeus and labrum with 
white depressed pubescence ; black ; the wedge-shaped 
space between the antennae, almost the basal half of the 
clypeus, its apex and the labrum, rufous ; the basal mark 
on the clypeus with two triangular expansions in its 
apex ; the apex of the clypeus with a shallow, waved 
incision, the sides of which do not form teeth ; the apex 
of the labrum rounded. The base of the mandibles 
broadly black ; the rest rufous, slightly fringed with long, 
white hair; the palpi obscure testaceous. Antennae black; 

Manchester Jlleifiozrs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 39 

the basal two-thirds of the scape rufous. Thorax coarsely 
punctured all over ; the prothorax rufous, except beneath ; 
the scutellum with two closely joined marks ; the post- 
scutellum, the sides of the metanotum, the apex of the 
metapleurae, and a large mark — longer than broad, slightly 
narrowed on the lower side, and with all the sides straight — 
rufous. The median segment has a gradually rounded 
slope, the apical half being straight, oblique ; the whole 
segment rather closely covered with long fuscous hair, and 
towards the apex with a white pubescence; the centre 
at the apex is excavated and projects (as seen from above) 
into triangular projections between the base of the 
abdomen. On the metapleurae the rufous colour does not 
extend on to the lower side at the base. Legs rufous ; 
the coxae and trochanters black ; the apices of the hinder 
tibiae and the tarsi fuscous. Wings violaceous, lighter, 
almost hyaline, at the extreme base. Petiole as long as 
the rest of the abdomen ; closely and coarsely punctured ; 
at the base sparsely covered with longish, fuscous hair ; 
the extreme apex with a narrow, rufous band ; the second 
segment coarsely punctured ; its apex depressed ; the 
third and following segments impunctate ; the ventral 
segments impunctate. 

The only species with which it can be compared is 
the Ceylonese E. Jiumbertiana Sauss., which is, however, 
very different ; e.g., the thorax is nearly as wide as long, 
the clypeus is smooth, and only ferruginous at the apex ; 
there is only " a narrow, twice-interrupted line on the 
margin of the pronotum," the clypeus ends in two blunt 
teeth, &c. 

Pterochilus px^lvipennis, sp. nov. (PI. 4, fig. 3, la, b) 

Hab. Poona ( WrougJiton). 

Only one species oi P terochihis is recorded from India — 
P . piilchellus Sm., known from N, W. India. It, and the 

40 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

species here described, may be separated as follows, apart 
from the oral characters noted below. 

Black, the base of the abdomen red ; the wings hyalinC; 
abdomen not pedunculate, length, 7 — 8 mm. 

P. pulchellus Sm. 

Fulvous, the head, pronotum and apex of abdomen 
broadly yellow ; wings fulvous ; abdomen pedunculate : 
length, 24 mm. P. fulvipennis. 

Belongs to Saussure's first division : labial palpi large, 
not plumose, carrying only stiff hairs ; mandibles short ; 
abdomen pedunculate. Dark rufous : the head, except a 
transverse stripe on the vertex uniting the eyes, the 
pronotum, two marks near the apex of the second 
abdominal segment, and the four apical segments broadly, 
lemon-yellow; wings fulvo-hyaline, the apex smoky ; the 
costa and stigma fulvous ; the nervures fuscous. 

Antennae fulvous, the scape lemon-yellow, except at 
the extreme apex ; bare except for a pale, microscopic 
down on the apical joints. Head lemon-yellow, shining ;, 
the front and vertex bearing a short, pale pubescence ; a 
rufous band across the vertex behind the ocelli joining the 
eyes ; in the middle, it is prolonged to enclose the ocelli, 
from the sides of which runs a short, oblique line of the 
same colour. Mandibles dark rufous ; the teeth black ;. 
on their apices are four short, distinct, blunt teeth ; the 
apical rounded ; the palpi rufo-testaceous ; the hairs long, 
stiff, pale. Clypeus bare ; bearing scattered, shallow 
punctures ; the apex with the sides almost straight,, 
oblique ; the centre roundly incised, the incision at the 
sides ending in somewhat triangular, sharp teeth. Thorax 
rufous, except for a broad lemon-yellow mark on the 
pronotum ; the mark does not reach the apex of the 
segment and is bluntly rounded and narrowed at its 
apex. Mesonotum with scutellum densely covered with 
a fuscous, microscopic pile ; at the apex, touching 

Mmichester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 41 

the scutellum, are two straight, distinct, moderately deep 
and wide furrows ; and opposite the apex of the tegulae, 
but not reaching the scutellum, is a shorter more indistinct 
furrow. Scutellum flat, shining ; post-scutellum with a 
rounded slope ; its apex bordered by oblique furrows, 
which unite at the top with the wider and deeper furrow 
down the centre of the median segment. Pro- and meso- 
pleurae with a few scattered shallow punctures ; shortly 
behind the middle of the mesopleurae is an oblique, 
moderately wide and deep, crenulated furrow, which unites 
with a narrower oblique crenulated one originating at the 
base of the mesopleurae ; from the posterior part of the 
upper furrow runs a short, much wider and deeper, oblique 
furrow. At the base of the median segment is a crenulated, 
slightly oblique furrow, wide at the top, much narrower 
and more distinctly crenulated at the bottom. In front 
of the hinder coxae are two stout teeth ; the hinder being 
narrower, sharper and longer than the anterior. Metapleurae 
smooth, the middle aciculated ; the apex punctured ; the 
apical half of the median segment being also marked with 
punctures ; and rather thickly covered with longish, pale 
hairs. Legs coloured like the body ; the femora sparsely 
covered with longish, pale hairs ; the tibiae and tarsi more 
thickly with pale pubescence. Second cubital cellule 
much narrowed at the top, being there slightly shorter 
than the space bounded by the second recurrent and the 
second transverse cubital nervures. Petiole elongate, 
slightly, but distinctly, longer than the second segment, 
becoming gradually wider from the base to the apex ; the 
apex with distinct punctures ; and having in the centre a 
deep, short, longitudinal furrow ; the lateral teeth, before 
the middle, large, triangular. Second segment obscurely 
punctured ; in front of the middle are two moderately 
large, transverse marks ; the third segment broadly lemon- 
yellow at the apex ; the base black, rufous at the sides ; 

42 Cameron, Hymenoptera Oricntalia. 

the fourth segment broadly yellow, a narrow, short, rufous 
line down the middle at the base, and a rufous mark on 
each side; the fifth segment broadly yellow, in the middle; 
the rufous triangularly projecting into it at the sides and 
at the base in the middle ; the last segment broadly 
yellow ; there is a transverse depression at the apex. The 
sides, base and apex of the lower side of the petiole 
smooth, impunctate, the rest with stout, slightly curved 
keels. The second segment, except in the middle, with 
shallow, rather widely separated, punctures ; the other 
segments much more closely and strongly punctured. 

What is no doubt a variety has the apex of the second 
abdominal segment broadly lemon-yellow, while in its 
centre, at the base, is a large, somewhat triangular, black 
mark, the narrow part of which is at the base; its fourth 
segment is black at the base. 

Note. — This species may not be a true Pterochilus. The 
maxillary palpi are 6-jointed as in the typical species ; but the 
labial are distinctly 4-jointed, whereas in Pterochilus proper they 
are 3-jointed only. On the basal joint of the labial palpi there are 
two or three hairs near the middle; and at the apices of the first, 
second, and third joints are two or three long, stiff, bristle-like 
hairs. The fourth joint is bare and is nearly half the length of the 
third. In addition to the four large apical teeth on the man- 
dibles, there are two small ones and a much larger rounded one. 

The number of joints in the labial palpi and their clothing 
do not appear to be features of generic importance. Saussure 
says {Monog. des Guepes, iii., p. 321) : " On remarque des especes 
dont les palpes labiaux sont a peine comprimes et a peine 
plumeux ; on apergoit meme parfois un quatrieme article rudi- 
mentaire ;" but in oar species the fourth joint cannot be called 
" rudimentary," being quite distinct. 


Odynerus EREBODES, Sp. nov. 
Niger ^ capite thoraceque distincte pu?ictatis ; abdominis 
seg7nentis i-j pallida flavo-balteatis ; pedibus sordide rufis; 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 43 

basi clypei scapoque antennarum siibtiis pallide flavis ; alls 
violaceo-fu matis. 9 . 

Long. 9 mm. 

Hab. Poona ( Wro2ighton). 

In Bingham's table {I.e., p. 362) it comes in "^^ Third 
abdominal segment with a transverse yellow fascia on the 
middle of its posterior margin " which may now be sub- 
divided as follows : 

Scape of antennae black ; tegulse yellow, post-scutellam 
with a yellow spot on the angles, wings clear hyaline. 

O. burmanicus Bing. 

Scape of antennae yellow beneath ; tegulse entirely 
black; post-scutellum impunctate, wings smoky. O. erebodes. 

Head coarsely punctured ; the punctures large, round 
and deep ; black ; a large, curved band on the base of the 
clypeus, a small, heart-shaped mark between the antennae, a 
line along the lower curve of the eye, and two small marks, 
longer than broad, on the apex of clypeus, pallid yellow ; 
mandibles black, the apex broadly piceous ; an elongate, 
yellow mark in the middle at the base ; this mark being 
sharply pointed at the apex. Palpi testaceous. Clypeus 
as long as its breadth in the middle ; the apex narrowed, 
the sides oblique ; the middle with a shallow, rounded 
incision, the sides of which form triangular teeth. The 
clypeus has a few shallow punctures and is densely covered 
with silvery pubescence. Front and vertex bearing large, 
deep, distinctly separated punctures ; the front very 
thickly, the vertex more sparsely, covered with silvery 
pubescence and hairs ; the eye orbits, on the lower side 
behind, thickly covered with silvery pubescence ; a little 
above the middle, there is a small, yellow mark. Antennae 
covered with a white down ; the scape yellow beneath. Pro- 
and meso-notum with scutellum bearing all over deep, large 
punctures, those on the apical part of the mesonotum being 
the larger; thickly covered with short fuscous pubescence. 

44 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

the pronotum transverse in front, and bearing two short, 
yellow lines in the middle ; the post-scutellum coarsely 
rugosely punctured, thickly covered with black hair ; the 
sides oblique, the middle depressed ; the median segment 
with an oblique slope, the centre not excavated ; in the 
middle deeply furrowed. Pleurae coarsely punctured like 
the mesonotum, the punctures on the metapleurae towards 
the apex running into reticulations. Legs dark rufous ; 
the coxae blackish ; the femora and tibiae in front blackish ; 
the extreme apices of the femora yellow ; the four hinder 
tibiae with a yellow line in the middle in front ; the tarsi 
infuscated. The wings are lighter in tint behind and at 
the base ; the nervures and stigma black. Abdomen with 
the basal segment behind and at the sides, the second 
with the apex all round and the third with a band in the 
centre, pale yellow ; the basal segment rounded at the 
base ; sparsely punctured ; the second segment strongly 
punctured ; the third still more strongly, the puncturing 
on the other segments becoming gradually weaker ; the 
basal segment yellow, suffused with blood-colour beneath. 

Odynerus WROUGHTONI, sp. nov. 
Long. 8 mm. 
Hab. Poona ( Wroughtoii). 

In Bingham's table (/. c.^ p. 362) it comes in at " a'^. Base 
of 1st abdominal segment red; a^. abdomen petiolate " 
which will now be sub-divided : 

Median segment not reticulated at the base and with a 
carina on either side ; the three apical segments of the 
abdomen not marked with white in the centre above. 

O. miniatus Sauss. 
Median segment reticulated at the base, without a keel . 
on either side ; the three apical segments of the abdomen 
marked with yellow in the middle. O. wroughtoni. 

The antennae black ; the scape clear yellow ; the 
flagellum brownish beneath ; the flagellum bearing a 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 45 

sparse, white, microscopic pile. Head coarsely punctured, 
sparsely covered with short, white hair ; the hinder ocelli 
in large deep pits. The centre of the clypeus black, 
except the apex, which is red ; this black and red part 
coarsely and strongly punctured ; the black narrowed at 
the base and not keeled laterally ; but the rest is bordered 
by distinct, reddish, straight keels which converge slightly 
towards the apex, which is transverse ; its sides, except at 
the apex, yellow ; and punctured on the outer side. 
iNIandibles red, yellow at the base ; the palpi yellow; above 
the antennae is a yellow mark, mitre-shaped, except that it 
is roundly produced beneath. Thorax black ; two large 
marks on the middle of the pronotum — narrow at the base, 
wide, and oblique at the apex, the post-scutellum, and a 
somewhat pyriform mark, below and in front of the 
teguLne, yellow. Pro- and meso-notum with the scutella 
strongly punctured ; the base of the median segment in 
the centre reticulated, densely covered with white pubes- 
cence, especially at the centre of the base, where it almost 
hides the surface. Pro- and meso-pleurae strongly 
punctured, covered with silvery hair ; the metapleurae 
apparently impunctate, the surface hidden by silvery pubes- 
cence. Tegulai yellow, reddish in middle. Wings hyaline ; 
the nervures and costa blackish ; the stigma fuscous ; the 
second cubital cellule at the top narrowed, being there 
not much wider than the space bounded by the first 
transverse cubital and the first recurrent nervures. Legs 
red, the tibiae yellow on the outside, this being also, to a 
less extent, the case with the tarsi at the base. Petiole 
red ; yellow at the apex above ; shining, punctured towards 
the apex ; the second segment obscurely punctured at 
the base, more strongly towards the apex ; an oval, 
irregular spot on either side near the apical third ; its 
apex with a moderately broad, yellow band, slightly 
dilated at the sides, and at the middle ; the 3 — 5 segments 

4-6 Cameron, Hymenoptera O^ientalia. 

more strongly and closely punctured ; on the apex of the 
third segment in the middle are two small, yellow marks ; 
on the fourth segment in the centre is a much larger mark, 
transverse at the apex, contracted in the middle at the 
the base and with the sides rounded ; on the apex of the 
last segment is a larger yellow mark rounded at the base, 
the apex roundly projecting in the middle. Beneath, the 
basal segment is red ; the apex of the second, yellow. 


I C ARIA JUCUNDA, sp, nov. 

Long. 15 mm. (worker). 

Hab. New Guinea {Cuthbertson). 

Agrees closely in size, form and coloration with 
/. ferruginea ; but may be known from it by the 
scutellum and post-scutellum being furrowed down the 
centre ; by the middle of the median segment being much 
more strongly and broadly transversely striated, by the 
petiole being longer, by its narrowed basal half being 
narrower compared with the apical and more distinctly 
separated from it ; by the yellow band on the second 
abdominal segment being much narrower and by the 
wings being much lighter in tint, their apex being only 
lightly infuscated. 

Several species of Icaria are known from New 
Guinea and the neighbouring Islands ; but the present 
species does not agree with any of them. Smith's 
catalogue {Proc. Linn. Soc. {ZooL), 1869) is not trustworthy. 
In Icaria there are several noteworthy omissions ; e.g.^ I. 
festina Sm., /. bicolor Sm. {Proc. Linn. Soc. {ZooL), iS64,p. 
90), from New Guinea, and /. australis Sauss , from Dorey. 

Rufo-ferruginous ; the apex of the clypeus all round, 
the base of the mandibles broadly, the edge of the thorax 
all round in front, scutellum, post-scutellum, two mode- 
rately large, oblique marks on the apex of the median 

Manchester Memoh's, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 47 

segment, a large mark on the base of the mesopleurae 
immediately under the wings, a more obscure one above 
the middle coxa^, a narrow line on the apex of the petiole 
and the apical fourth of the second segment above and the 
apical eighth below, yellow. Head coarsely, but not very 
distinctly, punctured ; the front and vertex sparsely 
covered with a short, sparse, pale pubescence ; the face 
with the pubescence much thicker and with a fulvous hue; 
the clypeus covered with long, bright golden hairs. 
Antennal fovea deeply furrowed in the middle above. 
Sides of the clypeus straight, oblique, its centre not ending 
in a point or tooth. Mandibles ferruginous, the teeth 
black ; a large, somewhat triangular, yellow mark on the 
base above, its apex reaching beyond the middle. Antennae 
ferruginouSjthe scape somewhat darkerin tint; theflagellum, 
especially towards the apex, densely coyered with a white 
down. The edge of the pronotum sharply carinate. Pro- 
and meso-notum coarsely punctured, running into obscure 
reticulations towards the apex ; the edge of the pronotum 
narrowly depressed, the depression forming a furrow and 
black. Scutellum and post-scutellum rather strongly, but 
not closely, punctured ; the central furrow on the scutellum 
deep, shining, rufo-piceous ; that on the post-scutellum 
broader but not quite so deep. Median segment with an 
oblique slope ; its centre appearing raised through being 
transversely striated, and bordered by a distinct margin 
or furrow; the centre at the apex deeply excavated, and 
with a distinct furrow in the middle. Pro- and meso- 
pleura; coarsely punctured. The base of the metapleurae 
strongly, coarsely and irregularly longitudinally striated, 
bordered behind by a black furrow, and below by a short, 
oblique, shining furrow, from which a curved, not very 
distinct, furrow runs to the hinder coxse. Legs ferruginous ; 
the coxcc densely covered with fulvous pile, especially at 
the base on the under side. Wings hyaline, the costal and 

48 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

radial cellules smoky ; the stigma flavo-testaceous ; the 
nervures blackish. Petiole elongate, the basal third dis- 
tinctly narrowed and separated from the rest ; the narrow 
yellow apex being also slightly narrowed ; shining, impunc- 
tate ; towards the apex thickly covered with depressed, 
fulvous hair. The other segments closely and rather 
strongly punctured, particularly the third and following. 


Long, fere 9 mm. (worker). 

Hab. Periyakullam, Ceylon ( Yerbicry). 

In Bingham's table (/.^., p. 386), this species can be 
referred to " A. Reddish or reddish-brown, with yellow 
markings," and to subsection "^. second abdominal seg- 
ment with no transverse yellow band on its apical margin," 
which will now be subdivided : — 

Head and thorax rufous; abdomen black; hind legs for 
the greater part black. /. guttatipennis. 

Entirely rufous, except the second abdominal segment, 
which is infuscated ; legs without black. /. ceylonica. 

Head reddish, sparsely covered with short, glistening white 
pubescence ; the front and vertex with moderately large, 
rather widely separated punctures, the ocellar space 
fuscous; the antennal tubercle bare; furrowed above; the 
clypeus almost bare at the apex, its sides oblique, the 
middle ending in a tooth, and with some large punctures; 
at the base of the mandibles is a black spot. Scape of 
antennae rufous, infuscated above ; the flagellum paler, 
infuscated above, especially towards the apex. Pro- and 
meso-notum with shallow, rather large punctures all over; 
the mesonotum darker in tint, thickly covered with a 
microscopic, white pile; the base of the post-scutellum 
black, obscurely crenulated; the median segment with a 
large, wide, deep, black depression in the middle; the 
depression becoming gradually, but not very greatly, nar- 

Manchestei' Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 49 

rowed towards the apex; its centre itself has a furrow, and 
it is obscurely transversely striated. Pleurae somewhat 
infuscated except at the base of the pro- and the middle 
of the meso- above; the mesonotum black. Legs pale 
rufo-testaceous, the tarsi paler ; the hinder coxae black 
beneath; the fore femora slightly, the four hinder more 
broadly, lined with black beneath. Wings hyaline; the 
apex with a blackish cloud extending from the second 
transverse cubital nervure to the apex ; dark in the radial 
cellule, more obscure in the cubital ; the nervures blackish; 
the stigma testaceous; darker along the upper border. 
Petiole with a distinct, narrow neck, from which it becomes 
gradually wider to the apex, which has a narrow, pale 
border; the second segment has the basal three-fourths or 
so obscure black, except on either side at the base; the 
third segment is blackish at the base ; the fourth and fifth 
at the apex, laterally, the apical segments thickly covered 
with white hair. On the ventral side the apical four seg- 
ments are black. 




Long. II — 12 mm. 9 et (^ . 
Hab. Poona, Bombay ( WrougJitoii). 
The only Indian species of Colletes may be separated 
from the present as follows : — 

Vertex with "a few fine punctures": the median 

segment at base longitudinally rugose, the apex with the 

sides smooth. C. dudgeonii Bng. 

Vertex coarsely punctured, the median segment strongly 

reticulated; the sides of the apex transversely striated. 

C. dentata. 

Clypeus apparently closely and rather strongly 

punctured, but the surface cannot be properly observed 

from the matting of the hairs ; the front and vertex 

50 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

strongly punctured ; thickly covered with long, white 
hairs ; a straight, narrow furrow runs from the ocelli to 
the antennae ; the hair on the sides longer and thicker 
than on the vertex. The scape of the antennae covered 
with longish, stiff, black hairs ; the flagellum glabrous. 
Thorax black; the pro- and meso-notum and scutellum 
strongly punctured ; the pronotum thickly covered with 
long, white hair. The edges of the pronotum on either 
side project into a large, sharp plate, the base of which 
projects into a sharp, triangular tooth. Metanotum at 
the base with a strongly reticulated area, which, at the 
apex, is narrowed and runs into a wide, deep, and smooth 
furrow, slightly narrowed towards the apex and bordered 
by stout keels ; on either side of this furrow it is smooth ; 
on the outer side it is apparently punctured, but the 
punctuation, if present, is hidden by a thick covering of long, 
white hair. Propleurae almost impunctate, at the apex 
thickly covered with long, white hair ; the mesopleurae 
coarsely punctured, the punctures large and clearly 
separated ; an obscure, vertical furrow down it behind 
the tubercles, and an oblique, longitudinal one above the 
middle ; the metapleurae finely and closely rugose ; a few 
oblique, short keels above the coxae. Legs black ; the 
calcaria pale ; the femora sparsely covered with longish, 
white hair ; the tibiae and tarsi thickly with shorter pale 
hair, which has on the tarsi a fulvous tint. Wings dark 
fuscous, with a violaceous tinge ; the base paler, the apex 
from the end of the radial cellule hyaline; the stigma and 
nervures black. Abdomen smooth, almost shining ; all 
the segments fringed with a dense band of depressed, 
white pubescence ; except the last, which is closely punc- 
tured ; the apical three segments sparsely covered with 
black hair ; the ventral segments fringed with white pubes- 
cence ; the hypopygium very smooth and shining; its 
sides at the apex fringed with long, white hair. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 51 

If Bingham's fig. 127 (/.r., p. 408) represents the labium of 
C. dtidgeo7iii, then that of the species here described differs 
from it in the labium being much wider than the mentum, 
and more widely and deeply divided at the apex. The 
same remark applies to Smith's figure {Cat. Hyin. Ins., i., 
pi. I., f i). Bingham makes no mention of the fore wings 
having an appendicular cellule, nor is one indicated in his 
figure. In C. dentata the appendicular cellule is quite 
distinct, but open at the apex. The head and thorax are 
not very pubescent for a Colletes, but this may be through 
wear and tear. The wings vary in tint. 


Halictus TORRIDUS, Sp. nov. 

Long. 5-6 mm. 

Hab. Poona ( Wroughton). 

In Bingham's table {I.e., p. 421) it comes in at '' C. 
Enclosed space at base of median segment with longitu- 
dinal striae, b^. Abdomen impunctate," which contains two 
species; — H. timidus, which, differs in having the abdomen 
and legs rufo-testaceous, and the Burmese H. gutturosus, 
which differs in having the eyes only very slightly con- 
vergent below; while here they are very distinctly conver- 
gent below ; the pubescence on the head and thorax is 
"thin;" here it is dense and long. 

Head closely and distinctly punctured in front ; the 
clypeus thickly covered with depressed, white pubescence; 
the front, vertex, and hinder parts with the hair longer, more 
erect, and not quite so dense ; eyes distinctly converging 
on the lower side, the space separating them there being 
about half the length of the vertex ; they have a distinct 
curve near the top on the inner side. The face, below the 
antennae in the centre, projects ; the projection being wider 
at the apex, where it is clearly separated from the clypeus, 
which is as long as the space between its base and 

52 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

the antennae; its sides oblique, very slightly rounded 
towards the apex, which is transverse; the sides of the 
apex rounded ; not so closely punctured as the front, 
but the punctures are as large. Antennae as long as the 
head and thorax united; black; the scape with longish, 
white hair; the flagellum with a close down, which is 
especially thick on the lower side, giving it a fuscous 
appearance. Thorax shining, thickly covered with long, 
soft, white hair; the mesonotum and scutellum with 
shallow, not very large punctures ; the apex of the median 
segment with an oblique slope; the enclosed space at the 
base finely rugose, the sides with some nearly straight, 
longitudinal striae; the propleurae almost impunctate ; 
the mesopleurae closely and rather strongly punctured; 
shining, sparsely covered with long, white, soft hair ; the 
depression at its base wide, deep ; the part above it 
bounded by narrow, oblique furrows, which converge 
slightly towards the top. Legs thickly pilose; the hair 
on the femora and tibiae long and white, that on the tarsi 
very dense, pale golden. Wings clear hyaline; the 
nervures pale ; the stigma darker at top and bottom ; the 
second cubital cellule narrowed at the top ; it is there half 
the length of the third at the top ; the first transverse 
cubital nervure straight, oblique; the second and third 
curved ; the first recurrent nervure is interstitial. Abdomen 
shining, impunctate ; the apical segments sparsely covered 
with long, white hair. The first submedian nervure is 

Andrena EXAGENS Walker. 

This bee, described by Walker, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
i860, from Ceylon, is omitted by Bingham. 

SUDILA, gen. nov. 
Head in ? elongate, narrower than the thorax; in $, 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11 53 

broader than it, largel}^ developed behind the e}^es ; the 
apex of the clypeus in $ produced into two stout teeth ; 
the sides of the head, on the lower side behind, largely 
triangularly produced. Labial palpi 4-, maxillary 6- 
jointed ; the first joint of maxillary half the length of the 
2nd; the 2nd to 5th almost equal in length; the 6th a 
little longer. Mandibles in $ very large, curved, dilated 
towards the apex, which is itself prolonged into a long, 
stout tooth issuing from the middle of the dilated part; 
the middle with a long furrow in the centre. Labrum at 
top ending in a triangular point; the maxilla moderately 
large; the 2-5 joints almost equal in length, the 6th joint 
a little longer than the first. Body in ? and c^ moderately, 
the legs densely, pilose; the claws with a stout tooth in 
the middle. Mesonotum with a narrow, but distinct, 
furrow down the sides, but not reaching the base or apex, 
and a less distinct, shallower furrow down the middle. 
Median segment without a distinct enclosed or striated 
space in the centre at the base. Prothorax transverse at 
the top, sharply raised there and at the sides. Pterostigma 
moderately large and elongate; the first cubital cellule 
somewhat longer than the second and third cellules united ; 
the third cubital cellule narrow, not much more than half 
the length of the first; the first recurrent nervure almost 
interstitial ; the second received close to the third trans- 
verse cubital nervure. Abdomen smooth and shining; the 
apical segments densely covered with long hair ; the 
ventral segments densely fringed with long hair; the 
apical segments with a rima, as in Halictus. 

The presence of a rima on the apical abdominal seg- 
ment and the form of the alar neuration ally this genus 
to Halictus, nor is the structure of the trophi enough to 
separate it generically from that genus, while the ? again 
agrees with it in having an elongated face; the median 
segment in both sexes wants the enclosed space at the 

54 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

base; so that the absence of the enclosed space on the 
median segment, and, more particularly, the presence of 
the longitudinal furrows on the mesonotum, which are not 
found, so far as I know, in Halictus^ are the only points 
of distinction between them so far as regards the females. 
On the other hand the form of the head in the $ is so very 
different from what it is in Halictus, or indeed in any 
allied genus, that it cannot be included in it. 

SUDILA BIDENTATA, Sp. nov. (PI. 4, f 5, 5^.) 

Nigra, nitida, sparse pallide hirta; alts hyalinis. 

Long, fere 10 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon {Rothney). 

$ . Head shining, impunctate, sparsely covered with 
long, fuscous-black hair; a narrow, but distinct, furrow 
runs from the ocelli, which are bordered behind by a wider 
and deeper furrow. Mandibles piceous-red, except at the 
base and apex. Scape of antennae sparsely covered 
with long black hairs ; the base of the flagellum with 
short, stiff hairs ; the rest of it bearing a pale down. 
Prothorax almost glabrous; its basal edge piceous; the 
mesonotum and scutella sparsely covered with long, 
black hairs. Median segment with a gradually rounded 
slope ; its apex covered with long, white hairs. Mesopleurae 
and mesosternum shining, impunctate, sparsely covered 
with long, white hairs. On the mesopleurae, near the top, 
is a wide, oblique, deep furrow, which reaches near to the 
apex. Wing? hyaline, the nervures and stigma black ; the 
first transverse cubital nervure is oblique, straight ; the 
second slightly, the thirdly distinctly, curved. The hair 
on the legs thick, longish, white on the femora, much 
thicker and darker coloured on the tibiae and tarsi ; the 
spurs and claws reddish. Abdomen very smooth and 
shining, the base glabrous, the apex thickly covered with 
long, stiff, fuscous-black hairs; the apical ventral segments 
thickly covered with long, fuscous hairs. 

Manchester Memoirs, VoLxlii.{\Z<^^),No.\\. 55 


Long. 10 mm. $ . 

Hab. Ceylon {Rot/mey). 

This species differs markedly from the preceding 
in the form of the head; it is not so shining; the apex of 
the clypeus, instead of ending in the middle in two sharp 
teeth, has only a semicircular incision, the edges of which 
do not project; the lower part of the head at the sides has 
the projecting part not quite so lengthened, and is sharper 
pointed at the apex ; the apex of the mandible is rounded 
in ^. bidentata, here it is distinctly transverse and not so 
much narrowed; another marked distinction is found in 
the median segment; here its sides are bordered by a 
furrow, which is hardly visible in the other; the legs are 
distinctly fuscous, or rather piceous; the wings are dis- 
tinctly smoky, being much darker coloured than in 5. 
bidentata; the second cubital cellule is perceptibly shorter 
above and beneath than the third; the two being conse- 
quently together shorter than the first ; the second trans- 
verse cubital nervure is straight, more oblique and more 
narrowed towards the first at the top. 

If I had only S. bidentata to deal with, I should have 
inferred that the female described below was its female ; 
but having two undoubted males of distinct species, I am 
unable to say to which of them it belongs, if indeed it 
may not pertain to a third unknown male. I therefore 
am compelled to treat it as a separate species. 

SUDILA CEYLONICA, Sp. nov. (PI. 4, fig. 4.) 

Nigra, nitida, sterno pleurisqiie longe albo-hirtis ; aiis 
hyaliiiis, stiginate Jusco, nervis nigris. ?. 

Long. lo-i I mm. 

Hab. Ceylon {Rothney). 

Front and vertex sparsely covered with longish black 
hair ; the front opaque, shagreened ; a distinct, narrow 

56 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

farrow runs down from the ocelli ; the clypeus very 
shining, bearing some large, deep, widely separated 
punctures ; its apex with two large, oval foveae in the 
centre, and fringed with long, reddish-fulvous hair, as is 
also the labrum. The apex of the mandibles piceous, 
fringed at the base with a few long, fulvous hairs. 
Flagellum shining, sparsely covered with a few black 
hairs. Pronotum at the sides above triangular ; the 
angles sharp ; the propleurae excavated, shining, im- 
punctate, glabrous ; the mesonotum shining, impunctate ; 
thickly covered with fuscous hair, the hair on the sides to 
the tegulse much thicker and paler ; the middle towards 
the base with a shallow, not very distinct, furrow ; and 
there is on either side, extending from in front of the 
tegulae to the scutellum, a narrow, more distinctly defined 
furrow; scutellum and post-scutellum impunctate, thickly 
covered (especially the post-scutellum) with long, fuscous 
hair. The base of the mesopleurae thickly covered with 
long, pale hair, the rest of it with the hair sparser. 
Median segment shagreened, the base without any 
enclosed or punctured space ; sparsely haired ; the apex 
thickly covered with long, white hair. Tegulae very 
shining, impunctate. Wings hyaline ; the nervures dark 
fuscous. Legs, especially the hinder, covered with long, 
white hair ; the hair on the hinder tarsi very thick and 
long, and having a faint fulvous tinge. Abdomen shining, 
smooth ; the base with a few scattered hairs ; the apex 
thickly covered with long, fuscous hair ; the ventral 
surface covered thickly with long, pale hair. 

Steganomus FULVIPENNIS, Sp. nov. 

Long. 7 mm. 

Hab. Poona, Bombay ( Wroughtoii). 

The two new species here described may be separated 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 57 

from 6". nodicornis Sm., the only known Indian species of 
the genus, by the under-noted characters : — 

Scape of the antennae rufous, wings with the apex dis- 
tinctly smoky ; the basal area of the median segment only 
impunctate, S. nodicornis. 

Scape of the antennae black ; wings not smoky at the 
apex ; the base of the median segment impunctate. 

S. fulvipen7iis and S. gracilis. 

Black; the antennae, except at base and apex, the 
femora, tibiae, and tarsi rufo-testaceous ; wings hyaline, 
the stigmal region slightly smoky; the stigma testaceous, 
the nervures at the base pale testaceous, darker towards 
the apex of the wings. 

$ . The scape of the antennae black, bearing long, 
white hair; the second joint infuscated; the flagellum 
almost bare, finely punctured ; the terminal joint black ; 
the fourth joint is slightly longer than the third. Head 
black, the front, cheeks, and clypeus densely covered with 
pale fulvous hair ; the front very closely punctured ; the 
vertex at the sides of the ocelli with large, clearly separated 
punctures; the part behind the ocelli closely punctured, 
the punctures slightly larger and more distinctly separated 
than those in front of the ocelli, and much smaller than 
those on the sides. The pro- and meso-notum thickly 
covered with short, fulvous pubescence, this being also the 
case with the scutellum and base of post-scutellum ; the 
latter is minutely and closely punctured. Median seg- 
ment shining, almost bare ; the base impunctate, the rest 
with moderately large, distinctly separated punctures; the 
apex with an indistinct, shallow furrow down the centre. 
Propleurae impunctate, slightly shagreened; bare; meso- 
pleurae strongly punctured, densely covered with long, 
pale hair; the metapleurae sparsely covered with long, pale 
fulvous hair and strongly punctured. Legs fulvous; the 
coxae, trochanters, and base of four anterior femora black; 

58 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

the femora on the lower side fringed with white hair; the 
tibiae and tarsi thickly covered with white pubescence. 
The first recurrent nervure is received at a slightly less 
distance from the base than is the second from the apex 
of the cellule. Abdomen black, the ventral segments 
more or less ferruginous, the dorsal segments with broad 
belts of white, depressed pubescence at their bases, all the 
segments strongly and closely punctured, except at their 
extreme bases and apices. 

The $ has the flagellum of the antennae black above ; 
the abdomen above much less strongly punctured; the 
legs thickly covered with long, fulvous hair; and the basal 
abdominal segments fringed with golden hair; the apical 
covered densely all over with pale, golden hair. 

Steganomus gracilis, sp. nov. (PI. 4, f i6.) 

Long. 6 mm. $ . 

Hab. Mussooree {Rothney). 

Agrees with 5. fulvipennis in having the base and 
apex of the antennae black and the apex of the wings not 
smoky ; but is smaller and more slender, the third joint 
of the antennae is not distinctly shorter than the fourth, 
the median segment is impunctate, the second recurrent 
nervure is received at a distinctly greater distance from 
the apex than is the first from the base of the cellule ; 
and the abdominal segments are very much less strongly 

Antennae slender, testaceous, the apical two joints 
black ; the scape broadly infuscated in the middle ; 
punctured, sparsely covered with long, white hair. Front 
and Qral region densely covered with pale fulvous 
pubescence ; the vertex much more sparsely covered 
with longer hair, uniformly, but not very strongly, 
punctured. Mandibles broadly ferruginous in the middle. 
The base and apex of the mesonotum, the scutellum and 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 59 

post-scutellum densely covered with pale, fulvous pubes- 
cence ; the centre much more sparsely with shorter, 
darker pubescence, and closely and minutely punctured. 
Median segment very shining, the base impunctate, 
the rest with minute, scattered, shallow punctures. Pro- 
pleurae impunctate, glabrous ; the basal three-fourths of 
the mesopleurcX covered thickly with pale fulvous hair ; 
the apex and the metapleurai sparsely covered with long, 
pale fulvous hair. Legs : the cox^, trochanters, and the 
greater part of the femora, black ; the tibiae and tarsi rufo- 
testaceous ; the femora sparsely, the tibi^ and tarsi very 
thickly covered with long, white hair, almost hiding the 
colour. Abdomen black, the ventral surface for the greater 
part ferruginous, the basal four segments closely punctured, 
fringed at the base with white hair ; the apical segments 
impunctate, clothed with soft, white hair ; the penultimate 
ventral segment is depressed in the middle, and with two 
large tubercles on either side. Wings hyaline, the stigma 
testaceous, the nervures blackish, the recurrent nervures 
are received about the same distance from the base and 
apex of the cellule. 

NOMIA AUREOHIRTA, Sp. nov. (PI. 4, f 7.) 

Long. 10 mm. $ . 

Hub, Poona ( Wroiighton). 

In Bingham's table (/.<:., p. 448), this species comes into 
h. a?" and into a new section O : — Enclosed space at base 
of median segment transversely striated. In the form of 
the hinder femora in the $> it resembles N.fervida; but 
the form of the tibia; is different; in N.fervida it is broadly 
dilated in the middle ; in the present species there is no 
dilatation, but a gradual curve from the base to the apex; 
the under side of the femora also is straight to the keel, 
while in N.fervida the base is curved inwardly and the 
middle dilated slightly. 

6o Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

Head below the antennae thickly covered with mode- 
rately long, golden pubescence ; the front and the occiput 
thickly with longer, dark fulvous hair; the vertex rugosely 
punctured, sparsely covered with darker hair. Mandibles 
on the lower side with some long, fulvous hairs; black, 
piceous near the apex; the hinder orbits thickly covered 
with pale fulvous hair. Antennal scape lemon-yellow ; 
thickly covered with long, fulvous hairs; the flagellum 
punctured, rufo-fulvous, darker above. The collar covered 
with depressed, yellow pubescence, behind fringed with 
long, dark fulvous hair ; the mesonotum and scutellum 
thickly covered with a short, depressed, dark fulvous pile 
completely hiding their texture; the post-scutellum with 
a similar covering, but longer, and intersected with some 
fuscous hairs. The basal area on the median segment 
triangularly dilated in the middle at the apex ; the middle 
at the apex with some short, transverse striae; the sides 
obscurely striated. Mesopleurae thickly covered with 
fulvous hair ; more sparsely at the apex, perhaps through 
being rubbed ; the metapleurae covered with long, fulvous 
hair above. Legs, except the coxae and trochanters, 
lemon-yellow; the femora and tibiae at the base suffused 
with ferruginous; the fore tarsi fringed behind with long, 
pale fulvous hair; the hind femora semicircularly curved 
above, straight on the lower side, and with a small, oblique 
tooth near the apex; the tibiae produced, at the apex in 
front, into a somewhat triangular projection which is 
gradually widened from the base of the tibiae to the apex, 
the apex itself being rather acute. Wings with a fusco- 
fulvous tinge, darker at the apex; the stigma obscure 
fulvous ; the second cubital celulle at the top about two- 
thirds of the length of the top of the third; the first 
recurrent nervure is received in the apical third of the 
cellule. The basal segment of the abdomen, broadly at 
the apex, and the second and third segments, in the 

Manchtster Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 61 

middle, thickly covered with fulvous hair ; the apices of 
the first to fourth segments with a broad band of rich 
fulvous, depressed pubescence ; the two apical segments 
thickly covered with long, pale fulvous hair. The ventral 
segments fringed at the apex with pale hair ; the last 
deeply depressed in the middle, and having there a stout 
triangular projection. 

NOMIA ERYTHROGASTER, Sp. flOV. (PI. 4, f 10.) 

Long. 9-10 mm. $ . 

Hab. Poona {Wroiighton). 

Comes into Bingham's Section A {I.e., p. 448). 
" a. Scutellum armed with two spines or teeth posteriorly," 
and " b^. Abdomen beneath and posterior legs rufo- 
testaceous," which is now subdivided : — 

Apex of post-scutellum distinctly bidentate ; the second 
cubital cellule not one-half the length of the third on the 
top. Length, 7-8 mm. N. wesiwoodi. 

Apex of post-scutellum not distinctly bidentate; the 
second cubital cellule more than one one-half the length of 
the third on top. Length, 10 mm. N. eryihrogaster. 

Head in front from near the ocelli thickly covered 
with white hair, that over the antennae being much the 
longer ; the vertex closely, but not deeply, punctured. 
Mandibles obscure ferruginous before the apex. The 
centre of the clypeus with a narrow keel ; above this is a 
stouter keel reaching to the antennae. Scape of antennae 
covered above with long, white hair; the flagellum obscure 
brownish beneath. Mesonotum uniformly covered with 
shallow punctures ; alutaceous ; the base, sides, and apex 
thickly covered with white hair ; the scutellum similarly 
punctured to the mesonotum, but with the punctures 
.somewhat larger ; the apex with the middle slightly 
depressed ; post-scutellum thickly covered with white 
hair ; the apex armed with two large, flat, slightly con- 

62 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalta. 

verging teeth, which project backwards and are a little 
narrowed at the top. The basal area on the median 
segment long and narrow, bearing stout, longitudinal 
keels, widely separated in the middle, closer together at 
the sides. The sides of the median segment are strongly, 
but not closely, punctured, and covered with long, white 
hair. Pleurae rugosely punctured, thickly covered with 
white hair. Wings hyaline, the costa and nervures 
fuscous ; the second cubital cellule at the top half the 
length of the top of the third ; the recurrent nervures are 
received in the apical third of the cellules. Legs thickly 
covered with white hair ; the hind femora and tibiae red, 
except the apex of the femora above, which is black ; the 
hind femora dilated above ; the apex of the hind tibiae 
gradually dilated to the apex, the dilation a little longer 
than broad, transverse at the apex, with the sides rounded. 
Abdomen shining, im.punctate, marked with four greenish 
blue belts ; the ventral surface, except at the apex, 
rufous ; the apex of the segments pale, thickly fringed 
with white hair. 


Long. 10 mm. ?. 

Hab. Barrackpore {Rothney), 

In Bingham's table (/.<:., p. 458), this species fits into 
" b^ b^. Thorax with griseous or white pubescence," and 
"<2^ Clypeus with a medial vertical furrow," which now 
stands as follows : — 

Clypeus coarsely punctured; abdominal segments 2-4 
with blue or green transverse lines, wings hyaline. 

N. iridescens Sm. 

Clypeus coarsely longitudinally striated ; abdominal 
segments 1-5 with purple transverse lines ; wings deeply 
fuscous except at extreme apex. iV. purpureo-lineata. 

* This group (that of A^. chalybeata Sm.) forms the sub-genus Paranomia 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 6^ 

Antennae black ; the flafjellum obscure brownish 
beneath, bare; the scape with a few long, white hairs. 
Face elongate ; keeled down the middle of the clypeus, 
closely longitudinally striated from the antennae to the 
apex of the clypeus; the labrum smooth, shining, fringed 
at the apex with long, golden hair. Mandibles entirely 
black ; the base with some long, white hairs. Front and 
vertex closeh' punctured; the sides, behind the antennae, 
thickly covered with short, pale golden hair. Mesonotum 
alutaceous, closely punctured ; an indistinct furrow down 
the sides; the scutellum punctured like the mesonotum, 
slightly depressed in the middle. Post-scutellum thickly 
covered with pale fulvous pubescence. The basal area on 
the median segment extending from side to side; sharply 
keeled at base and apex; irregularly longitudinally strio- 
lated ; the segments from the area thickly covered with 
long, pale fulvous hair, and bearing large shallow punc- 
tures. Pleurae shagreened ; the mesopleura^ punctured, 
thickly covered with long, pale fulvous hair. Legs entirely 
black, except the claws, which are piceous ; thickly covered 
with pale pubescence. Wings fuscous, tinged with fulvous ; 
the costa and stigma black; the nervures fuscous; the 
second cubital cellule hardly narrower at top than at 
bottom ; at top slightly more than one-half the length of 
the top of the third ; the first recurrent nervure is received 
quite close to the transverse cubital. Abdomen shining, 
very minutely punctured; all the segments with a smooth 
belt of purple at their apices ; the base of the petiole 
covered with longish, pale golden hair; the others at the 
base sparsely covered with long, black hair. Ventral 
segments obscure brownish; shining, the apices of the 
segments pale. 

A very distinct species, easily separated by the 
violaceous bands on the abdomen and by the fuscous 

64 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

NOMIA LATISPINA, sp. nov. (PL 4, f. II ?, \\a. c?.) 

Long. 7 mm. 

Hab. Allahabad {Rothney). 

Comes into a new section on foot of p. 448 (/.^.) ; 
C*. Enclosed space at base of abdominal segment smooth, 
neither punctured nor striated ; apices of abdominal seg- 
ments strongly punctured. 

Head narrow, sharply oblique behind the eyes ; the 
front and vertex with large, widely separated punctures ; 
the front thickly, the vertex more thinly, covered with 
fulvous hair ; the face and clypeus thickly with shorter, 
cream-coloured pubescence ; the apex of the clypeus bare, 
rather strongly punctured ; the mandibles shining, broadly 
rufous in the middle. Antennae entirely black, except the 
flagellum on the under side, which is brownish ; the scape 
bearing long, white hair. Thorax sharply transverse in 
front ; the mesonotum thickly covered with depressed, 
scale-like, fulvous hair ; the scutellum with only a few 
hairs ; the post-scutellum covered thickly with long, pale 
fulvous hair. Mesonotum closely, rather strongly and 
uniformly punctured ; the scutellum with the punctures, 
if anything, larger, and more widely separated. Median 
segment shining ; the sides and apex with a few pale 
golden hairs ; the basal area smooth, impunctate, trian- 
gular; the rest of the segment bearing large, deep, distinctly 
separated punctures. Meso- and meta-pleurae thickly 
covered with pale fulvous hair. Legs black ; the anterior 
tibiae and base of tarsi rufous in front ; the hinder tibial 
spine and metatarsus white ; the hinder tibial process 
reaching to the apex of the metatarsus, very broadj not 
much narrowed towards the apex, which is rounded. The 
hinder tibiae with a distinct, narrow keel down the middle 
on the outer side ; the hinder femora largely dilated, 
becoming wider to near the apex, which is oblique on 
their under side; in the middle, near the apex, is a small 

MaiicJiester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 65 

triangular tooth. Wings hyaline, the stigma and nervures 
black ; the second cubital cellule small, shorter than 
broad ; the first transverse cubital nervure straight ; the 
second roundly curved, interstitial with the recurrent 
nervure. Abdomen shining, strongly punctured ; the 
punctures large and deep on the basal three segments ; 
the apex of the basal segment with long, fulvous hair ; the 
base of the second, third and apical segments entirely 
covered with gre}^ pubescence. 

The form of the $ hind legs resembles that of 
A^. chalybeaia Sm. as figured by Smith {Trans. Ent. Soc, 
1875, pi. II, f 5). 

NOMIA FULVOIIIRTA, Sp. 710V. (PI. 4, f 9.) 

Long. 12 mm. 6 . 

Hab. Allahabad {Rothney). 

Comes into Bingham's Section (/.<:.) ''A. b. Post-scu- 
tellum unarmed posteriorly, a}. Thorax with more or less 
fulvous pubescence," consisting of N. curvipes P'ab., the $ 
of which differs in having the hinder femora "rufo- 
piceous, with their apical-half yellow," here black, yellow 
at the apex, and the hinder tibiae are broadly black at the 
base ; N. cJialybeaia differs from it in having the 
femora not so much swollen nor toothed ; N. varipes 
Cam. agrees with it closely ; but may be separated by 
the rufous, not black, base of the hinder femora and by 
their having only one large tooth. 

Head, except on the sides of the vertex, densely 
covered with long, fulvous hair ; the vertex, except near 
the ocelli, bearing rather large, distinctly separated, 
punctures ; the base of the mandibles yellow, the middle 
piceous, the apex black. The scape of antennae yellow, 
except on the apex above ; the flagellum fulvous, black 
above to near the apex. Thorax densely covered with 
long, fulvous hair ; the basal area of the median segment 

66 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

bearing stout, longitudinal keels. Legs yellow, thickly 
covered with fulvous hair ; the coxae, trochanters, the 
basal three-fourths of the four anterior femora and the 
basal half of the posterior femora, black ; the hinder 
femora largely thickened ; on the lower side near the apex 
are two stout teeth, separated by a semicircular space, the 
inner tooth being the larger ; the teeth are black, as is also 
the under side of the femora. Hinder tibiae greatly 
dilated towards the apex, ending there in a large curved, 
triangular tooth. Wings hyaline, with a slight fulvous 
tinge ; the apex, from the radial cellule, infuscated ; the 
costa, stigma and nervures fulvous ; the second and third 
cubital cellules at the top are equal in length. The basal 
segment of the abdomen black ; the apex greenish-yellow ; 
strongly punctured ; the base at the sides covered with 
short, the middle with long, fulvous hair ; the second 
and third segments black, the apices greenish-yellow ; the 
other segments greenish-yellow ; the base of all the seg- 
ments covered with fulvous pubescence ; the apices 
glabrous ; the ventral segments castaneous. 

NOMIA VARIPES, sp. nov. (PI. 4, f 8.) 

Long. 10 mm. c^. 

Hab. Allahabad {Rothney). 

In Bingham's table {I.e., p. 448), this species comes into 
"^. Abdomen with non-pubescent transverse fasciae," 
and " b. a)-. Thorax with more or less fulvous pubescence," 
"«^ Legs rufo-fulvous or ferruginous," presently repre- 
sented by N. chalybeaia Sm. and N. curvipes Fab., from 
either of which it is very different ; from N. chalybeata by 
the abdomen not having blue-green fasciae and by the 
spined femora ; from N. curvipes by the femora having a 
large projecting tooth and not a semicircular incision, 
and by the apical projection on the hinder tibiae being 
broader and blunter, not ending in a sharp curved tooth. 

Matichcstcr Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 67 

The form of the hinder femora and tibiae most nearly 
resembles those of the Indian N. comdrista a.nd the African 
A^. calida, but otherwise it is very distinct. The femora 
are formed pretty much as in A^. cJirysopa, but otherwise 
there is no resemblance. 

Head black ; front and vertex strongly punctured ; 
sparsely covered with short, fuscous hair; a smooth furrow 
runs down from the ocelli ; the face and clypeus densely 
covered with pale golden pubescence ; the base of the 
clypeus yellow, the middle rufous, the apex black. The 
scape of the antennae yellow, rather thickly covered with 
long, white hair ; the flagellum rufous, slightly darker in 
the middle above. Pro- and meso-notum with the scutel- 
lum thickly covered with short, dark fulvous pubescence, 
and strongly and uniformly punctured ; the median seg- 
ment thickly covered with long, pale fulvous hair; the base 
with a row of stout, straight, short keels. Mesopleurae thickly 
covered with pale fulvous pubescence ; the metapleur^ at 
the base and apex fringed with long, pale fulvous hair. 
Wings hyaline ; the apex distinctly smoky ; the costa, 
stigma, and nervures fulvous ; the second cubital cellule 
at the top equal in length to the top of the third ; the first 
recurrent nervure is received near the apical fourth ; the 
second in the apical third of the cellule. Legs yellow ; 
the coxae and trochanters black ; the four anterior femora 
for the greater part above ; and the basal two-thirds of the 
hinder fem.ora ferruginous ; the hinder femora large, 
broadly rounded above ; the base, before the tooth, 
straight ; the tooth oblique, directed towards the apex ; 
the outer side of the apex of the hinder tibiae curved ; 
the inner projecting, in width not much less than half of 
the outer ; its apex oblique, the inner side rounded ; near 
the base of the hinder tibiae on the posterior side is a large, 
black, oval mark, brownish on the outer edge. Abdomen 
shining, black ; the apex of the basal segment covered 

6S Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

tliickly with depressed, fulvous pubescence ; the apices of 
the first and fourth segments broadly fulvous-yellow ; the 
apical segments entirely of that colour ; the apical segment 
thickly covered with long, golden hair ; the ventral seg- 
ments black. 


Long. 8 mm. ? . 

Hab. Bombay ( Wroiighton). 

In Bingham's table {I.e., p. 449), this species comes into 
"^^ Thorax above with thin cinereous pubescence" which 
is now divided into : — 

1. Area at base of median segment finely reticulate ; 
the legs rufo-testaceous ; the pubescence on the ventral 
segments cinereous. N, aurata. 

2. Area at base of median segment finely longitudinally 
striated ; only the hinder tibiae and tarsi rufo-testaceous ; 
the pubescence on the ventral segments dense, ferruginous. 

N. mahratta. 

Head, from a little above the antennae, thickly covered 
with white pubescence ; the apex of the clypeus fringed 
with long, golden hair. The mandibles, before the middle, 
piceous ; the front and vertex impunctate. Antennae 
rather slender, black, the scape almost bare ; the apical 
joint rufous. Thorax thickly covered with longish hair ; 
fuscous in colour above, almost white on the sides ; the 
mesonotum opaque, finely rugose, almost transversely 
striated ; the scutellum shining, bearing shallow, scattered 
punctures, and sparsely covered with long, fuscous hair ; 
the post-scutellum thickly covered with white pubescence. 
Median segment with an abrupt, oblique slope ; opaque, 
finely and closely shagreened ; the base with the area not 
clearly limited, and closely longitudinally striolated ; the 
furrow on the apical half wide and deep at the base. Pro- 
pleurae shining, coarsely aciculated ; the mesopleurae 
at the tubercules thickly covered with white pubescence ; 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. II. 69 

the metapleurai covered with long, white hair. Legs black ; 
the hinder tibiae and tarsi rufous ; the coxae and femora 
covered with long, white hair ; the tibiae and tarsi more 
thickly covered with shorter hair ; the hair on the hinder 
tibiae being longer and thicker ; the claws rufous. Wings 
hyaline, the apex slightly infuscated ; the second cellule 
scarcely half the length of the top of the third ; the costa 
and stigma black ; the nervures fuscous ; the second 
recurrent nervure is received the length of the second 
cubital cellule from the apex of the third cellule. Abdo- 
men shining, impunctate ; the base and sides of the basal 
segment covered with long, white hair ; the sides and 
apices of the other segments fringed with white pubescence ; 
the ventral segments thickly covered with dark rufous 

The antennae in this species are more slender and the 
ventral surface of the abdomen more thickly pilose than 
usual, e.g., than in N. elliotti. 

NOMIA CHRYSOPA, Sp. nov. (PI. 4, f. 1 3.) 

Long. 6 mm. c^ . 

Hab. Allahabad {Rothney). 

In the Key {I.e., p. 449) it forms a new group of the 
species with the abdominal fasciae white ; "<^*. Enclosed 
space at base of median segment, with stout, oblique 
keels," not punctured as in N. oxybeloides, nor obscurely 
transversely striated as in N. rustica. 

Head black; from shortly above the base of the 
antennae, thickly covered with golden pubescence, behind 
the eyes with longish, white pubescence; the vertex with 
longish, fuscous hair, longer and paler behind. Front 
and vertex closely and strongly punctured, except a small, 
smooth spot outside the hinder ocelli. Mandibles black; 
bearing at the base long, pale fulvous hair. The scape 

JO Cameron, Hyfnenoptera Orientalia. 

yellow ; the flagellum yellowish -ochraceous beneath ; 
blackish above ; the flagellum bare ; the scape with long, 
pale hair. The edge of the pronotum on the top covered 
with a distinct line of dirty-yellow, depressed pubescence, 
in front of which is a narrow belt of long, pale hairs. 
Mesonotum closely and somewhat strongly punctured, 
opaque; sparsely covered with short, fuscous pubescence; 
the post-scutellum covered with longer, stiff, pale hair on 
the top. The "enclosed space" on the base of the median 
segment shining; distinctly margined behind : and having 
stout, slightly oblique, widely separated keels ; the median 
segment with an oblique slope ; rugose, obscurely reticu- 
lated at the top, and indistinctly keeled down the middle. 
Mesopleurae thickly covered with long, pale fulvous hair. 
Legs bright lemon-yellow ; the coxae and trochanters 
black ; the base of the femora broadly black, tinged with 
brown ; a brownish mark on the outer and inner side of 
the hinder tibiae ; the hinder femora have, shortly beyond 
the middle, a large, oblique, triangular tooth; the hinder 
tibiae gradually dilated to the apex, which ends on the 
inner side in a large, triangular tooth. Wings hyaline, 
slightly infuscated, especially towards the apex. Abdomen 
black, the apex of the basal three segments with a belt of 
white, depressed pubescence; the apical three covered 
entirely with similar pubescence; the first and second seg- 
ments coarsely punctured ; the third and fourth finely and 
closely punctured; the last rufous round the apex; the 
apices of the basal three segments covered with long, 
white hair, as is also the apical segment. 

The form of the hind legs is not unlike those of N, 
cornbusta^ with which it otherwise is closely related ; but 
the shape of the femora serves to separate them ; in 
N. coinbusta they are roundly curved before the tooth; 
in N. chrysopa they are perfectly straight, not curved in 
any way. 

Manchester JMiinoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), 7V^. 11. 71 
NOMIA MACULITARSIS, Sp. nov. (PI. 4, f. 12.) 

Long. 8 mm. $ . 

//rt^. Poona ( WrougJiton). 

Agrees with .V. floralis Sm. and N. pilipes Sm. in 
having the base of the abdomen red ; only the females of 
these two species arc known, but it can hardly be the $ of 
either of them. It comes nearest in those characters 
common to both sexes to N. floralis, from which it may 
be separated as follows : 

Median segment with a median vertical keel, the area 
at base densely punctured ; the legs rufo-piceous. 

N, floralis Sm. 

Median segment without a median vertical keel, the 
basal area distinctly striolated ; the legs black, the tarsi 
rufous. N. maculitarsis. 

N. pilipes Sm. has the basal two and the basal two- 
thirds of the third abdominal segments pale-red, and the 
basal area of the median segment is "very coarsely 

The head in front from shortly below the ocelli 
densely covered with fulvous hair ; the front and vertex 
shining, impunctate. Mandibles black, striated ; the strise 
curved at the top. The propleurae shining, impunctate, 
the apex only covered with long, white hair ; the meso- 
and meta-pleurae thickly covered with long, white hair. 
Wings hyaline, the costa, stigma, and nervures pale 
fuscous ; the second cubital cellule at the top not half the 
length of the third at the top ; the first recurrent nervure 
is received shortly beyond the middle of the cellule. 
Abdomen shining, the base and the sides covered with 
white hair ; the basal segment entirely red, closely and 
finely punctured ; the base and sides of the second rufous, 
the rest of it piceous ; the apices of the second and follow- 
ing segments smooth, silvery white ; the ventral surface 
entirel) red. Legs black, the tarsi i)ale rufous, the hinder 

72 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

infuscated towards the apex ; the hinder femora trian- 
gularly dilated above, below straight, except for a slight, 
blunt, somewhat triangular projection near the base ; the 
apex of the hinder tibiae ends in a stout triangle, which 
behind is prolonged into a stout, roundly curved process, 
rounded at the end and piceous at the base of the apical 
tooth ; sparsely covered with long, pale fulvous hair ; the 
outer orbits bearing long, white hairs, which are longer 
and more numerous on the lower part. The scape and 
second joint of the antennae entirely black ; the flagellum 
fulvo-brownish, blackish above ; the scape with a few 
fuscous hairs ; the flagellum bare. The pro- and part of 
meso-notum densely covered with long, fulvous hair ; the 
rest of the mesonotum with shorter hair ; in the middle of 
the mesonotum are two narrow furrows ; near the sides, 
opposite the tegulae, is a slightly wider and deeper furrow; 
the scutellum is sparsely covered with very long, pale 
hair ; the post-scutellum covered with white, woolly 
pubescence, and bearing also some long, white hairs ; the 
mesonotum is closely, but not very strongly, punctured ; 
the scutellum impunctate. The median segment is 
rounded at the base, semiperpendicular at the apex ; 
punctured, but not strongly ; the sides and apex covered 
with long, soft, white hair; the basal area strongly obliquely 
distinctly margined on either side, the hinder trochanters 
are rufous ; the femora are sparsely covered with long, the 
tibiae and tarsi thickly with short, white pubescence. 

NOMIA (?) ALIENA, Sp. nov. (PI. 4, f I4.) 

Long. 7 mm. $. 

Hub. Poona ( Wroughton). 

The undernoted species comes into Bingham's Section 
B. of Nomia, having the abdominal segments fringed with 
hair ; but it differs from all the species in the prothorax 
having in front of the tegulae a curved, thin, horn-like, 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii, (1898), No. 11. 73 

semitransparent projection, extending equally on both 
sides of the tegular. Behind the eyes there is a sharp keel 
extending their entire length, and separated from them by 
a clear space. 

Head as wide as the mesothorax ; the front and vertex 
coarsely punctured, sparsely covered with short, fuscous 
hair ; the centre below the antennae shining, its middle 
almost impunctate ; the base and apex with large, deep, 
widely separated punctures ; the part next the eyes 
closely rugosely punctured, almost longitudinally striated. 
Clypeus with large, deep punctures, except near the eyes, 
where the punctures are smaller and closer. Labrum 
fringed with long, fulvous hair. Mandibles black, piceous 
at the apex ; the base opaque, finely striated ; with one 
large apical, and a smaller subapical tooth. Scape of 
antennae fringed with longish pale hair above ; the 
flagellum brownish beneath towards the apex. Pro- and 
meso-notum and scutellum shining, smooth ; the meso- 
notum with three shallow furrows in front ; the apex of 
the scutellum with a row of shallow, large, round 
punctures ; the post-scutellum covered with white 
pubescence. Median segment with an oblique slope at 
the apex ; without any basal area, but with a faint indi- 
cation of two converging furrows. The mesopleurae 
coarsely punctured at the base ; the apex with a broad 
clearly defined space, broad at the top, gradually narrowed 
to the bottom, and bearing stout, longitudinal, distinctly 
separated keels. Metapleurae shining, uniformly marked 
with shallow punctures and with a broad, shallow furrow 
at the base. Wings hyaline, the costa, stigma and nervures 
testaceous ; the second cubital cellule is of nearly equal 
width, and scarcely one-half the length of the top of the 
third cellule ; the first recurrent nervure is interstitial ; the 
second received at the end of the second cellule, the trans- 
verse cubital nervure turning up sharply (jbliqucly from it. 

74 Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

and not continued in a straight, or but slightly obhque, 
Hne from it as usual. In the hind wings, the nervures are 
not continued to the end of the wings. Legs densely 
covered with long, pale or pale fulvous hair ; the hinder 
tarsi have the basal joint dilated above and compressed ; 
the second joint is obliquely dilated above, both more so 
than usual. 


Nigra, flagello antennarum rufo; alts hyalinis, 7iervis 
stigmateque 7tigrzs. S . 

Long. 7-5 mm. 

Hab. Allahabad {Rothney). 

Scape of antennae black; sparsely covered with long, 
white hair ; the flagellum almost bare, infuscated above 
towards the apex. Face and clypeus sparsely covered 
with long, white hair. Clypeus finely punctured, finely 
longitudinally striated ; the anterior ocelli with a curved 
furrow in front; behind them is a narrow ^—.—'-shaped one. 
Mandibles at the base covered sparsely with long, white 
hairs. Thorax above with short, fuscous pubescence ; 
sparsely and shortly pilose ; the hair on the scutellum 
longer ; the basal area on the median segment large, 
closely and finely longitudinally striated, and bordered by 
a rather deep furrow, which is continued down the middle 
of the segment. Pleurae densely covered with short pubes- 
cence. Wings short, reaching only to the fourth abdominal 
segment ; the second cubital cellule small, shorter than 
broad; above one-half the length of the third; the first 
recurrent nervure is almost interstitial ; but received nearer 
the base than the apex of the nervure ; the second is 
received the length of the second cellule from the apex 
of the third. Legs black; the calcaria white; the coxae 
thickly, the femora sparsely, covered withlong, white hair; 
the tibiae and tarsi very thickly with shorter, white hair; 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 75 

the hair on the under side of the metatarsus rufous; the 
apex of the tarsi rufous. The femora and tibiae are normal, 
not dilated, except that the hinder tibiae on the inner side 
are triangularly produced, but not sharply, the apex being 
rounded. x\bdomen shining, impunctate; the base of the 
segments belted with white, depressed pile ; the second to 
fourth segment with wide transverse furrows near the 
base ; the ventral segments smooth, shining ; their apices 
fringed with short, white hair ; the sides of the third and 
fourth with long, white hair ; the penultimate segment 
broadl}' depressed in the middle, with a smaller, somewhat 
pear-shaped, depression on either side at the apex. 

This is perhaps not a true Noinia. The trophi do not 
differ in form from those of that genus. The only point 
in which the legs agree with those of Nomia is in the 
projecting apex of the hinder tibiae. It differs in the 
interstitial first recurrent nervure and in the shorter wings. 

Megachile nigricans, sp. nov. 

Nigra, capite thoraceqiie pallide hirtis ; alis Jiyalinis. $. 

Long. 1 1 mm. 

Hab. Trincomali, Ceylon ( Yerbiiry). 

In Bingham's Key {I.e., p. 471) it comes in " A. Abdo- 
men black, with entirely black pubescence above," 
and " C. wings h}'aline," which only contains the ^ of 
M. antJiracina, a very different species from M. nigricans, 
being much larger, the pubescence on the face bright 
fulvous, the fore legs more or less rufo-testaceous, the 
wings infuscated at the apex, the fore legs spined, &c. 

Entirely black, the wings hyaline, the costa and 
nervures fuscous, darker at the base. Head below the 
ocelli thickly covered with long, pale, behind the ocelli 
more sparsely with longish, black, hair ; front and vertex 
strongly punctured, except a smooth, shining space on 
the outer side of the hinder ocelli ; the clypeus strongly 

'j^. Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

punctured ; the labrum fringed with long, pale hair. 
Mandibles black, shining, the base covered with long, 
fuscous, intermixed with shorter, silvery hair ; their apices 
shining, armed with one large, somewhat triangular, tooth 
at the apex ; the base strongly punctured. Antennae 
short, black, the apical half dull rufous on the under side ; 
the scape with a few short hairs ; the flagellum bare, 
shining. Pro- and meso-notum thickly covered with 
longish hair ; longer and paler on the pronotum ; closely 
rugose ; the scutellum, if anything, more strongly rugose 
and with the hair longer ; the median segment with a 
perpendicular slope, thickly covered with long, pale hair. 
Pleurae thickly covered with long, black hair; the lower 
part of the mesopleurae excavated, shining; the lower part 
of the metapleurae smooth. Abdomen shining, pilose, the 
segments fringed with white hair ; the ventral surface 
thickly covered with longish, stiff, blackish hair. Femora 
sparsely; the tibiae and tarsi very thickly covered with 
long, black hair; the fore coxae simple, not spined. 

Under this generic name Bingham describes two 
species — T. duvancelii 'Le^. = elegans Sm., and T. hima- 
layensis Bing. In these two species the maxillary palpi 
are said to be 6-jointed. Whether this is an original 
observation, or merely copied from Smith {Cat. Hym.^ ii., 
p. 297), who also gives six joints to the maxillary palpi of 
Tetralonia^ I am unable to say. Apart from the difference 
in the number of palpal joints, my species agrees in the 
other generic characters with Tetralonia as given by 
Bingham. In both the species here described the maxil- 
lary palpi have only four joints, as have also the labial. 
Latreille, who first described Tetralonia, gives five as the 
number of joints in the maxillary palpi, this being likewise 
the number in Smith's genus Xenoglossa. Mr. W. H. Patton 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 77 

(Generic Arrangement of the Bees allied to Melissodes and 
Anthophora. Bull. U.S. Geol. Siirv. Territ., v., p. 471) gives 
also five joints for Tetralonia, but it is not clear to me if he 
has himself examined the genus or gives a quotation from 
Latreille. Melissodes Latr. is described in full by Patton 
(/.r., p. 472) ; it has, like our species, 4-jointed maxillary 
palpi, " the fourth joint often minute," which does not 
conform to our Indian species any more than does his 
description of the first joint of the labial palpi being twice 
the length of the second. In other respects our species do 
not quite fit into Patton's diagnosis. Further, they do 
not agree with each other in the form of the palpi. For 
those species with 6-jointed maxillary palpi, Patton estab- 
lished (/.<:., p. 473) the genus Synhalonia, representing 
Macrocera Lep., Tetralonia Sm., and Melissodes Cresson, 
nee Latr. ; but it can hardly be regarded as generically 
identical with our species. Taschenberg {BerL Entoin. 
Zeits., xxvii., p. J^') groups the genera under Macrocera 
(an inadmissible name, being preoccupied in Diptera)\ 
Melissodes Latr. with 4-jointed maxillary palpi; Macroceia 
sen. str. with them 5 -jointed ; Xenoglossa Sm. with them 
also 5 -jointed ; Synhalonia with them 6-jointed and 
Ancyloscelis, of which the palpal characters are not given, 
but which is treated by Smith {Cat. Hym., ii., p. 365) as a 
doubtful synonym of Tetrapedia Klug, a very different 
genus from Tetralonia. As Mr. Rothney's 9 differs in 
many respects from Mr. Wroughton's male and from the 
described genera, I give a generic description of it here, 
leaving it for further investigation to decide whether the 
points of difference in the palpal and other characters are 
of generic, sub-generic, or of mere specific importance. 

9. Antenna; shorter than the thorax ; ocelli .*. Man- 
dibles without teeth. Tongue not elongate, if anything 
shorter than the palpi ; the apex ending in a button ; 
paraglosscc a little longer than the tongue ; densely pilose ; 

y^ Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

the two basal palpal joints greatly enlarged and thickened; 
the basal slightly longer than the second ; the apical two 
joints of nearly equal length. The stipes longer and 
broader than the galea by about one-fourth ; the top on 
the inner side rounded inwardly and fringed with long, 
stout, stiff hairs ; the first and third joints of the palpi are 
nearly equal in length ; the fourth is slightly shorter ; the 
second is the longest. Wings very short, not reaching to 
the apex of the second abdominal segment ; the two 
recurrent nervures received quite close to the transverse 
cubital nervures. Fore wings with three cubital cellules ; 
the third at the top scarcely so long as the second ; at the 
bottom nearly twice its length. Legs densely pilose ; the 
hinder tibiae and tarsi densely covered with long hair ; the 
calcaria simple, of nearly equal length ; the claws with a 
stout tooth near the base. Abdomen not densely pilose ; 
the apical segment with a large, smooth, glabrous area in 
the middle, somewhat triangular in shape, but with the 
apex rounded. 

Tetralonia brevipennis, sp. nov. (PI. 4, f. 6, 6a, b.) 

Nigra J flagello antennarum rufo; pedihis longe pallide 
pilosis; alis brevibus, costis, stigmate nervisque testaceis. ?. 

Long. 9 ; exp. at 6 mm. 

Hab, Allahabad {Rothiiey). 

Antennae black ; the flagellum from its second joint 
rufous beneath ; bare ; the scape with a few short, black 
hairs. Head strongly punctured ; the clypeus more 
strongly than the front ; the sides of the vertex much 
more finely ; the occiput fringed with long, erect, white 
hair above ; the front and vertex with short, the sides of 
the clypeus with much longer, white hair. The apex of 
the clypeus distinctly margined, ferruginous. Mandibles 
rufous in the middle and fringed with long, fulvous hair on 
the lower side. Mesonotum and scutellum closely punc- 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 79 

tured ; the median segment at the apex with a steep, obHque 
slope ; the base strongly and closely punctured ; the apex 
with the sides less strongly punctured ; the middle 
impunctate ; the apex at the sides thickly covered with 
long, white hair. Legs thickh^ covered with long, pale 
fulvous hair ; the floccus very long and thick ; the meta- 
tarsus greatly enlarged, very thickly haired ; the hair 
mixed with stiffspines. Wings reaching not much beyond 
the middle of the second abdominal segment ; the second 
cubital cellule at top not much longer than the third at 
the top ; the first recurrent nervure is received near the 
transverse cubital ; the second is interstitial. The first 
tranverse basal is received before the basal, not joined to 
it. The basal segment of the abdomen is covered with 
long, white hair, almost bare in the middle at the apex, 
perhaps through being rubbed ; the second, third and 
fourth covered with \vhite, depressed pubescence ; the 
fifth thickly with fulvous pubescence ; the middle area on 
the last segment smooth, glabrous ; the sides of the 
segment thickly covered wath fulvous pubescence. The 
bases of the ventral segments covered with white pubes- 
cence ; the apices of the three basal segments brownish ; 
the hypopygium bare, sharply separated from the sides 
by a deep depression. 

Tetralonia punctata, sp. nov. 

Long. 8-9 mm. 
Hab. Poona ( Wrought 07t). 

In Bingham's key (/.<:., p. 520) T. punctata \\A\\ come in 
as follows : — 

Clypeus yellow. 

Clypeus "very lightly punctured." T. dtivaficelii'LQ]). 

Clypeus very strongly punctured all over. T. punctata. 

Antennae rufo-testaceous; bare, the basal joint black. 
Head black ; thickly covered with long, whitish hair, 

8o Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 

except behind the ocelli ; the clypeus and labrum lemon- 
yellow ; the clypeus strongly and uniformly covered with 
large, shallow punctures, its apex almost transverse ; the 
labrum punctured like the clypeus, but not quite so 
strongly, thickly fringed with long, white hair. Mandibles 
for the greater part ferruginous, black at the base, with a 
yellow mark in the centre. Thorax thickly covered all 
over with long, pale fulvous hair ; the tegulae yellow. 
Wings hyaline, the costa and stigma rufo-testaceous ; the 
second and third cubital cellules almost equal in length at 
the top ; the second at the bottom hardly one-half the 
length of the third. Legs thickly covered with pale hair; 
on the under side of the tarsi with rufous hair ; the apical 
joints of the tarsi being rufous ; the calcaria pale. Abdo- 
men black ; the basal segment thickly covered with long, 
pale hair ; the second and third segments with a broad 
belt of depressed fulvous down on their base ; the fourth 
and fifth covered entirely with pale, fulvous pile, the apical 
segments with the pubescence rufous, not pale fulvous; 
the ventral segments fringed with pale fulvous hair ; the 
texture of the pygidium is hidden by the pubescence ; the 
hypopygium is smooth, bare, the base black, the rest 

The ligula is elongated, extending considerably beyond 
the palpi, is stout and densely haired ; the paraglossae are 
also hairy and are slightly longer than the palpi ; the basal 
joint of the palpi is about one-half longer than the second ; 
the apical two minute, the last shorter than the preceding. 
The second joint of the maxillary palpi is the longer, the 
rest subequal. 

Anthophora CELLULARIS, Sp. nov. 

Long. 7-8 mm. $. 

Hab. Poona ( Wroughton). 

In the table {I.e., p. 525) this species comes in at 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 11. 81 

"<^-. Abdomen beneath black," which will now be sub- 
divided into : — 

Clypeus bimaculate ; the second and third cubital cel- 
lules subequal. A. co7ifusa Sm. and A. fallax Sm. 

Clypeus immaculate ; second cubital cellule not one-half 
the length of the third. A. cellular is. 

Head black, the vertex and front closely, but not 
strongly, punctured ; the cheeks im punctuate ; the clypeus 
with some large, widely separated, punctures ; the clypeus, 
a somewhat triangular mark above it, the sides from a 
little above the base of the antennae, dilated in the middle 
to meet the upper mark, the labrum and the base of the 
mandibles, yellow ; the mandibles piceous, intermixed 
with black. The front and vertex and the outer orbits 
thickly covered with long, griseous hair ; the clypeus 
bearing a sparse pubescence ; the labrum fringed with long, 
white hair. The scape of the antennae yellow beneath; 
the flagellum brownish. The pro- and meso-notum 
thickly covered with short, dark griseous hair ; the 
scutelia with much longer white, the sides of the median 
segment and the pleurae with long, white hair ; the 
median segment closely punctured ; the pleurae are much 
more strongly punctured ; the lower part of the meta- 
pleurae obscurely longitudinally striated. The outer sides 
of the tibiae and tarsi thickly covered with long, white 
hair ; the metatarsus thickly covered on the inner side 
with long, bright rufous hair ; the claws rufous. Wings 
hyaline ; the stigma and nervures blackish ; the second 
cubital cellule at top and bottom hardly one-half the 
length of the third ; at the top it is half the length it 
is at the bottom ; the first recurrent nervure is received 
near the middle of the cellule ; the second distinctly in 
front of the third transverse cubital nervure, and not 
interstitial as it is with A. Jallax, &c. Abdomen shining, 

82 Cameron, Hymenoptera Or lent alia. 

closely but not strongly punctured ; the first to fifth 
segments banded with white pubescence, the last closely 
and strongly punctured above, the apex rufous ; the 
hypopygium dark rufous, the middle carinate ; the sides 
fringed with long, white hairs, the third to fifth ventral 
segments fringed with long, white hairs ; the basal seg- 
ments piceous. 


Cameron, Hymenoptera Orientalia. 












Mutilla indecora^ ?. 

Passaloecus reticulatiis^ ?. 

Pterochilus fulvipennis^ $. 3<^, labial ; 3^, maxil- 
lary palpus. 

Sudila ceylonica, 9. 

„ bidentata, $. head from the front ; 5 <^ from 
the side. 

Tetralonia brevipennis^ ?. 6^, maxillary; 6b ^ labium 
and palpi. 

Hind leg of $ Noniia aureohirta. 
$ „ varipes. 



latispina, and ii^ c? 



Nomia aliena, ?. 



„ purpureo-lineata, ? . 
Steganomiis gracilis. $ . 

Manchester Aienwirs. Vol XLII. 

PlaU 4. 

W Purktss.del.etlitK 


Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. \%. 


XI L " On the Physical Basis of Psychical Events." 

By Professor MICHAEL FOSTER, Sec.R.S. 

Delivered March 2gth, i8g8. 

I very much fear that the title of my lecture (though 
I have found no better one) may have raised expectations 
which I cannot fulfil. We all know that what we subjec- 
tively recognise in ourselves and infer in others as 
psychical life, willing, feeling, thinking, is dependent on 
the integrity of that superficial layer of nervous material 
which we call the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres ; by 
integrity I mean the well-being not only of the layer itself 
but of all its connections. We all know that physical 
changes in the cortex and changes in psychical life may 
be said, in a broad way, to accompany each other. I do 
not propose, in what I now have to say, to discuss what is 
sometimes spoken of as the connection of body and mind. 
I do not wish to make any attempt at throwing a bridge 
over the gap between the objective event and its subjective 
correlative. The task I have in hand is the simple and 
modest one of gathering together the fragments of know- 
ledge which we at present possess as to what changes 
capable of objective appreciation, changes which we may 
accordingly speak of as physical, are going on in the 
cortex, while psychical developments are taking place, 
studying the parallelism between the one and the other, 
without daring to lay hold of the bonds which tie the two 

September ijth, i8g8. 

2 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

And I am given to understand that I am to speak not 
so much to those who already know as to those who 
desire to learn. 

I will take as a sort of text the physical events which 
lie at the bottom of that element of psychical life which 
we call a visual sensation. When 'light falls upon' the eye 
it produces in us, under ordinary circumstances, a psychical 
effect, a visual sensation. In order that the effect may be 
produced, the integrity of certain nervous structures is 
necessary. The retina within the eye is connected by 
the optic nerve and optic tract with the three nervous 
bodies called the corpus geniculatum, the corpus 
quadrigeminum and the pulvinar or hind part of the 
optic thalamus. Each of these three bodies is in turn 
connected by nervous strands with the superficial grey 
matter or cortex of the cerebral hemisphere in the 
occipital region. These nervous structures, the retina, the 
optic nerve and tract, the three bodies just spoken of, 
which I may call the intermediate bodies, and the 
occipital cortex constitute together a nervous mechanism, 
a visual mechanism, the integrity of which is essential 
to the development of visual sensations. Destruction 
of or interference with any part of this mechanism at 
once does away with or modifies the development of visual 
sensations, brings about blindness or defective sight ; 
whereas on the other hand destruction of or interference 
with any other part of the nervous system does not 
necessarily and directly do away with or interfere with the 
mere development of visual sensations, though it may, in 
one way or another, indirectly affect vision. Obviously, 
when * we see ', the vibrations of the ether impinging on 
the retina give rise in this mechanism to events, the 
issue of which is a visual sensation. The visual 
sensation is a psychical thing. What are the physical 
changes, the changes which we can objectively lay hold 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. \%, 3 

of, taking place in the mechanism during the development 
of the psychical effect ? 

The mechanism may be briefly described as a chain 
of linked units, the unit being the nerve cell, or, as it is 
sometimes called, the netirone. In order to make clear 
the characteristic features and properties of the neurone, 
I must for a while pass away from the special visual 
mechanism to the general nervous system. 

A nerve cell consists, like the cell or unit of any other 
of the tissues of the body, of a nucleus lying in the midst 
of a mass of material spoken of as the cell body. In 
the typical nerve cell the cell body is prolonged into a 
number of processes, it may be many, it may be few, 
stretching away from the neighbourhood of the nucleus. 
The majority of these processes, all in fact but one, 
branching rapidly and extensively in ramifications or 
arborisations, end in fine points at no very great distance 
from the nucleus ; these processes are called dendrites oxden- 
drons. One process does not ramify in this way ; it pursues 
an undivided course, it may be for a very long distance from 
the nucleus. Moreover, the material of which it is com- 
posed differs in microscopic appearance and in its reac- 
tions towards colouring and other chemical reagents from 
the material of the dendrites. Further, unlike, at least, 
the typical dendrite, it usually developes at a greater or less 
distance from the nucleus, around the material which is 
the prolongation of the substance of the cell body, a 
coating of a peculiar, largely fatty nature, spoken of as 
myelin or medulla. This undivided process is called the 
axis-cyli?ider process^ or neuraxon^ or, more briefly, axo?i ; 
it has also been called the neurite. Though not ramifying 
like the typical dendrites, the axon not unfrequently, indeed 
usually, sends off at intervals, generally at right angles to 
itself, fine lateral twigs resembling itself, but more 
delicate, called collaterals, and, after pursuing its 

4 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

unbranched course, it may be for a short, it may be for an 
exceedingly long distance, eventually ends in a terminal 
branching arborisation. Such are the main features of a 
typical nerve cell or neurone, a nucleated cell body giving 
off on the one hand branched dendrites, and on the other 
hand an undivided axon. There are, I need hardly say, 
variations from the type, but on these I need not now 

The nerve cell or neurone is the unit of the nervous 
system in the sense that the whole system is made up of 
neurones, linked together in a special way, and surrounded 
by or embedded in aground work, consisting of connective 
tissue carrying blood vessels and lymphatics, and of a 
special tissue called neuroglia, which ground work supports 
and nourishes the active real nervous tissue and at the 
same time serves to isolate each nervous element from its 

The mode of linkage deserves attention. In so many 
cases has it been observed that the terminals of an axon, 
either of the stem or of the collaterals, by means of 
branching or arborisation, more or less complex, impinge 
upon or surround or intertwine with the dendrites or some 
part of the cell not itself an axon, that this may be con- 
sidered as the mode in which the cells are connected 
together. Axon does not link with axon, or dendrite with 
dendrite, the linkage is that of axon with dendrite. 
Further, in so many cases the connection has been found 
to be one not of fusion but of contact, there being a break 
of continuity at the linkage between the material of the 
axon and that of the dendrite, that this, too, has been 
assumed to be an essential feature of the linkage. This 
assumption, however, must be received with caution ; 
indeed, it is maintained by some observers that in certain 
cases distinct fusion may be observed. But it may be 
argued that these cases are only apparent exceptions, the 

MancJiester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. \%. 5 

difficulty of distinguishing between actual fusion and mere 
contact being in many situations exceedingly great, and 
the instances where the linkage is obviously one of contact 
only being exceedingly numerous. And, indeed, while 
admitting that the existence of a distinct mechanical gap 
is not an essential feature of the linkage, we may still 
assume that at each linkage there is between the linked 
units a line of demarcation, the material on the one side 
of which differs from that on the other. 

Passing now to the question, what are the physical 
events, the events which we can lay hold of objectively, 
which take place during the life of a nerve cell, and 
which we may assume to be different when the nerve 
cell is at rest from what they are when the nerve cell 
is in a state of activity, we find that nearly all our 
exact knowledge is derived from observations made 
on nerve cells or parts of nerve cells prolonged outside the 
central nervous system as nerve fibres connecting that 
central nervous system, the brain or the spinal cord, with the 
various tissues of the body. These nerve fibres are on the 
one hand efferent fibres, the channels or instruments by 
which the central nervous system transmits influences to, 
or acts upon muscular and other tissues; and, on the other 
hand, afferent fibres, the channels or instruments by which 
various tissues, as the result of changes taking place in 
them, transmit influences to, or produce effects in the 
central nervous system. 

The efferent nerve fibre is simply the prolonged axon 
of a nerve cell lying in the spinal cord or brain; the axon, 
for instance, of a cell whose nucleus and dendrites lie 
wholly within the spinal cord, leaves the spinal cord, and 
pursues its way, clothed with myelin or medulla and sup- 
ported by connective tissue, until it reaches its destination, 
a muscular fibre for example, in which, after previous 
division, it ends in a terminal arborescence in connection 

6 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

with the substance of the muscular fibre. The nature of 
an afferent nerve fibre is not so obvious. If we take a 
fibre of the auditory nerve, we find that it begins as 
a branched set of delicate filaments surrounding an 
auditory epithelial cell. These unite into a fibre which, 
becoming clothed with myelin, has in this and other 
respects at least a great resemblance to an axon. The 
fibre, pursuing its course, passes into a nerve cell 
of the so-called spiral ganglion, entering at one pole, 
while from the opposite pole of the cell proceeds a nerve 
fibre, an indubitable axon, which, making its way to a 
particular part of the brain, ends after the manner of an 
axon, by linkage with another nerve cell. The fibre which 
joins the nerve cell in the spiral ganglion to the brain is, as I 
just now said, indubitably an axon; the nature of the fibre 
which joins the auditory epithelial cell to the nerve cell of 
the spiral ganglion has been debated. It has been urged 
that it is an axon because it is clothed with myelin ; for, in 
the case of the nerve cells lying within the central nervous 
system, the part which is clothed with myelin is always an 
axon ; the dendrites are never so clothed. But all axons are 
not clothed with myelin ; on the other hand, within the 
central nervous system, where the dendrites are devoid of a 
myelin coating, no instances are known of a dendrite being 
prolonged as a fibre to a considerable distance from the 
nucleus or main body of the cell to which it belongs, yet 
this is the case with this part of the auditory fibre, if 
we consider it as a dendrite of the nerve cell in the spiral 
ganglion. Moreover, at its beginning as an arborescence 
round the auditory epithelial cell, this fibre has the 
appearance of a dendrite; for that epithelial cell may 
be regarded as a potential nerve cell, without either 
axon or dendrites, as are all nerve cells at an early stage 
of their existence. Hence we may regard the fibre, the 
nature of which we are discussing, as the dendritic moiety 

MancJiester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 12. 7 

of a nerve cell linking the auditory epithelial cell with a 
nerve cell in the auditory territory of the brain, though its 
dendritic nature is obscured save at its very beginning. 

Analogous to the auditory afferent fibre is the common 
sensory afferent fibre, connecting the skin with the spinal 
cord or brain. This, too, begins as a dendritic branching 
in connection with the epithelial cells of the epidermis, 
pursues its way as a myelinated axon-like nerve fibre 
belonging to a nerve cell in the posterior ganglion of 
a spinal nerve (or its analogue in the case of the cranial 
nerves), which nerve cell sends forth an indubitable axon 
to end by linkage with some cell or ceils within the central 
nervous system. A special feature, however, of these 
ordinary sensory fibres is that, in animals above fishes, the 
nucleus with the surrounding part of the cell body does 
not lie in the course of the fibre, the fibre entering at 
one pole and issuing at the other, but is drawn away all 
together from the fibre with which it is connected 
after the fashion of a T-piece; hence the main cell body 
seems to give rise to one fibre which divides into two, 
each pursuing a different course. But this special dispo- 
sition of the nucleus is of very secondary importance. 

Of more importance is the consideration that, at least 
in ordinary circumstances, while an efferent fibre seems to 
be engaged in transmitting influences along itself from a 
cell in the central nervous system to a muscular fibre or 
other peripheral tissue, an afferent fibre is engaged 
in transmitting influences from the skin or other peripheral 
tissue to the central nervous system. Hence, if we adopt 
the view that in the afferent fibre the part peripheral to 
the nucleus is of the nature of a dendrite, in spite of its 
being clothed with myelin along by far the greater part 
of its course, we may say that in both cases the influences 
are transmitted along the axon away from the nucleus or 
its neighbourhood, and along the dendrite towards the 

8 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

nucleus, or at all events towards the beginning of the axon. 

It is in our power to excite or stimulate by artificial 
means, by electric currents or by other forms of stimulus, 
these nerve fibres lying outside the central nervous system. 
And we find invariably that, whatever part of the course 
of a fibre we may artificially stimulate, we produce by 
means of afferent fibres effects in the central nervous 
system only, none in the periphery, and by means of the 
efferent fibres, effects in the periphery only, none in the 
central nervous system. The former acts apparently in 
a centripetal manner only, the latter in a centrifugal 
manner only. 

I may now return to the question — What events can 
be ascertained to take place in a nerve fibre when it is 
stimulated ? 

When we study the events taking place in other tissues, 
in muscular fibres, gland cells, and the like, we find clear 
evidence that the phase of activity, the contraction of a 
muscular fibre, the act of secretion in a gland cell, is accom- 
panied by chemical changes, by electric changes, and by 
the setting free of energy in the form of heat. In the gland, 
where chemical change is the goal of activity, the develop- 
ment of heat is economised or even minimised ; in the 
muscle, where energy is in like manner the goal, the 
development of heat is larger, and is utilised for the good 
of the economy. When, on the other hand, a nerve fibre 
is stimulated, the most careful examination fails to detect 
either chemical change or the setting free of heat. The 
phase of activity of a nerve fibre is marked by one objec- 
tive token and by one only, an electric change giving rise 
to an electric current known as the current of action. This 
electric change is witnessed during the activity of a nerve 
fibre in all cases, not only when the nerve is excited arti- 
ficially, but also when it is the instrument of natural 
nervous events, of sensation, and of movement. Moreover, 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 12. 9 

as has been especially shewn by the researches of Waller, 
this current of action may be taken not only as the token, 
but also as an exact measure of vital activity; the sweep 
of the current rises or falls as the power of the nerve fibre 
waxes or wanes. 

Taking this electric change as the sign and, indeed, as 
the measure of the events in a nerve fibre which constitute 
its phase of activity, and which we speak of as a " nervous 
impulse," we are able to estimate the features of nervous 
impulses, the rate at which they travel along a nerve fibre, 
the length of nerve fibre occupied by a nervous impulse 
as it sweeps like a wave along its course, and such rises 
or falls of its amplitude as may from time to time occur. 

In this way we find no essential differences between a 
nervous impulse of natural or of artificial origin. When a 
nerve fibre is stimulated at any point of its course by an 
electric current or other artificial stimulus, or when it is 
thrown into action in a natural way, and is the instrument 
of sensations or of voluntary or other movements, the 
nervous impulse, as shewn by the electric change, possesses 
the same essential features, such difference as occurs being 
one of energy only. Further, we have reason, by the same 
token, to think that when a nervous impulse sweeps along 
even a great length of fibre, it does not materially change 
otherwise than perhaps by somewhat diminishing as it 
parses along. 

Further, while it is a prominent characteristic of the 
tissues of the living body in general that activity, whether 
natural or artificial, when carried beyond certain narrow 
limits, leads to fatigue and ultimately to exhaustion, 
careful observations shew that to the nerve fibre under 
artificial stimulation exhaustion is unknown. Every com- 
plete nervous mechanism, involving more than the mere 
nerve fibre, is not only subject to fatigue, but is perhaps more 
readily subject than are even other tissues, as is notably 

lO Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

seen in the nervous mechanisms of sensation ; and fatigue 
is more readily induced by artificial than by natural stimu- 
lation; but when we come to deal with the nerve fibre by 
itself (and in such cases the stimulation is almost neces- 
sarily artificial), and with the mere transmission of nervous 
impulses, apart from their terminal effects, we find that 
exhaustion cannot be induced by even the most powerful 
and prolonged excitation. 

Two views may be taken as to the nature of this 
untiredness of the nerve fibre. It has been supposed on 
the one hand that the molecular changes which constitute 
the nervous impulse are of a nature wholly unlike the 
changes which in all other living tissues lie at the bottom 
of activity, that the changes in the nerve fibre involve no 
consumption of energy. On the other hand it may be 
urged that in the nerve fibre the nutritive changes are so 
admirably balanced, and respond to the demands made 
upon them with such exquisitely arranged swiftness, that 
what is lost by action (and that we may assume to be 
little, for the change of electric potential, even though 
conspicuous, is exceedingly small) is at once, without loss 
of time, made good. So far as I know, we do not possess 
any crucial test to decide between these two views; we 
have no exact proof in one direction or the other; but, on 
the whole, the latter view may, from many considerations, 
be taken as the more probable one. 

If, for instance, we pass from the nerve fibre itself, 
which, as we have seen, is a part only of the nerve unit to 
the whole unit, to the nerve cell or neurone in its entirety, 
we find that the nutrition of this is exquisitely cared for. 
In all living units, in all living cells, the nucleus presides, 
governs, and determines the nutrition of the unit. If a 
simple unicellular organism be divided into two parts, so 
that the nucleus remains in one only of the two, the 
nucleusless fragment, even though it be the larger one. 

Manchestei' Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. \%. 1 1 

may live for a brief period on its accumulated vital capital, 
but when this is expended perishes; it cannot live of itself, 
it cannot grow, it cannot reproduce itself The fragment 
containing the nucleus, however, can live of itself, can 
grow, can reproduce itself The nerve cell obeys the same 
law; the nucleus governs the nutrition of the whole unit, 
not only of the ordinary dendrites and of the cell body 
immediately surrounding itself, but of the whole axon, 
however long that be. The efferent nerve fibre is depen- 
dent for its nutrition on the nucleus of the cell in the 
spinal cord or brain, of which it is a prolonged axon. The 
afferent nerve fibre is dependent for its nutrition on the 
nucleus of the cell in the posterior spinal ganglion (or 
analogous structure), of which it is, as we have seen, either 
a prolonged and specialized dendrite or a portion of an 
axon. If either fibre be cut off from its nucleus, it under- 
goes degenerative changes, it dies, never to become alive 
again, though it may be, and that even exactly, replaced 
by a growth of the stump left behind still in connection 
with the nucleus. 

This nutrition of the long-extended nerve fibre, be it 
called an axon or dendrite, is in many respects a complex 
and peculiar business. The fibre along its whole length is 
supplied with blood vessels and bathed in lymph; from 
this lymph it takes up material, far away from the nucleus, 
and by this lymph it is directly nourished ; for if this local 
nutriment be interfered with, it, the fibre suffers, however 
intact may remain its ties with its nucleus. Yet it cannot 
avail itself of this nourishment unless those ties be intact. 
Something is continually going on between the nucleus 
and far-distant parts of the axon which determines the 
absorption and utilisation of the material lying to hand 
around those distant parts. 

Further, in all living units we are able, by careful 
observation, to catch sight of visible tokens of the work of 

12 Foster Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

nutrition. Scattered amidst the living, fully-elaborated 
substance of the cell, in which substance, and in which 
substance alone, often apparently structureless, the living 
powers seem to reside, we are able to detect granules and 
heaps of granules of varying refractive power and varying 
reaction towards colouring and other chemical reagents. 
These we have reason to think are either food material 
about to undergo further elaboration, or waste material 
about to be further transformed and ejected. These 
appreciable granules whose changes we can see, and many 
other things which we cannot see and never shall see, are 
tokens of the laboratory; they are signs of t*he nutritive 
work which is going on. 

Now, in the nerve unit, the neurone, while we have like 
abundant evidence, like conspicuous laboratory tokens of 
nutritive labours in that part of the cell which surrounds 
the nucleus, in what has been called the perikaryon, as 
well as in the ordinary dendrites, all such tokens are 
strikingly scanty if not entirely absent in the axon which 
constitutes an efferent fibre, or the modified dendrite which 
constitutes an afferent fibre. Indeed, while staining chro- 
mophile granules, or groups of granules, small or large, 
supply conspicuous features of the perikaryon of every 
nerve cell as well as of the dendrites to even a long distance 
from the nucleus, the axon, the axis cylinder process of 
the cell is distinguished almost as soon as it separates off 
from the perikaryon (or from the dendrite in the cases 
where it seems to start from a dendrite) by the paucity or 
even absence of such granules. In the perikaryon and in 
the greater part of the dendrite, the elaborated, active, 
truly nervous material is crowded and elbowed by the 
grosser material out of which it is making itself, in the 
axon as little as possible of this grosser material is left, 
the greater part of the axon is sifted, elaborated matter 
clogged as little as possible by coarser lower stuff 

Manchester Memoirs. Vol. xlii. (1898), No. \%. 13 

It is only by means of this coarser visible material that 
we get ocular evidences of the work of nutrition. Hence 
it is in the perikaryon and the clustering dendrites, not in 
the long drawn-out axon that we get visible indications of 
how the nutrition of the cell is influenced by circum- 
stances, by rest or activity, by disease or by toxic 
agents. But it is the evidence only which is thus limited, 
not the effect. The work of the laboratory of the 
perikaryon is carried on for the good not of itself only, 
but of the whole unit, for the good not of the part close 
round the nucleus only, but of the whole stretch of axon 
or dendrite down to its furthest terminal twig. Our 
knowledge of the intimate nature of this work of nutrition, 
of the building up and clearing away of the exquisitely 
organized, that is, molecularly organized, material which 
alone does " nervous work " is of the scantiest ; but it is 
at least obvious that the processes of this nutrition are 
complex. While in the nutrition of a distant portion of 
the axon, part of the work is being done on the spot, part 
is being done in some way or other by the perikaryon. 
More than this we cannot at present say. 

Moreover, not only is the axon dependent on the 
perikaryon, but the latter also is dependent on the former. 
When an axon is cut across, the portion in connection 
with the perikaryon and nucleus does not degenerate and 
perish like the peripheral portion. Nevertheless, the 
perikaryon, indeed, the whole remaining nerve cell, does 
undergo visible structural changes if it be deprived of the 
nerve fibre which springs from it. This takes place not 
only when an afferent fibre is cut away, in which case the 
changes might be supposed to result from inaction, from 
the absence of customary impulses passing towards the 
nucleus along the fibre, but also when an efferent fibre is 
cut away, in which case the cell within the central nervous 
system is still subject to the influences which ordinarily 

14 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

play upon it, though it is unable to carry out the behests 
of those influences. 

Putting these various things together we are led to the 
conclusion that quite apart from the grosser changes which 
we call a nervous impulse, and which are signalled by an 
electric change, by the current of action, there must be 
passing to and fro between the several parts of the neurone, 
between perikaj;yon and the farthest point of axon or of 
dendrite, influences, actions, currents, call them what you 
will, which are signalled by no appreciable electric change, 
and of which we have at present no direct signs, no 
indications beyond the phenomena on which I have just 

The perikaryon seems to be the chief laboratory. It 
is here that we find evidence of obvious chemical changes, 
and especially of changes connected with activity. But 
I venture to think it would be a mistake to infer, as some 
seem inclined to do, that these metabolic events of the 
perikaryon, because they make themselves visible there 
and there only, produce their effects there only. One at 
times meets with statements which seem to assume that 
the perikaryon, that part of the nerve unit which is often 
called the nerve cell as distinguished from the other parts 
which are called nerve fibres, is alone the seat of the 
setting free of energy. The facts, however, of which I 
have been speaking, point to the conclusion that the 
good of what is done in the perikaryon is, in some 
way or other, shared by the whole unit. It may be 
beyond our present knowledge to frame any hypothesis 
as to how the chemical labours of the perikaryon are 
made available for the distant parts of axon. As I 
have just said, we have evidence that the nucleus is 
in some way or other in touch with every part of the 
axon along its whole length, but we are at present in 
ignorance as to the exact nature of that touch ; we do not 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1^. 15 

know how it is that the chemical change in the perikaryon 
influences that chemical change at the periphery of the axon 
which is the basis of the local nutrition of that structure. 
Nevertheless it seems clear that the perikaryon does work 
for the good of the whole unit and not for the good of 
itself alone. This is incidentally shewn in the case of the 
spinal ganglion of the lower vertebrates. In these the 
cells of the ganglion are bipolar cells. The incoming axon 
or axon-like dendrite reaching one pole of the perikaryon 
spreads out, losing itself among it, and then is gathered 
up at the opposite pole to issue as a veritable axon. In such 
a case the afferent fibre passes through the substance of 
the perikaryon, and we may assume that it passes along 
definite paths, along strands of axon-like material im- 
bedded in the perikaryonic laboratory mass. Yet we 
have no evidence that this perikaryonic mass in any way 
influences the impulses which sweep through the ganglion 
on their way from the skin to the spinal cord. The peri- 
karyonic mass influences the whole stretch of axonic 
material which forms the axis cylinder of the nerve fibre 
on this side and that side of the ganglion ; but it has no 
direct and special local effect on the threads of axonic 
material which traverse itself between the two poles of the 
cell. It works not for that part of the unit alone but for 
the whole unit along its whole length. 

This, then, is one fundamental feature of the neurone, 
that it is essentially a unit, all the various parts being 
strikingly integrated into a whole, so that whatever affects 
a part, affects not the part alone but the whole unit. 

A second fundamental feature of the nervous system, 
to which I now wish to call your attention, is one which 
1 may introduce under the term of" the differentiation of 
units." The whole nervous system is, as we have seen, a 
linkage of units, the linkage being not by real fusion but 
by contact, the break of continuity between link and link 

1 6 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

being, at least in the majority of cases, obvious and 

The nerve fibres which compose the nerves are, as \ve 
have seen, parts of units of two different functions, parts of 
afferent or sensory units and parts of efferent or motor units. 
Now, when we study nerve fibres by the help of artificial 
stimulation, and take the current of action as the token of 
the phase of nervous activity of the nervous impulse, we can 
find no differentia between the sensory and motor unit. 
In both, the nervous impulse travels with equal facility in 
either direction, and with the same features. We can 
with ease drive a nervous impulse backwards towards 
the periphery along an afferent fibre, and forwards 
towards the spinal cord along an efferent. We can, 
in certain cases, do the same thing along fibres running 
within the central nervous system, and the nervous 
impulse thus propagated in what appears to be an inverse 
direction, may manifest itself by other effects than the 
mere current of action. 

Nevertheless, when we deal not with parts of units but 
with units linked together, the nervous impulses, nervous 
changes, nervous influences, call them what you will, pass 
across the linkages in one direction only, and that may 
be broadly defined as the direction from the sensory or 
afferent unit to the motor or efferent unit. Not only 
natural but artificial impulses readily pass from the 
afferent axon to the motor units, with which that axon is 
linked. They do this irrespective of the direction in 
which they are passing along the axon. The afferent 
axons of the cells in posterior spinal ganglia pursue a long 
course within the spinal cord, constituting definite strands. 
As each axon passes along, it gives off collaterals, which, 
in many cases, form linkages with motor units. Natural 
impulses flowing up the axon from the ganglion, and 
coming ultimately from the periphery, may pass into a 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), iVb. \%. ly 

collateral, and if so, may, under favourable circumstances, 
excite to motor activity the motor unit with which 
the collateral is linked So also, artificial impulses 
passing down the same axon from higher parts of the spinal 
cord towards the ganglion and periphery, and flowing 
into the same collaterals, may produce just the same 
motor effects. Any impulse, however produced and in 
whatever direction flowing, can pass from unit to unit 
across the linkages in the direction from afferent to effe- 
rent. But in no single case has it been found possible to 
drive an impulse across a linkage in the contrary direction, 
from the efferent to the afferent unit ; or, speaking more 
generally, from the efferent unit to any of the other units 
with which it is linked. This general feature is known 
under the name of "Bell's Law." Stimulate a motor nerve 
fibre as much as you please, you will obtain abundant evi- 
dence that the nervous impulses, as indicated by currents 
of action, are flowing inwards towards the cell from which 
the fibre arises, towards the perikaryon of which the fibre 
is the axon. You may be sure that the impulses reach 
the nerve cell, but there they stop. You will not find the 
slightest evidence of any other units being in any way 
influenced. So far, at least, as gross nervous impulses are 
concerned, the linkage is a valve admitting passage in one 
direction only. 

Further, at the linkage there is a change in the nature 
and character of the impulse. As I have already said, 
all the evidence goes to shew that an impulse as it travels 
along a nerve fibre undergoes no material change. So 
long as it merely passes along an axon, so long as it is 
confined to a unit, it may perhaps be slightly diminished 
in intensity, but otherwise is not changed. When, how- 
ever, it leaps from one unit to another, a change does 
take place. This is seen in the relatively simple action of 
unit upon unit, commonly called a reflex action. An 

1 8 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

impulse, or a group or series of impulses travelling along a 
sensory fibre, along the axon of a sensory afferent unit, 
impinges on the body or dendrites of one or of more than 
one motor unit ; forthwith there issue along the axons of 
these motor units, impulses which are wholly incommen- 
surate with the exciting impulse. That exciting impulse 
or that series of exciting impulses may be exceedingly 
feeble and yet may, under suitable circumstances affecting 
the motor unit, give rise not only to numerous but to most 
powerful impulses in the motor unit. A reflex action is 
not, as the term would seem to imply, the mere reflection 
of a centripetal afferent sensory impulse into a centrifugal 
efferent motor impulse. The issuing motor impulses of a 
reflex action are the outcome of the special activity of the 
motor unit. The characters of that activity are, in the 
main, determined by the features, properties, circum- 
stances of the motor unit itself; the afferent impulses 
do little more than start the activity of the motor 
unit, they are to be regarded as of the nature of a 
stimulus which awakes the irritability of the motor unit, 
somewhat as they themselves were started by an external 
stimulus applied to a sensory unit. The manifestations of 
the motor unit may, it is true, be not only started, but also 
in a measure determined by the characters of the sensory 
impulses, a strong, sensory impulse producing effects 
different from those of a weak one, and so on ; but the real 
features of the motor act are determined by the individu- 
ality of the motor unit. 

Moreover, the effect of the advent of afferent impulses 
at the doors of a motor unit may be, not as in an ordinary 
reflex act, the development of motor impulses, and so of 
movement, but the very reverse, the arrest of movement ; 
the effect may be inhibitory. And this, we have reason 
to think, may take place without our being able to detect 
any differences in the nature of the afferent impulses 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1^. 19 

themselves, in the two cases of movement and of 
inhibition. Whether an afferent impulse stirs up a motor 
unit to activity or checks an activity already in play, is 
determined by the relations of the afferent impulse to the 
condition and circumstances of the motor unit, not by any 
essential differences in the nature of the afferent impulse 
in the two cases. 

This is true, at least, so long as we judge of the nature 
of a nervous impulse by what we have seen to be the only 
objective token in our possession, the electric current of 

We must not, however, trust too much to these currents 
of action. We certainly are not justified in assuming that 
the only phases of a nerve unit are the two phases, the 
one of rest, in which no currents of action are developed, 
the one of activity, signalled by a current of action. We 
have increasing evidence of cases in which a motor unit, 
quite apart from its being thrown into an activity mani- 
fested as movement, exerts on the peripheral, muscular or 
other elements with which it is connected, a more gentle 
continued influence, commonly spoken of as tonic action. 
Now this tonic action, so far as we know, is not accom- 
panied by any such electric change as that which marks 
the grosser ordinary nervous impulse. It is the effect of 
gentler, subtler influences passing along the axon, influences 
more nearly allied, of which we spoke a little while back 
as concerned in the nutrition of the unit. 

Such a tonic influence exerted by a unit may be 
modified positively or negatively, may be increased, 
augmented, or may be diminished, inhibited, by various 
influences ; and in many cases these influences are of the 
nature of gross nervous impulses brought to bear on the 
unit by other afferent units. In such cases there can be 
no question of a mere reflection. The individuality of 
the efferent unit is stamped on all its work. 

20 .Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

These, then, are the fundamental principles of the 
action of the nervous system on which I wish to insist as 
a basis for any further considerations. The nervous 
system is a congeries of chains of units, linked together in 
definite ways. Each unit possesses individual powers and 
characters, in part born with it, the outcome of events in 
past times, in part developed during its own growth, as 
determined by its own individual circumstances. The 
several units act the one on the other, and the manifestations 
of nervous life are brought out by the integration of the 
differentiated activities of the individual units. Each unit 
is essentially a unit acting as a whole, with all its parts 
accordant. Any change of activity which occurs takes 
place not within the unit while the phase of activity is 
sweeping along the unit, but at the linkage where unit 
joins on to unit. Further, the action of unit on unit is 
varied ; it may be the inducement of that grosser kind of 
activity, marked by an electric current of action which we 
call a nervous impulse, it may be something else ; it may 
be one of the many things of which we possess no clear 
objective token, such as is supplied by the electric change, 
and about which, therefore, we are as yet greatly in the 

Let me now turn to apply these general principles to 
the problem of visual sensations. 

Put in its simplest form, what takes place in the 
nervous mechanism of vision is somewhat as follows. 

Light falling on a cone (or rod, but for simplicity's sake 
we may omit the double character of the initial elements) 
sets up in this changes which are propagated along 
the cone fibres. The cone and cone fibre are the respective 
parts of an epithelial nervous unit or neurone, the cone 
fibre being the axon. By the terminals of the axonic 
cone fibre this first unit is linked on to a second unit, the 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1^. 21 

" bipolar cell." (I am purposely omitting various com- 
plications existing in the retina, as not bearing directly 
on my theme.) This, again, by the terminals of its axon 
is linked on to a "ganglionic cell," whose axon is a fibre 
first of the optic nerve and then of the optic tract. This 
constitutes the first or retinal portion of the mechanism. 

Now, we can easily obtain evidence that when the 
retina is stimulated, either naturally by light or artificially 
by other means, currents of action are developed in the 
optic fibres. We may take these currents as the objective 
tokens of what we have called nervous impulses passing 
along those fibres. Consequent upon the development of 
these nervous impulses in the optic fibres, visual sensations 
are developed if the remaining cerebral portion of the 
mechanism be intact ; the nervous impulses in the optic 
fibres give rise in the cerebral mechanism to visual sen- 

So far as the objective token of the electric current 
is concerned, we can find no difference between these 
optic impulses, these nervous impulses along the optic 
fibres, and the nervous impulses of an ordinary nerve. 

And yet they are different. If we stimulate artificially 
an ordinary nerve fibre at any part of its course, we can 
produce effects which, within certain limits, are identical 
with the effects of natural stimulation. If we artificially 
stimulate a motor nerve, we can almost if not quite com- 
pletely reproduce natural effects, movement and the like. 
If we stimulate a sensory nerve, we can at least reproduce 
the natural effect of pain, and many other natural effects. 
If, on the other hand, we stimulate artificially the optic 
nerve at any part of its course, we do not (according to 
the most trustworthy observations, though all observers 
are not agreed) give rise to visual sensations ; so far as 
can be ascertained we do not produce any psychical effect 
whatever. If the retina be stimulated, whether the stimulus 

22 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

be the natural one of light or an artificial one, such as 
pressure, an electric current, a chemical agent and the like, 
we do get psychical effects, we do produce visual sensations, 
and the visual sensations resulting from an artificial stimu- 
lation are, in their essential features, identical with those 
resulting from natural stimulation. But if the optic fibres be 
stimulated directly, no psychical effect is produced, neither 
sensations of light, nor sensations of pain, nor sensations 
of any kind. We infer that the natural nervous impulses 
which sweep along the optic fibres when the retina is 
stimulated are of a different nature from those which sweep 
along it when it is directly stimulated by artificial means, 
though both give the same token of currents of action. 
The former are differentiated impulses, and it is differ- 
entiated impulses alone which can so act upon the central 
cerebral portion of the visual mechanism as to give rise 
to psychical effects. 

I may here remark in passing that a similar arrange- 
ment probably obtains in regard to the psychical effects 
of sensation, of touch proper, and of temperature, as 
developed in ordinary sensory cutaneous nerves ; artificial 
stimulation will produce pain, but not the specific tactile 
or temperature sensation. The case, however, is not so 
clear here as it appears to be in vision, and I only 
mention it incidentally. 

To return to visual matters. The optic impulses, as 
they travel along the optic nerve, have already become 
differentiated. Though we possess no experimental 
evidence on the matter, we may infer that the differentia- 
tion is effected by successive steps at the several linkages. 
We do not know the details of the changes which take 
place in the cone cell, in the primary visual unit when 
light falls upon it ; somehow or other the disturbances of 
the ether give rise to material changes, changes which we 
may probably characterise as nervous, travelling along 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. 12. 23 

the cone fibre. At the linkage of the cone fibre with the 
bipolar cell there takes place, we may infer, the first 
differentiation. We may assume that whatever be the 
exact nature of the changes which take place in the 
bipolar cell, these are different from those taking place in 
the cone cell. At the linkage of the bipolar cell with the 
ganglionic cell, a second differentiation takes place. 
Through the two linkages, in accordance with the general 
principles on which, a little while back, I dwelt so long, 
the simpler events started in the cone cell ^\w^ rise to the 
subtler events which travel onwards from the ganglion 
cell along its axon, the optic fibre. 

The differentiation thus begun in the retinal portion 
of the mechanism is continued in the central cerebral 
portion. The optic fibre, the axon of the ganglion cell, 
runs a course the length of which is immense compared 
with that of the axon of the bipolar cell. But that is 
simply due to mechanical morphological causes ; the optic 
nerv^e and tract are long in order to place the retina in a 
suitable position for being affected by light. We have no 
reason whatever for thinking that visual impulses, the 
differentiated nervous impulses or nervous changes which 
sweep along the optic fibre are in any way essentially 
changed from the time they leave the perikaryon of the 
retinal ganglionic cell until they reach their furthest 
terminals. Each optic fibre ends by linking itself with some 
cell, some nerve unit in one or other of the three nervous 
masses of which I spoke at the beginning, in the corpus 
quadrigeminum, in the corpus geniculatum, or in the 
pulvinar of the optic thalamus. Here again, a further 
differentiation, we may assume, takes place. Confining our- 
selves, for simplicity's sake, to one of the three bodies, say 
the corpus geniculatum, we find that the terminal of the 
optic fibre links itself to a cell or, rather, to more than one 
cell. The axon of that cell (or of each of those cells) either 

24 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

proceeds direct as one of the so-called 'optic radiations' to 
the cortex of the occipital lobe, or, what appears to be the 
more ordinary, if not the only course, links itself to another 
unit, another nerve cell, also lying within the corpus geni- 
culatum, it being the axon of this second cell which is 
prolonged as a fibre of the optic radiations. Possibly 
even still another unit may be intercalated in the chain, 
within the corpus geniculatum. 

In any case, a differentiation, probably a large and 
yet subtle one, takes place in this corpus geniculatum, and 
the nervous impulses or nervous changes which are 
produced along the optic radiations are of a very different 
nature from those which travelled along the fibres of the 
optic nerve and tract. 

The fibres of the optic radiations having reached the 
cortex in the occipital region of the brain (we may leave 
on one side for the present the topographical limitations 
of the region), link themselves to cells in that cortex, and, 
so far as mere visual sensations are concerned, the final 
differentiation takes place here. For, as I said at the 
beginning of this lecture, the integrity of the occipital 
cortex, and this part alone of the cortex, is essential for 
the development of visual sensations. Remove, destroy, 
or injure this part of the cortex, and this part only of the 
cortex, indeed, this part only of the whole nervous system, 
and blindness, or imperfect vision, is the result. Remove, 
destroy, or injure any other part of the nervous system, 
save and except this occipital cortex, and the nervous 
visual mechanism of which it forms the head, the develop- 
ment of psychical visual sensations, if affected at all, is 
affected in an indirect manner only. 

The visual mechanism is a chain of nervous units 
beginning with the cone (or rod) and ending in the 
occipital cortex. The psychical event which we call a 
visual sensation is the culmination of a series of difteren- 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. \%, 25 

tiations which the simpler events begun in the cone 
undergo as they pass through the successive links of the 

What can be said about the several differentiations ? 
Some writers, influenced by the experience that in 
monkeys and some other animals removal of the occipital 
cortex immediately produces total blindness, the absence 
of all visual sensations, seem from their writings to hold 
the view that the psychical feature is introduced into the 
whole business at the cortex, and at the cortex alone. 
Such writers use expressions which seem to imply that 
all the events which take place in the mechanism, in the 
retina, optic nerve and lower bodies are purely physical 
changes, unaccompanied by any psychical development, 
and that it is only when these purely nervous changes 
reach the cortex that they suddenly put on psychical 
characters, as if up to the cortex what was going on was 
mere invisible heat which in the cortex suddenly burst out 
into visible flame. 

But if we turn to lower animals, such as rabbits, birds, 
and the like, we find that careful observers have found 
what appears to be unassailable evidence that these animals 
are influenced in a remarkable and complex manner by 
retinal impressions, even after the occipital cortex, and 
indeed the whole of both cerebral hemispheres have been 
removed. In such animals, while in this condition, some- 
thing takes place in the cerebral structures still left in the 
corpora quadrigemina or optic lobes, for instance, which 
influences and guides the movements of these animals 
in a manner strikingly analogous to the guidance of 
movements by visual sensations. So strong is the 
analogy that the onus probandi must be considered as 
resting on those who maintain that the events taking 
place in the visual mechanism in this condition are of a 
wholly different character from those taking place when 
the mechanism is entire. 

26 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events, 

Moreover, when we come to inquire why, in the monkey 
and in ourselves, injury to or disease of the occipital 
cortex abolishes or interferes with visual sensations, we 
have to bear in mind the following important facts. 
Removal or disease of the occipital cortex in such cases 
has effects which are not confined to the cortex; the lower 
bodies, the corpus geniculatum, the pulvinar and, in part, 
the corpus quadrigeminum are secondarily affected ; their 
nutrition and life is interfered with, they undergo degene- 
ration. The life of the nerve cell in the corpus genicu- 
latum, whose axon stretches away to end in the occipital 
cortex, is in some way dependent on the integrity of the 
termination of that axon in the cortex; cut away that 
termination and the whole unit suffers. In such cases the 
removal of the cortex means more than mere absence of the 
cortex, it means interference with the rest of the mechan- 
ism. The absence of visual sensations in these circum- 
stances cannot be attributed to mere absence of cortex ; it 
may be in part due to changes in the lower part of the 
mechanism — changes which early manifest themselves by 
functional deficiencies, and later on by visible structural 
alterations. Indeed, the difference between the effects of 
removing the cortex in the monkey and those of the same 
operation in the rabbit or bird may be simply an expres- 
sion of the much closer dependence on each other of the 
several parts of the mechanism in the one case than in the 
other, the dependence being itself the outcome of a higher 
psychical development. 

So close, indeed, is this dependence of the lower visual 
body on the cortex, so delicate the ties which bind them 
together, as to justify the doubt whether the nervous events 
which take place in this part of the visual mechanism are 
to be considered as of the same order as the more ordinary 
nervous impulses known to us by our studies on ordinary 
nerves. Some time back I gave a warning, that such an 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. {\^g%\ No. V^. 27 

ordinary nervous impulse must not be considered as the 
only kind of event even in an ordinary nerve. That warn- 
ing may be emphasized when we are dealing with the 
structures of which 1 am now speaking. We may perhaps 
go so far as to say that we probably err in supposing that 
a visual sensation is the result of a nervous impulse, a 
something with a definite length and amplitude of wave, 
sweeping up from the corpus geniculatum to the occipital 
cortex, leaving the one to pass to the other, and only 
producing its effect when it reaches its goal. It is more 
probable that the two structures, the cortex and the 
lower body, in some way work together, and that a visual 
sensation of a complete character is an expression not of 
the cortex being affected by something merely passing to 
it from the lower body, but of something passing to and 
fro between the two. If it be permitted to adopt a 
popular phraseology, we may say that the seat of visual 
sensation is not in the cortex alone, but in the cortex 
and the lower bodies. 

Before, however, we consider this matter any further, 
let me turn to the cortex itself, to the occipital cortex. (I 
will continue to use the general term " occipital cortex," 
because, in the first place, the topographical limits of the 
particular areaof the wholeoccipitalregion which is specially 
concerned in vision has not, as yet, been exactly determined, 
and, in the second place, such topographical exactitude is not 
necessary for the theme which I have in hand.) The domi- 
nant structural feature of the whole cerebral cortex is the 
multitude of linkages between dendrites and the terminal 
branchings of axons. And this is, perhaps, especially true 
of the occipital cortex. Cells of different form send out 
in various directions much-branched, far-reaching den- 
drites, and intertwining with the apparently inextricable 
tangle thus constituted run a multitude of branching axons, 
partly belonging to cells lying in the cortex itself, partly 

28 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

coming up into the cortex from the white matter below 
and belonging to cells placed, it may be, in distant 
parts. In the occipital cortex, the axons of cells in 
the corpus geniculatum and its fellows, axons consti- 
tuting the optic radiations, pass into this tangle and link 
themselves with the cortical cells. These cells, as I 
have said, are of different forms. Conspicuous among 
them, and especially numerous in the occipital region, 
are the " pyramidal cells," so-called from their shape, 
that of a pyramid sending out basal dendrites from the 
angles at the base and an extended apical dendrite 
from its apex. So crowded and conspicuous in the 
occipital cortex are these pyramidal cells, especially 
of the smaller variety, that we may probably, without 
great error, assume that these are specially concerned in 
vision, though we are not justified in excluding from the 
same labours the various other kinds of cells also present, 
into the detailed features of which I need not go. 

We may assume, I say, that these pyramidal cells are 
concerned in vision. Whatever be the exact nature of the 
events taking place in the axons of the optic radiations, 
these reaching the terminal divisions of those axons in the 
cortex, affect in some way the dendrites of the cells with 
which those divisions are linked. We may say pro- 
visionally, that through the axons of the optic radiations 
these pyramidal cells are thrown into activity. 

What can we say about that activity ? Let me first of 
all insist on the fact that the axons of these cells all lead 
away from the part of the cortex in which the cells lie to 
some other part of the nervous system. If the apparently 
somewhat common view to which I alluded a little while 
back were correct, if the process of vision were such, that 
apsychical, simply neural events propagated along the 
lower tracts of the mechanism suddenly culminated in the 
cortex into psychical visual sensations, we should expect 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. x/ti (iSgS), No. 12. 29 

to find in the occipital cortex cells possessing characters 
which we might regard as conspicuously receptive. If 
we examine the nature of the terminal organs in which 
axons are definitely known to end, on which they work, 
on which they spend their neural energies, producing 
something unlike their own actions, we find these to 
be either muscular fibres or epithelial glandular cells or 
analogous elements. If there were between the neural 
events of the axon in the optic radiations and the psy- 
chical labours of the cortical cell some such a difference as 
exists between the changes which constitute the nervous 
impulses of a spinal efferent nerve fibre and the changes 
which constitute contraction of a muscular fibre, or the 
secreting activity of a gland cell, and the view of which I 
am speaking seems to indicate such a difference, then, I 
say, we should expect to find in the occipital cortex, cells 
whose bodies, even if not of large dimensions, at all 
events possessed characters indicating that they were 
the seats of important specific activities. 

As a matter of fact, we find no such cells, no cells 
whose bodies even suggest such specific characters. Indeed, 
here, as elsewhere throughout the nervous system, the 
cell body, the nucleus with its perikaryon exists, as I 
insisted upon in the earlier general discussion, for the 
good of the axon, and its characters seem to be deter- 
mined by the work which the axon has to do. In 
illustration of this I might quote the fact that large 
conspicuous pyramidal cells, though scanfy in number, 
are found in the occipital cortex. These, however, are 
not receptive cells, the workshops of psychical sensations ; 
they are motor cells, or, more exactly, they are cells whose 
axons pass directly to motor mechanisms, and their 
relatively large size is a feature which seems common to, at 
least, most distinctly motor cells, and is probably connected 
with the fact that the axons of these are usually of con- 

30 Yo^TY.V., Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

siderable length. The most common cell on the other 
hand in the occipital cortex, the one which we may 
assume is concerned in the development of visual sensations, 
is a small or moderate sized pyramidal cell. 

Let me not be misunderstood here. I am not arguing 
against the absolute specific character of the cortical cell. 
On the contrary, as I 'insisted a little while back, the 
essential note of the whole nervous system is that in the 
chain of linked units, each unit is marked by specific 
features, by features unlike those of its predecessor or of its 
successor. What I am arguing against is the view that in the 
visual chain such specific characters are to be found alone 
in the cortical link, or are alone conspicuous in this. And 
I am perhaps arguing still more against the view that the 
cortical cell is, as it were, in any sense a terminal, even a 
temporary terminal link, where alone important psychical 
labours are commenced, all the preceding links being 
engaged in nothing more than obscure neural work. 

Indeed, this cortical cell is but one link in a chain, 
with other links to follow. As I was saying, the axons, 
the essential part of all these occipital pyramidal cells 
(and of others not pyramidal), lead away from the occipital 
cortex to elsewhere. Their goal is threefold. 

In the first place, some lead to cerebral structures 
lying below the cerebral hemispheres, to the corpus quadri- 
geminum and other bodies. Among these are the axons 
of the large motor cells of which I have just spoken ; and, 
indeed, all the axons taking this course are probably linked, 
by a course more or less short, with motor mechanisms, 
notably with the mechanisms for movements of the eyes, 
but probably also with others. Some few, we have reason 
to think, are the instruments for carrying out, through 
efferent action, changes in the retina, by which the receptive 
cones, and possibly other structures, are tuned to their 
work, but concerning this our knowledge is imperfect. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii.{\%gZ\ No. \% 31 

In the second place, others lead away to the cortex 
of the opposite hemisphere, forming part of that great band 
of fibres, the corpus callosum, which ties together the two 
halves of the brain. How far the "callosal fibres" are 
concerned in bringing it about that, while having two 
brains we have only one mind, or that, in vision in parti- 
cular, our daily life makes us no sign of the fact that 
of the fibres coming from the retina half are gathered up 
into one hemisphere and the other half into the other, is a 
matter on which I must not dwell here. 

In the third place, others, and those by far the most 
numerous, lead to other parts of the cortex of the same 
side. Such axons, known by the not very satisfactory 
name of "association fibres," link themselves by their ter- 
minals or collaterals with cells in some part of the cortex 
other than the occipital, with cells having functions other 
than those of the occipital cells. Accepting the general 
principles on which I dwelt so long, we may infer that 
whatever be the exact nature of the events which take 
place in such an "association fibre" from the occipital 
cortex, as the result of other and different events reaching 
the cell of which it is the axon, those events lead to events 
again different in the axon of the cell on which that 
association fibre impinges. I purposely say events in the 
axon, rather than events in the cell, meaning by cell the cell 
body; for those association cells are no more terminal 
cells than are the occipital cells; in the one and in the 
other the cell body, with its nucleus, and the den- 
drites are only means for securing the occurrence of 
events sweeping along the axon. Indeed, within the 
central nervous system there are no terminal cells, no 
terminal units at all. As I have now repeatedly said, 
the whole nervous system is a congeries of chains, some 
long, some short. In each chain, whether long or short, 
there is one kind of beginning, a sensory cell, generally a 

32 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

modified epithelial cell, receptive of the external influence, 
the stimulus, and one kind of end, a muscular fibre, or a 
gland cell, or some analogous structure, something 
outside the nervous system itself, on which the terminals 
of the final axon play. Every cell within the whole nervous 
system, be it in the spinal cord or lower cerebral structures, 
be it in the cerebral cortex is, I repeat, essentially one link 
in the chain which begins in a sensory receptive cell, and 
ends in a motor or analogous effective cell. The funda- 
mental action of the nervous system, whether the links be 
many or few, is government of the effective cell by the 
receptive cell ; the most common mode of government is an 
activity of the effective cell in response to changes in the 
sensory cell. In the simplest form, where the chain consists 
of one link only, of one nerve cell intercalated between the 
receptive and the effective cells, where the activities of the 
whole mechanism are limited to mere degrees of activity of 
the nerve cell and to the specific activities of its two agents, 
the response of the effective cell to changes in the receptive 
cell is simple and direct. As link is added to link, each new 
link, with its differential characters, enlarges the potenti- 
alities of the whole mechanism, rendering the dependence 
of the effective on the receptive cell more and more indirect. 
In the simple mechanism, response of the effective cell to 
events in the receptive cell is almost imperative, and is 
largely shaped by those events. In the complex mechanism, 
not only the character of the response, but also when it comes 
or whether it comes at all, is determined mainly by what 
takes place in the chain of links. In the one case, the event 
is flashed straight across the one link ; in the other, it is 
reflected and refracted among a multitude of links, until 
often it seems to be lost in the nervous system itself 

To this, the visual nervous chain is no exception. The 
primary fundamental use of the chain is to govern 
effective units, which are, in the main, muscular units. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. \%, 33 

Trace out the varied chain, and whether you follow the 
short loops or the long ones you will come back to a 
muscle or some analogous effective unit. Run along the 
optic fibre and tract to the corpus quadrigeminum, a short 
loop brings you back to ocular and other muscles (there 
may be a still shorter loop within the retina itself). Pass 
upward to the occipital cortex, a longer loop brings you 
back once more. Pass on from the occipital cortex along 
the association fibres first to one and then to another part 
of the cortex, loops, longer it is true, but still loops bring 
you back to muscle. During all this, at each link of the 
chain, the differentiation pertaining to each unit brings 
about a change in the nature of the events taking place. 
At the beginning we call the events simply neural. Later 
on we recognize them as psychical. As we have seen, we 
seem to have clear reason to conclude that in the occipital 
units the threshold of the psychical has been reached, 
but we have also seen reasons to think that it has not 
been reached at one jump, but rather by successive 
differentiations. We may infer that in the so called 
" associations " loops, further successive psychical differen- 
tiation is effected. And, indeed, positive evidence is being 
gathered that this is the case. 

I must not enter fully into this part of my subject, 
since I have other points to dwell on ; I must content 
myself with one example. 

One of the muscular mechanisms with which the visual, 
nervous chain is connected is that of speech. When a 
person in reading speaks the word which he sees before him, 
a nervous machinery of many links intervenes between 
the image of the word thrown on the retina, and the mus- 
cular contractions which give rise to the sound of the 
spoken word. That machinery may be damaged by injury 
or disease in many ways, the chain may be broken in one or 
other of the many links. It may be broken in the following 

34 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

way. The person may have no mere vocal difificulty 
whatever ; the machinery for speech as speech, and this 
we have reason to think is made up of nerve units lying in 
the frontal region of the brain in one of the so-called frontal 
convolutions, may be intact. On the other hand, his mere 
visual sensations may be also intact : there may be every 
evidence that he "sees" everything perfectly, including the 
printed word. He is in this condition ; he can pronounce 
the word, he can see the word, but he cannot pronounce 
the word as the result of seeing it. He can pronounce 
the word perfectly when the motive for speaking it is 
hearing it, or some other motive than the seeing it. 
Between the seeing and the speaking some link is snapped. 
I bring this "word-blindness," as it is called, to your notice 
because, in respect to it, we have evidence from cases of 
disease that the nervous link which is snapped lies in the 
cerebral cortex, not in the occipital area concerned in the 
development of visual sensations, not in the frontal convo- 
lution where the nervous processes which issue in the vocal 
utterance are marshalled, but in a limited spot of the 
cortex situate between the two, in what is called the angular 
gyrus. When this is damaged, word-blindness results, and 
the more the damage is limited to this spot, the more 
clearly the psychical defect appears as mere word-blindness. 
As we have seen, the occipital cortex is concerned in 
visual sensations. I might add that most probably it, too, 
is mainly concerned in visual perceptions. Not only are the 
crude sensations excited by the arrangements of black and 
white of the component letters developed by means of it 
in the manner which I have attempted to indicate, but by 
means of it also, or of some part of it most probably (I am 
speaking now of a matter of which our knowledge is very 
vague), in some way or other takes place the further 
psychical elaboration of the constituent sensations into the 
apperception of the word as a whole. But in order to 

MancJiester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. \%, 35 

speak the word thus perceived some further psychical act 
is necessary ; and the neural events which form the basis 
of this seem to be carried out by the " association " fibres 
which pass from the visual area of the occipital cortex to 
the other units in the area in the angular gyrus, and by 
those other units. We have here, then, an instance of at 
least two stages of psychical differentiation. And I might 
quote other instances. 

I am aware that what I have just said is psychologi- 
cally vague and imperfect. I do not pretend that it is 
anything more. But I think I may venture to say that, 
imperfect as it is, it seems to open up the possibility of our 
gaining, perhaps at no distant date, clearer knowledge. If 
I have carried you with me in my earlier arguments, we 
have gained this position, that in the visual neural chain 
from the retina to the occipital cortex, through the action 
of unit on unit, neural events in some way or other give 
rise to visual sensations. Somewhere in this chain the 
psychical threshold is distinctly passed ; . the neural 
event, the neural "thing" gives rise to, is accompanied by, 
manifests itself through conscious sensation. I am pur- 
posely vague in the use of words to denote the bond 
between the two. Nevertheless, the psychical event, so far 
as we can see, is commensurate in magnitude with the 
neural event, follows it as effect follows cause. But if 
particular structures, particular units are thus specially 
associated with the simple elements of psychical life, 
namely with sensations, it is not too much to conclude 
that the mere complex psychical factors are similarly 
associated with particular structures, and that in some 
such way as the initial purely physical effect of light on 
the front part of the cone, by means of successive 
differentiations of that initial effect, through a chain of 
units gives rise to the undeniably psychical effect, so by 
successive differentiations through complex chains of 

36 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

units, the simple sensation gives rise to "higher" psychical 
life. What is wanted is a careful analysis (as yet only 
just begun) of the complex tangle of neural units which 
make up the brain, an analysis at once physiological and 
anatomical. And what perhaps is wanted even more is 
that this objective analysis should be guided and, if need 
be, corrected by an adequate subjective analysis on the 
purely psychological side, for hitherto these have not been 
found too often in company. The instance of word-blind- 
ness on which I just now dwelt, and I might bring forward 
others, gives us, I say, great hope for the fruitfulness of 
future inquiry. 

I must now turn to another aspect of my subject. 
Leaving the higher psychical development, and returning 
to the general characters of simple sensation, I will ask 
your attention to the influence of various circumstances 
and conditions on the production of psychical effects. 

I have spoken of the visual mechanism as a bundle of 
chains of units. But it must not be inferred from this 
that such chain in the optic bundle is wholly separate 
from its neighbours. It is not the case that one cone 
unit is linked to one bipolar unit only in the retina, this 
to one ganglion unit only, this to one unit only in the 
corpus geniculatum, and this to one unit only in the 
cortex, so that in the cortex each cone (or rod) is 
represented by one unit only, apart from and distinct from 
neighbouring units. On the contrary, there is a mingling 
at the very outset ; each cone fibre is linked to and can 
influence more than one bipolar unit. The mingling is 
repeated at each successive link, and is especially 
prominent in the corpus geniculatum and its allies. Now, 
when two parts of the retina are stimulated by light at 
the same time, the condition that two distinct sensations 
are produced is that the two points should be separated 

Manchester Mevioirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1*^. 37 

by a distance at least not less than the distance between 
two cones. Had the visual mechanism been such that 
each chain of units, with a cone at one end and a receptive 
cortical cell at the other, was quite separate from its 
neighbours an anatomical explanation of separate sensa- 
tions might have seemed possible. But such an explana- 
tion, quite apart from all other objections, is rendered 
impossible by the mingling just spoken of Obviously, 
even supposing that a single cone can be stimulated 
alone, all its neighbours remaining at rest, the effect will 
become a diffuse one as it is propagated along the mecha- 
nism ; and the effects of the simultaneous stimulation of 
two cones, even at some distance apart, will overlap. I will 
not attempt to discuss what are the conditions which really 
determine that two sensations shall be distinct. I have 
brought these matters forward because they seem to 
further illustrate the incorrectness of the view, that a sen- 
sation is brought about by nervous impulses reaching 
some cortical station, and there becoming suddenly trans- 
formed, as if there were a sort of mosaic of sensations 
corresponding to the retinal mosaic. It would seem pro- 
bable that, in the development of any visual sensation, 
several elements, several units for example of the corpus 
geniculatum are concerned. Further, the phenomena of 
simultaneous contact shew that all those elements are not 
concerned in the same way ; in some, effects are produced 
which appear the very opposite to those produced in 
others. And, indeed, there seem some reasons for 
believing that no one spot of the retina can be affected by 
light, without the whole mechanism, without the elements 
connected with the whole retina, being also affected in 
some way or other at the same time. 

Assuming the truth of the view which I put before you 
at an early part of the lecture, that differentiation of action 
takes place not in any part of a unit rather than in any 

38 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

other but at the linkage of unit with unit, each unit acting 
as an individual differentiated whole, the circumstances 
attending linkage deserve attention. As we have seen, 
the mode of linkage, which, if not universal, is at least 
usual, is that the terminals of an axon (of the stem or of a 
collateral) link with the dendrites or perikaryon of another 
unit, so that the axon of one unit works on the axon of 
another unit, not directly, but through the means of the 
dendrites or perikaryon, the direction of activity being 
centrifugal away from the nucleus along the axon. We 
have no evidence of the terminals of one axon linking on 
to the terminals of another axon so as to suggest that an 
axon can work directly on an axon, or start an action 
which proceeds centripetally towards the nucleus. This 
however is perhaps not a matter of vital importance. We 
came to the conclusion some time back that the unit acts 
as a whole, that the axon does not act apart from the rest 
of the unit, and that dendrite and perikaryon act for and 
through the axon. Hence we may further conclude that, 
to whatever part of one unit another be linked, the effect, 
which is an activity of the axon, is in the main the same. 

We have further seen that a linkage is in the vast 
majority of cases, if not universally, a thing of contact not 
of fusion ; that is to say there exists an obvious gap 
between the nervous material of the one unit and 
that of the other. And we may conclude that the 
existence of this gap is one of the conditions deter- 
mining the differentiation of action which takes place 
or begins at the linkage. Such a palpable gap is not 
essential to the occurrence of differentiation. That 
is the result of the individuality of each of the two linked 
units, is the outcome of the fact that the powers of the one 
unit are not identical with those of the other. Even in 
the case where one unit seems to fuse wholly with the 
other, where the best optical analysis can detect no sepa- 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. \%. 39 

ration between the material of the two, general con- 
siderations would lead us to conclude that a line of 
demarcation does exist on the one side of which the 
molecules belong to the one unit and obey the one nucleus, 
and on the other side belong to the other unit and obey 
the other nucleus. In no tissue, whether animal or vege- 
table, is an instance known of a common border-land 
between two cells, belonging to both cells and governed 
by the nuclei of the two. Hence we may infer that apparent 
structural fusion does nob imply functional fusion, that the 
molecules on one side of the functional line of demar- 
cation behave or may behave differently from those on the 
other side. We may still infer, however, that a palpable 
structural gap, though not essential to the mere occurrence 
of differentiation, must in some way determine the extent 
or character of the differentiation. Knowing, as we do, 
so little of the actual nature of the molecular changes 
which underlie neural events, our ideas as to how such an 
obvious gap affects the transference of events from one 
unit to another must necessarily be vague and obscure ; 
but we cannot do otherwise than suppose that the trans- 
ference is different when it proceeds along a tract of 
nervous material, continuous as mere nervous material 
though changing in character where the tract leaves one 
unit to join the other, from what it is when it has in some 
way or other to pass across a bridge composed of material 
not nervous at all. As we have seen, the one objective 
token of a nervous impulse is an electric change, and though 
nervous events cannot be identified with ordinary electric 
events as at present known, yet the similarity of nervous 
events to electric events is greater than their similarity to 
any other physical events ; and we may perhaps, leaning 
on this similarity, illustrate the possible influence of such 
a bridge of non-nervous material in the course of a nervous 
tract by saying, that the difference which it introduces is 

40 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events, 

analogous to that between electric induction and con- 
duction. But this, it must be remembered, is nothing 
more than a vague illustration. 

I have alluded to this bridge because, recently, great 
importance has been attached to the possibility of the 
transference of one unit to another being directly and 
boldly modified through the bridge being made longer or 
shorter by the physiological processes of contraction and 
relaxation of the nervous material. In the case of many 
cells, notably the pyramidal cells of the cortex, the den- 
drites are furnished with minute, rod-like appendages, 
sometimes spoken of as "thorns." Now, making every 
allowance for changes in appearance being simply 
the result of differences in the mode of preparation of 
microscopical specimens (and the technique of the micros- 
copical study of nervous structures is undoubtedly com- 
plex and uncertain), it seems to be established that these 
minute appendages while at one time conspicuous, may 
be at other times inconspicuous, as if they had been with- 
drawn or retracted. And it is maintained that the retracted 
condition may be brought about by influences, generally 
rough and powerful ones, such as electric shocks or poisons 
brought to bear on the nervous system, or even on the 
organism as a whole. The retraction of such an 
appendage will increase the length of the bridge spoken 
of above, or will establish a bridge where no obvious one 
existed before, and hence may be supposed largely to 
modify, or even to abolish altogether the transference 
of neural events from one unit to another. And, indeed, 
some writers have boldly used this phenomenon as a 
mechanical explanation of neural, and so, of psychical 
events. It has been suggested, for instance, that, as the 
result of fatigue, these appendages to the dendrites of a 
cortical cell are retracted after prolonged activity of the 
cell, that the transference of neural changes from the 

Mandiester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. \%, 41 

linked axon is thereby interrupted, and the activity of the 
cell suspended, and that this is the basis of sleep. 

I am free to confess that, so far as I know, no adequate 
proof has, as yet, been offered, that under ordinary, what 
we may call natural, influences any such retraction does 
take place. Moreover, while it is true that the power to 
change its form, as seen in amoeboid movement and in 
muscular contraction and relaxation, seems a fundamental 
attribute of undifferentiated living matter or protoplasm, as 
it is sometimes called, it is also true that the differentiation 
of protoplasm means the exaltation of certain powers at 
the expense of others ; and in that extreme differentiation 
which protoplasm undergoes in being fashioned into 
nervous material, especially into the nervous material 
whose activity is manifested by psychical events, we 
should have expected that the law of economy would have 
extinguished, even to almost the last remnant, the 
lower function of mere movement. Indeed, it seems 
probable that the diminution or suspense of neural 
changes, especially those manifesting themselves in 
psychical events, would be achieved by diminishing the 
molecular changes, to carry on which the material is so 
exquisitely fashioned, rather than still burdening that 
material with the grosser labour involved in a change of 
form. We should expect a cessation of activity in a 
unit to be brought about by dulness of the appendage 
to a dendrite towards the influences exerted by the 
terminal of an axon, a dulness which is a mere phase 
of its normal molecular processes, rather than by bodily 
retraction, which must call into play molecular processes 
of a wholly different nature. 

Indeed, this hypothesis of gross change of form as an 
explanation of psychical events may be objected to on 
the very ground that it leads us away from a line of 
thought which is probably far more fruitful, namely, that 

42 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

of the delicately varied and exquisitely cared for nutrition 
of the nervous unit, in view of the molecular labours, 
other than those issuing in change of form, which it has 
to carry out. 

I have just urged that the fine differentiation of 
nervous material entails the suppression of the funda- 
mental primeval power of change of form. I may now 
add that the differentiation entails the loss of another 
fundamental property, that of reproduction. While in 
other tissues, notably in the skin and muscles, old units, 
old cells worn out by use or by divers influences are 
replaced by new ones, a fact broadly but incorrectly ex- 
pressed in the popular statement that the whole body is 
renewed every seven years, the evidence which we poss ess 
goes to show that such a regeneration, that the appearance 
of new units by birth from old ones, comes to an end at 
an early period of life in the case of the nervous system. 
Take away a piece of skin, of bone, or of connective 
tissue, new stuff of the same kind makes good the loss ; 
but a piece of brain once lost is lost for ever ; the cells, 
the units which made it up, are never replaced. Examine 
almost any tissue of the body other than that of the 
nervous system, at almost any period of life, and you will 
find evidence in the changes going on in the nuclei that 
old cells are giving birth to new ones. Examine in the 
same way the nervous system for like signs, and after a 
certain date, which we may probably fix as that of very 
early youth, you will find none. At a very early date the 
installation of nervous units is completed ; after that no 
new units make their appearance. So far as the number 
of units is concerned, the machinery is a finished one. 
All the growth, all the increase of complexity, hence- 
forward possible, is accomplished not by the introduction 
of new units, but by the extension and development of 
those already installed. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (iZ^Z), No.\%. 43 

This, at first sight, seems inconsistent with the broad 
experience that the work of the nervous system, above 
that of all other parts of the body, becomes richer and 
fuller as life advances. But it is only inconsistent with 
the view that in the course of life there come to the indi- 
vidual new powers, the outcome of new units of machinery. 
It is not inconsistent with the view that new powers are 
only the development of the potentialities of old units. 
And, indeed, the failure to produce new units brings as a 
recompense favourable conditions for the development of 
such potentialities. In the nerve unit, the nerve cell, the, 
to us, occult energies — which in another tissue lead to the 
cell sacrificing itself in order to produce its kind — are 
selfishly limited to the increase of its own mass and powers. 
Barred from reproduction, the nerve-cell is conspicuous, 
on the one hand, for its power to extend parts of its body 
for enormous distances from its central nucleus, and to 
repair any parts of itself which may be damaged or injured; 
and, on the other hand, for the facility with which it adapts 
its growth to the circumstances of its life. 

Thus, the axon of a cell in the lumbar cord, or the 
fibre, call it axon or dendrite, belonging to a cell in the 
ganglion of the root of a lumbar nerve, may stretch away 
from the nucleus by which its life is governed right down 
to the toes, and, moreover, if divided close to the nucleus 
so that the whole length dies away, will in a very short 
time be renewed from the nucleus outwards to its very 
end. Take away the nucleus and perikaryon, no new 
nucleus, no new cell ever replaces the lost; but leave 
the nucleus, and a great long axon, many times exceeding 
the perikaryon in bulk, may be renewed again and again. 

So, again, while, as I have said, we have no evidence 
that after a certain date any new nerve cell ever makes 
its appearance, we have abundant evidence that a nerve 
cell, simple in form at its installation in early life, may 

44 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

grow in course of time into a very complex figure, and, 
moreover, that the extent and character of its growth is 
to a large extent determined by the demands for action 
made upon the cell by the incidents of life. In all the 
tissues of the body we may trace the influence of exercise 
and the stimulating effect of the demand for action ; but 
these are seen in their highest form in nervous tissue and 
most conspicuously perhaps in the nerve cells of the 
cerebral cortex. The nutrition of every tissue of the body 
is determined by two factors, by the quantity and quality 
of the blood supply and by the activity of the tissue itself 
But whereas in most tissues the former is the predom- 
inating factor, in nervous tissue and especially in the 
cortical cells, it is the latter which rules. As we have 
incidentally seen, the nerve unit, so soon as it is cut off 
from the play of its fellows upon it, begins to droop, how- 
ever rich and full the blood stream which reaches it ; it 
droops the sooner and the more, the quicker was its life 
before. The potentialites of the unit may have their 
source in the blood supply which bathes it, but its 
actualities are determined by the calls made upon it. 

This, in fact, is the physical basis of education. The 
material of the nerve cell renouncing the grosser duties of 
bodily movement, of secretion, that is to say the production 
of chemical substances destined for the good of units 
other than itself, and of reproduction, concentrates its 
energies of nutrition on making itself responsive by inner 
molecular movement to the finest changes in its sur- 
roundings. It is the seat of a finely balanced nutrition 
wholly exceeding that of any other tissue. Every inci- 
dent of its life stirs that nutrition, which indeed is directed 
to being so stirred ; and, moreover, while producing an 
immediate effect, leaves a trace behind. When the 
blows of external influences are repeated often enough, 
especially if they be heavy enough, the effects are mani- 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. \%, 45 

fested in the grosser changes which we call growth. But 
such large effects are nothing more than the summation 
of smaller changes ; to produce the total each contri- 
bution must have brought its share. And we shall 
probably not err in supposing that every influence 
brought to bear on a nerve unit produces an effect which 
lasts far beyond the passing functional activity. When 
light falls on sensitive retina for a moment only the effect 
on the higher parts of the visual mechanism may be traced 
long afterwards, under favourable circumstances, as a 
gradually fading series of images alternating with rests or 
rather with reversions, and even when the effects have 
fallen below the threshold of consciousness, and thus 
seem to have passed away, a study of the results of a 
fresh stimulation shows that the machinery is not yet at 
rest, is not as yet what it was before. Moreover, 
the finer our means of testing, the longer may we 
trace out the effects. Yet, in this visual mechanism 
which supplies the earlier links of the nervous chain 
for the production of psychical effects, which has to 
be used again and again in order to feed the higher, 
more distinctly psychical links, there must, we may 
suppose, be agencies at work tending to wipe out all 
previous effects in order to prepare for new events. In 
the higher links the need of such tergative agencies will, 
we may further suppose, become less and less. If so, in 
them we may fairly expect that the effect of an influence 
once brought to bear will last far longer, will last long 
enough, may I say, to give us a glimpse of seeing what 
may be the physical basis of the psychical fact of memory. 
One word more. In the lower tissues, in undifferenti- 
ated protoplasm, in muscle and the like, spontaneous 
activity, automatism seems to be the direct outcome of 
nutrition, the direct effect of the blood supply working on 
the molecular machinery, and to be independent of the 

46 Foster, Physical Basis of Psychical Events. 

play of external influences on the tissue. But if there be 
any truth in the views which I have been urging upon you, 
we cannot transfer this conception to the working of the 
brain. If in nervous tissue, as I have urged, the influence 
of the blood supply is wholly subordinate to the influences 
of incidents, the more so the higher the elements, we 
must attach but little importance to the play in it of such 
a direct nutritional automatism. We must regard that 
psychical spontaneity which we call the will, as, at least in 
the main, the outcome of complex influences. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 13. 

XIII. Contribution to our Knowledge of the Marine 
Fauna of the Falkland Islands. 

By Edith M. Pratt, B.Sc (Vict). 

Research Student in Zoology at The Owens College. 

\Co7nmunicated by Professor S. J. Hickson, F,R.S.] 

Received and ?-ead J\Jarch 22nd, i8qS. 

The work in connection with this paper has been done 
in the Zoological Laboratories of the Owens College, 
Manchester, under the kind supervision of Professor 

1 must thank Dr. Harmer, of Cambridge, for his 
great kindness in placing at my disposal his collection of 
Br}-ozoa, and for his kind aid in identifying certain species. 

My thanks are also due to Mr. Kirkpatrick for assist- 
ing me in the examination of the " Busk " Collection of 
Bryozoa, at the British Museum. 

The material at my disposal was collected by Miss 
Blake, at Hill Cove, West Island, Falklands, during the 
months of September and October, 1 896, and the specimens 
may be regarded as forming a typical common shore 
collection of that region, the shore at Hill Cove being 
sandy with small rocks. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Standen, I have also 
had access to a collection of Mollusca, on some of which 
grew various Bryozoa, made by Miss Cobb at Lively 
Island, Falklands. These were also .shore forms. 

In the Collection were the following species of 
Br}'Ozoa : — 
December 14th, i8gS. 

2 Pratt, Marine Fauna of the Falkland Islands. 


I. Beania magellanica MacGillivray 

— Diachoris magellanica Busk, 

Brit. Mus. Cat., I., p. 54. 
II. Beania costata MacGillivray 
= Diachoris costata Busk, 

Challenger, Vol. X., Polyzoa, p. 60. 

III. Cellaria malvinensis Busk 

= Salicornaria malvinensis Busk, 

Challenger, Vol. X., Polyzoa, p. 91. 

IV. Cellepora pustulata Busk, 

Challenger, Vol. X., Polyzoa, p. 200. 
V. Cellepora piimicosa Busk, var. eatonensis Busk, 

Challenger, Vol. X., Polyzoa', p. 201. 
VI. Cribrilina labiosa Busk 

— Lepralia labiosa Busk, 

Brit. Mus. Cat., II. p. 82 ; 
Challenger, Vol. X., Polyzoa, p. 133. 
VII. Cribrilina monoceros Busk, 

Challenger, Vol. X., Polyzoa, p. 133 ; 
Hincks, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) VI II., p. 57. 
VIII. Lepralia adpressa Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat. II., p. 82; 
Hincks, Brit. Mar. Polyzoa, p. 307. 
I X. Membranipora membranacea Linn. 

Hincks, Brit. Mar. Polyzoa, p. 140. 
X. Micropora uncifera Busk, 

Challenger, Vol. X., Polyzoa, p. 71. 
XI. Microporella ciliata Pallas. 

Hincks, Brit. Mar. Polyzoa, p. 206. 
XII. Microporella malusii Audouin. 

Hincks, Brit. Mar. Polyzoa, p. 211. 

XIII. Mucronella tricuspis Hincks, 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) VIII., p. 66. 

XIV. Schizoporella hyalina Linn. 

Hincks, Brit. Mar. Polyzoa, p. 271. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. 13. 3 

XV. Schizoporella hyalina (variety). 
XVI. Smittia landsborovii Johnston. 

Hincks, Brit. Mar. Polyzoa, p. 341. 
XVII. Porella tridentata, sp. nov. 

CtenoSTOMATA are only represented by some badly 
preserved fragments of the genus Bowerbankia, the species 
of which I have been unable to identify. 

Of the preceding species, two are cosmopolitan in 
shallow water and are also found in some regions in deep 
water ; this fact is referred to later. 
I. Microporella ciliata, on weed, among debris, and on 
II. Schizoporella hyalina, on weed and shell {PJiotimtla). 
It is noteworthy that both these forms occur on weed. 

The following species are common to the northern 
hemisphere, including Britain, and the Falklands : — 

I. Lepralia adpressa, on shells {Photinula violacea and 

Trophon uticriciformis). 

Habitat: Britain (Torbay, Guernsey, Hastings). Medi- 
terranean (Algiers, Naples, Bay of Gibraltar). Aus- 
tralia. Chiloe. Falklands. Mazatlan. 

Moderate to deep water. Fossil — Italian pliocene. 

II. Membranipora membranacea. 

Habitat: Britain; universal and abundant. Hviding- 
soe. Hougesund (Norway). Roscoff. Finisterre 
(France). Adriatic. New Zealand. Australia. 

Range in time — coralline crag. PaLneolithic. 

Occurs only in temperate seas in shallow water. 

III. Microporella mahtsii. 

Habitat: Britain (widely distributed and abundant). 
Gullmarcn. Bahusia, 10-20 fath. Bergen. Fin- 

4 Pratt, Marine Fauna of the Falkland Islands. 

mark (Norway). Greenland. Mediterranean. 
Adriatic. France (S.W.). Black Sea. South 
Patagonia, 48 fath. Tierra del Fuego. Falk- 
lands. Valparaiso. New Zealand. 
Fossil — coralline crag, on Terebratula. Older pliocene. 

The following occur in north and south temperate 
seas, but not in Britain, nor the tropics :— 

I. Beania magellanica, growing on an Ascidian {Molgula 

Habitat: Adriatic. Australia, 2-10 fath. New Zea- 
land. Kerguelen. Cape Horn. Falkland Islands. 
It appears to occur only in shallow water. 

II. Cellepora pustulata, on Patella venosa. 

Habitat: Island of Capri (Italy). Victoria (Australia). 

New Zealand. Marion Island. 
The specimen, though fairly large, is much water-worn. 
It is interesting to note that the only known northern 
habitat of these two species is the Mediterranean. 

The following species is the only one which occurs in 
north and south temperate and cold seas, and in the tropics 

Smittia landsborovii^ on shell ( Trophon muricijormis). 

Habitat: Britain. Florida. Greenland. South Africa. 
Falklands. Australia. Arctic Seas. Davis Strait. 

Fossil — var. crystallina — Scottish glacial deposits. 

The following species occur only in the southern 
hemisphere : — 

I. Beania costata, on weed, in shallow water. 

Habitat: Australia. Kerguelen. Cape Horn. Falklands. 

II. Cellaria malvinensis^ erect, in fairly shallow water. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 1J5. 5 

Habitat : Petane (New Zealand). Strait of Magellan, 
45 fath. South Patagonia. Victoria (Australia). 
Kerguelen. Marion Island. New Hebrides 
(S. Pacific), 70 fath. Cape Horn. Falklands. 
Fossil in tertiary of New Zealand. 

III. Cellepora ptnnicosa, van eatonensis, among debris, and 

encrusting shell. 
Habitat: Kerguelen, 28 fath. and 45-127 fath. W. of 
S. America, 45° 31' S., yZ° g W. Falklands. 

IV. Micropora uncifera, on weed. 

Habitat: Mid South Atlantic. Tristan D'Acunha. 
Nightingale Island. Inaccessible Island. Cape 

V. Cribrilina labiosa, on shells {Mj/tilus magellanicus 

and Terebratuld). 
Habitat: Falklands. Simon's Bay (Cape of Good 

VI. Cribrilina inonoceros, on Mytilus edulis. 
Recorded from : — 

Mid N. Pacific 3,125 fath. Australia, 35 fath. New 
Zealand. Marion Island. ^Strait of Magellan, 175 
fath. Between Strait of Magellan and Falklands. 
Bass Strait. Cape Horn. Falklands, 12 fath. 
Fossil : tertiary deposits. Bairnside, Victoria (Aus- 
tralia). Napier and Petane (New Zealand). 

VII. Miicronella tricuspis, on shell {^Mytilus ungidatus). 
Habitat : Australia, 38 fath. Simon's Bay (Cape of 

Good Hope). Prince Edward Island. Tierra del 
Fuego. Chiloe. Falklands, 5-12 fath. S. America. 

VIII. Porella tridefitata, sp. nov. On shell {Eutkria 

antarctica) Falklands. 
Of the foregoing list of species, the following have not, 
I think, been hitherto recorded from the Falklands: — 

6 Pratt, Marine Fauna of the Falkland Islands. 

1 . Cellepora pus tula ta. 

2. Lepralia adpressa. 

3. Membranipora membranacea. 

4. Smittia landsborovii. 

5. Micropora uncifera. 

6. Microporella ciliata. The variety personata was 

recorded by Darwin from the Falklands, but not 
the true species. 
Of 16 species of Bryozoa in this collection, eight have 
been found only in the southern hemisphere. Five have 
been found in the north and south temperate regions. 
One occurs in the north and south temperate regions and 
in the tropics, and two are cosmopolitan. 

Notes on the Species of Bryozoa in this collection. 

The zocecia of Microporella ciliata seem larger than 
those of the British specimens. In structure I think they 
more closely resemble those of the Californian specimens. 

Lepralia adpressa var. Busk. The surface of the 
zooecium is strongly grooved, as described by Busk of 
the species occurring at Chiloe {see Busk, Brit. Mus. Cat., 
Vol. II., p. 82), but there are, in addition, certain large 
pores which occur round the margin of each zooecium, at 
the base of each triangular furrow {see Figs, i and 2). 
These pores I have also seen in Busk's "Chiloe" 
specimen at the British Museum, but they are neither 
so numerous nor so well marked as in my specimen. 

Avicularia {Fig. 3) of two kinds occur, which have 
not hitherto been described ; one appears to be the 
ordinary beak-like form, but is often slightly irregular in 
shape (Fig. 3, a and b) ; the other is circular in outline, 
with a spatulate mandible {Fig. 3, c and d). The avicu- 
laria are very irregularly distributed over a colony ; 
sometimes five or six neighbouring zooecia possess one 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol.xlii.{\ZgZ\]Slo.V^, 7 

or even two, whilst not one of the remaining zooecia of 
the colony bear any. 

In one or two cases, knobbed cells are seen {^Fig. i,^), 
which are characteristic of the British species {see Hincks, 
Brit. Mar. Polyzoa, p. 307). I have seen no trace of an 

Porella tridentata, sp. nov. 

Zooecia hexagonal, separated by fairly deep linear 
furrows ; surface convex and punctured by large irregular 
pores which, in some cases, are definitely arranged round 
the margin. 

Secondary orifice horse-shoe shaped or inversely 
subtriangular, with a lateral raised collar meeting in a 
sudden depression behind {^Fig. 4, b), often a sinus in front, 
containing a small avicularium with a rounded mandible 
{Figs. 4 and 5, b). In many cases a spatulate avicularium is 
present to the right of the secondary orifice (Figs, a, and 5,<^). 

Deep down in the orifice can be seen a large median 
denticle with two lateral ones {Figs. 4 and 5, c and d) ; 
because of this feature it has been thought fit to call the 
species " tridentataJ' 

The ovicell {Fig. 5, Ov.) is semicircular in outline, 
convex in front, somewhat granular, with one or two groups 
of irregular punctures. 

Zoarium encrusting shell {Photinula violacea) and of a 
dirty pink colour. 

Porella trideiitata is somewhat like P. concinna (Hincks, 
Brit. Mar. Polyzoa, p. 323). It differs from the latter in 
having two lateral denticles in addition to the median one 
which is present in P. concinna. It is also somewhat 
larger, and the pores are bigger and irregular in shape. 
The spatulate avicularium appears to be constant in posi- 
tion, while the general shape of the secondary orifice seems 
to be somewhat different. 

8 Pratt, Marine Fauna of the Falkland Islands. 

P. tridentata differs from Jullien's P. malouinensis {see 
Cap Horn Fxped.^ p. 57) in that the pores are larger and 
fewer in number. P. fnalouinensis appears to have no 
spatulate avicularium or denticles, and the secondary orifice 
is somewhat different. The ovicell agrees with Jullien's 
description of that in P. malouinensis, which, however, he 
does not figure. 

A consideration of the geographical distribution of 
the Bryozoa in this collection from the Falkland Islands, 
is of special interest at the present time because of the 
controversy about the origin of the north and south extra- 
tropical marine faunas. 

Murray* is of opinion that "if there were once a nearly 
universal climate over the whole of the ocean, then it is 
possible that there was a universal littoral marine fauna." 
When cooling set in at the Poles, then the animals with 
pelagic larvae would be killed out, or be forced to migrate 
towards the warmer tropics. By limiting their reproduc- 
tive process to the summer season, some of the organisms 
with free swimming larvae would live on in the temperate 
regions. With the disappearance of the shallow-water 
fauna from the polar regions, its place would be occupied 
by organisms from the deeper mud line, few of which have 
pelagic larvae. In this way the similarity and, in some 
cases, identity between the polar faunas, and the likeness 
of many shallow- water polar animals to deep-sea species, 
might be explained. 

The cooling of the waters at the Poles would cause vast 
migrations of forms towards the warmer seas, where 
metabolic changes would be greater; this would cause the 

* Murray ' ' On the Deep and Shallow-water Marine Fauna of the 
Kerguelen Region of the Great Southern Ocean." {Trans. R. Soc. Ed., 
Vol. 38 (1896), p. 343 ; also Challenger SiLmmary of Results.) 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol xlii. (1898), No. 13. 9 

struggle for existence to be intensely severe in the tropics, 
and would result in a rapid formation of species, while 
many would become extinct. On the other hand, the 
metabolism being less in the temperate and colder waters, 
and the struggle for existence being less severe here than 
in the warmer waters, there would be less tendency for the 
species to become modified, and many would remain true; 
hence the similarity between the North and South tem- 
perate faunas. 

Ortmann,* whilst acknowledging the possibility of the 
existence at one time of a universal fauna, contends that the 
cooling at the Poles did not arrest the capability of 
variation, but that the bipolar forms now existing must 
have passed through a greater range of variation than the 
tropical forms ; in other words, that the tropical fauna has 
remained more or less true, while the temperate and 
bipolar forms are derivatives of ancestral forms. 

He admits that a form with a well -developed 
adaptative faculty may have passed through all the 
varying conditions of temperature, etc., without becoming 
extinct. The changes due to climatic conditions being 
similar at both Poles, two faunas resulted from the primi- 
tive material, one Arctic, the other Antarctic. 

He also holds that the likeness between the north 
and south polar faunas, is in many cases a secondary 
reappearance, and is dependent on the adaptative capa- 
bility of the inhabitants of the Poles. He does not think 
that identical species can result in both polar seas from a 
common descent. He maintains that an exchange of both 
polar forms can take place tJiroiigJi the deep sea, on the 
ground that, among Crustacea, the cosmopolitan genus 
Po7itopJiiliis shows a decided tendency to retire into deep 

* Ortmann " Ueber ' Bipolarital' in der Verbreitung mariner Thiere." 
Zool.Jahrb. {Abth.f. Syst.) Bd. 9, (1896), p. 571. 

10 Pratt, Marine Fauna of the Falkland Islands. 

water, but only occurs in the tropics in deep water. He 
suggests that many forms which have been recorded from 
northern and southern seas, but not from the tropics, may 
occur in the tropics in deep water and have consequently 
escaped capture. 

Ortmann further maintains that the migration of 
forms may take place from the northern hemisphere 
through the tropics, to the southern hemisphere along the 
west coasts of America and Africa, because of the compara- 
tive low temperature in tropical regions along these coasts. 
This is confirmed in the Decapods, and the reverse — i.e. 
the migration of forms from the southern to the northern 
hemisphere — in the case of the Isopod Serolis. 

Before discussing the bearings of these two theories, 
it would be useful to consider the distribution of the 
genera in the collection. 

The genera represented are : — 

Beaniuy Cellaria^ Cellepora^ Cribrilina^ Lepralia, Mem- 
branipora, Micropora^ Microporella, Mucronella^ Schizo- 
porella, Smittia, Porella ; and, among the Ctenostomata, 

All the species of Beania, with one exception {B. 
hirtissima), occur north and south of the tropics in 
temperate regions, but not within the tropics. B. hirtissima 
has been recorded from Cape Verde Islands, which lie 
within the tropics. All the species, except the British B. 
mirabilis, occur in shallow water. 

The genus Cellar ia is cosmopolitan. It occurs in deep 
and shallow water in the temperate zone. The depths at 
which it occurs in the tropics I have not been able to 
ascertain. It occurs in the fossil tertiary strata. 

Cellepcra. The Challenger obtained 30 or 3 1 species 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 13. 11 

of this genus, of which the North Atlantic yielded three, 
from depths varying from 51-400 fath. 

The South Atlantic yielded 9 species, 5-600 fath. 
„ Kerguelen region „ 6 ,, 20-500 „ 
,. Australian „ ,,12 „ 2-40 „ 
(One species, an aberrant form, doubtfully referred to this 
genus, was found in 2,600 fath.). 

The North Pacific region, 4 species, 10-30 fath. 
„ South „ „ 2 „ one from 45 

fath., the other from 1,325 fath. 
The genus is cosmopolitan, and appears to belong to 
shallow water, yet evidence shows that it has a wide 
bathymetrical range. 

Cribrilina. This genus inhabits north and south tem- 
perate regions, but only one species {^C. floridand) has 
been recorded from the tropics (Gulf of Florida). The 
genus is fossil, occurring in the French cretaceous, Austro- 
Hungarian miocene (coral and red crag), Italian pliocene, 
boulder clay (Wick). 

The species C. monoceros is notable in that it occurs 
in very shallow as well as in very deep water. Off the west 
coast of the extreme south of South America it has been 
found at a depth of 1,325 fath., in the North Pacific at a 
depth of 3,125 fath.. Strait of Magellan 25 fath., Tierra del 
Fuego and Patagonia 19 fath.. Cape Horn 40 fath., Falk- 
lands 4-12 fath. My specimens were picked up on the 
beach. The facts of its occurring in the tertiary deposits, its 
presence in the north and south temperate regions, and 
its absence from the tropics, tend to support Murray's 
argument, according to which Cribrilina may be looked 
upon as a true representative of a primitive, universal, 
marine, littoral fauna. 

On the other hand — and this is supported by the fact 
that this species does occur in very deep water elsewhere — 

1 2 Pratt, Marine Fauna of the Falkland Islands. 

it may be that this species exists in the tropics at great 
depths, and has thus escaped capture. 

Lepralia. This genus occurs in the north and south 
temperate zones, and within the tropics ; all the deep-sea 
forms occur in the temperate regions; the forms living in 
shallow water occur in the tropics as well as in the tempe- 
rate regions. This is rather interesting, for it shows that 
the tropics do not form an insuperable barrier for all 
species, between the two temperate zones. Then, again, 
according to Ortmann's view, one would expect to find 
the deep-sea forms nearer the Equator, if the deep sea 
affords a passage between the two temperate zones. 

The species L. adpressa occurs north and south of, but 
not within the tropics, in shallow and moderately-deep 
water. It occurs fossil in Italian pliocene, Austrian 
miocene, and tertiary formations at Reggio (Italy). The 
distribution of this species gives evidence in support of 
Murray's view. 

Membranipora. The genus is cosmopolitan, chiefly in 
shallow water, but it also occurs in deep water. 

M. albida, Tongatabu (Pacific), 2i^S., 18-20 fath. 
Bermuda, 38^37'N., 450 fath. Singapore. 

M. crassimarginata, Bass Strait, 38-85 fath. Heard 
Island, 75 fath. Tristan D'Acunha, no- 150 fath. 
Gulf of Florida, 13-60 fath. 

M. multifida, Cape of Good Hope, 450 fath. Chal- 
lenger station 320, 37*^ 17'S., 600 fath., green mud. 

It is notable that the species occurring at great depths, 
are found only in temperate regions. The tropical forms 
occur m fairly shallow water. 

Membranipora menibranacea occurs in north and 
south temperate zones, but not within the tropics. 

Micropora. Genus extends back at least to the chalk 
period. It occurs in north and south temperate zones, 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 13. 13 

as well as the tropics, in shallow to fairly deep water 
(greatest depth recorded, 150 fathoms). The species 
M. uncifera is recorded only from the southern hemisphere. 

Microporella. Genus cosmopolitan. 

Microporella ciliata is also cosmopolitan ; the speci- 
mens taken at greatest depths have been limited to 
temperate regions, namely : Bahusia, on the Falmouth 
and Lisbon cable, 47° N., 89-205 fath. ; and the coast of 
Norway, 300 fath. The tropical specimens occur in fairly 
shallow water. 

The species M. malusii occurs north and south of, but 
not within, the tropics in fairly shallow water (10-50 
fath.). It occurs fossil ; coralline crag, older pliocene 

Mucronella. The genus is cosmopolitan, from fairly 
deep water, but the species M. tricuspis appears to be 
restricted to the southern hemisphere, from shallow to 
fairly deep water, 12-150 fath. Fossil — tertiary — New 
Zealand. The species occurring at the greatest depths 
occur also in temperate regions, with one exception — 
Challenger Station 122, off East coast of South America, 
9° 5' S. ; the species M. castanea occurs from 32-400 fath., 
and, with this exception, all other tropical species occur in 
fairly shallow water. Many of the species of this genus 
are fossil, occurring in coralline crag, middle pliocene, 
upper pliocene, palaeolithic, Scottish glacial deposits, &c. 

Schizoporelta. The genus is cosmopolitan. The 
species 5. Jiyalina is cosmopolitan, it occurs on shells, 
stones, weed, etc., from shallow to deep water, it is fossil, 
and occurs in coralline crag, Scottish glacial deposits, 
post-pliocene deposits (Canada). Greatest depth : of 
species 100 fath. (Davis St.), of the genus 300 fath. (off 

Both the cosmopolitan species ScJiizoporella hyalhia 

14 Pratt, Marine Fauna of the Falkland Islands. 

and Microporella ciliata occur fossil, and might be rem- 
nants of a once universal fauna. Evidence shows that 
these forms have been able to withstand all changes of 
temperature and altered conditions of life, without either 
becoming extinct or undergoing modification so far as 
the hard parts are concerned. 

Smittia. The genus appears to be cosmopolitan. It 
is found among the fossil tertiary deposits. It inhabits 
shallow and moderately deep water, the greatest recorded 
depth being 600 fath. (vS. sniittiand). 

Smittia landsborovii appears to be characteristic of 
north and south temperate and cold seas, from shallow 
water to great depths. Fossil : Scottish glacial deposits. 

The species S. trispinosa occurs in temperate and 
tropical zones, in shallow water and at great depths. 

Porella. The genus is cosmopolitan, and is represented 
in the tertiary deposits. It occurs in shallow water chiefly, 
but does also occur at moderate depths. 

These results, as far as the Bryozoa are concerned, seem 
to support Murray's theory on geographical distribution. 

Each genus represented in the collection occurs fossil, 
and also occurs in the north and south temperate zones, 
as well as in the tropics ; in fact, most of the genera are 

Many of the species are represented in the tertiary 
deposits. This shows that the changes of climate and 
altered conditions of life, have not affected their "tertiary" 
structure ; as many of these forms occur only in the two 
temperate zones, there is reason to believe that they have 
retained their common ancestral structure. 

The fact of many of the species occurring in the 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 13. 15 

deep sea hardly supports Ortmann's theory, for many 
of them occur at very great depths only in the temperate 
regions; in the tropics they occur in shallozv water. Their 
presence in the deep sea is, I think, the result of accident. 


Hippocrene utacloviana Haeckel, Das System der 

Meduscn, p. 90. Peculiar to Falklands. Soledad 

Bay (Lesson). Stanley Harbour. 

The genus (after allowing for Haeckel's weeding out 

of synonyms) is curious in its distribution, in that the 

species H. macloviana is the only representative in 

southern seas, and even this has, as yet, only been 

recorded from the Falkland Islands. The other members 

of this genus are found in the temperate and cold regions 

of the northern hemisphere as well as in the north tropical 



In the collection are two species of the genus Sycon : — 
Sycon ciliatum Fleming. Habitat : Europe. New to 

Sycon ramsayi \^^x\^QVi{. Habitat: Australia. New to 

One small specimen. 
The genus is cosmopolitan in shallow to moderately 

deep water. 



I. Nereis eatoni MTntosh, CJiallenger, Vol. XII., 
p. 223. Habitat: East of South America. 
Fernando Noronhia, 25 fath. Marion Island, 

1 6 Pratt, Marine Fauna of the Falkland Islands. 

6g fath. Kerguelen, 20 fath. Falklands, 
5 — 10 fath. 
II. Nereis patagonica M' In tosh, Challenger^ Vol. 
XIL, p. 228. Habitat: East of Strait of 
Magellan. New to Falklands. 

III. Nereis kerguelensis Baird ?, Challenger^ Vol. 

XII., p. 225. Habitat: Kerguelen. New to 

IV. Nereis atlantica M'Intosh, Challenger, NoX. XIL, 

p. 219. Habitat: Cape Verde Islands, New 
to Falklands. 

The genus is widely distributed in north and south 
temperate and tropical seas, from very shallow to very 
deep water (1,520 fath.). 

The Polychaete species represented in the collection 
from the Falkland Islands appear to be peculiar to the 
southern temperate zone, although most of the genera are 
widely distributed in the north and south temperate and 
cold seas, as well as in the tropics. 

V. Lagisca magellanica M'Intosh, Challenger, Vol. 
XIL, p. 82. Habitat : Strait of Magellan, 
175 fath. Kerguelen, 127 fath. 
The genus appears to belong to the southern hemi- 
sphere, being widely distributed in that region, and in the 
tropics. It occurs also in the northern hemisphere, but 
is rare. 

There were also present in the collection some frag- 
mentary specimens belonging to the genera Terebella 
and Cirratidus, but they were too badly preserved for 


Phascolosoma capsiforme Baird, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1868, 
p. 83 ; Selenka's Sipunculiden, p. 27. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 13. 17 

Numerous specimens of this species were found on 
roots of basket kelp after storms. 

This species is pecuHar to the Falkland Islands. The 
genus is cosmopolitan in shallow to very deep water. 


Out of 45 species of Ivlollusca from Lively Island, 
Falklands, which Mr. Standen* has identified, 4 occur in 
the tropics as well as in the southern hemisphere ; one ranges 
through the southern hemisphere, the tropics and the 
northern hemisphere, Crepidula dilatata, which extends 
all along the west coast of America from Patagonia to 
Alaska, and also occurs in Kamtschatka ; 40 are found only 
in the southern hemisphere, 29 of which occur only in 
South America and the Strait of Magellan, whilst 5 are 
peculiar to the Falklands. 


Go7iiocidaris canaliculata Agassiz, Revision of Echini, 
p. 395. A single, young, somewhat damaged 

This species has an extensive distribution. Southern 
oceans, 1,600-1,975 fath. Sandwich and Navigator Islands. 
Natal. Falklands, 5-12 fath. 

It ranges along the southern extremities of all the 
southern continents and extends north of the equator to 

G. canaliculata has a wider distribution than any 
other species of this genus, which is restricted, with this 
exception, to the southern hemisphere and to the tropics. 

An interesting fact concerning this species is that it 
extends through the tropics to the northern hemisphere 

* Melvill, J. C, and .Standen, R., "Notes on a Collection of Marine 
Shells from Lively Island, Falklands" [Journ. ConchoL, IX. 4). 

1 8 Pratt, Marine Fauna of the Falkland Islands. 

along the western shores of the Pacific, and not along the 
eastern shores, as one would expect. This is still more 
interesting when we note that this species occurs at the 
southern extremities of America and Africa. 


Cucuinaria mendax Theel, Challenger, Vol. XIV., 
Holothuroidea, p. 65. The specimens are young and 
under average size. The species is restricted to the 
Falklands. The genus is cosmpolitan. 


I. Asterias cunninghami Perrier, Arch. Zool. Exper., 

t IV., p. 339. Habitat: P'alklands and Strait of 
Magellan. Peculiar to this region. 
The genus is cosmopolitan, from shallow water to 
1,250 fath. 

II. Porania magellanica SiVidQY,Challenger,Yo\. XXX., 
p. 363. Young specimen. Habitat : W. of Pata- 
gonia. Peculiar to the southern portion of South 

The genus is widely distributed in north and south 
temperate and tropical seas, from 15 to 6,000 fath. 


I. Ophiothrix magnifica Lyman, Challenger y Vol. V., 

Ophiuroidea, pp. 215, 216. Froc. Boston Soc. Nat. 
Hist, Vol. VII., i860, p. 254. Habitat: Coast of 
Chili. Not previously recorded from Falklands. 
Peculiar to South America. 
The genus is cosmopolitan, from very shallow to fairly 
deep water. 

II. Ophiomyxia vivipara Studer, Monatsb. K. Akad. 

Berlin, 1876, p. 462 ; Challenger, Vol. V., Ophiu- 
roidea, p. 245. Habitat : Cape of Good Hope, 
150 fath. Kerguelen. S. W. of South America. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 13., 19 

Strait of Magellan , 5 5 -70 fath. Between Magellan 

and Falklands. Has not been recorded from the 

Falklands before. 

Of the 4 species of this genus known : — 

I. O. vivipara is only found in the southern 

II. O. aiistralis occurs in South Australia and 

south temperate region as well as the 


III. O.flaccida occurs off Bahia and off Bermudas, 

i.e., in south tropical and north temperate 

IV. O. pentagona occurs only in the northern 


From the preceding one may conclude that, while the 
genus is widely distributed in temperate and tropical 
regions, the species, though overlapping each other to a 
certain extent, are somewhat limited in their distribution. 

Of 6 representatives of the Echinoderms in the 
collection, 3 species are peculiar to South America, 2 of 
which are found in the Strait of Magellan, as well as the 
Falklands ; one is peculiar to the Falkland Islands. Two 
species are apparently distributed over the southern 
hemisphere, one of them extending beyond the Equator 
to the north temperate region. 


{a) Catometopa. 


Halicarcinus planattis White, Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., Vol. XVIII. (1846), p. 178, 
is widely distributed over the Antarctic 
region, and is said to be the only 
Brachyurous Decapod proper to that wide 
area of distribution (Stebbing, Crustacea). 

20 Pratt, Marine Fauna of the Falkland Islajids. 

{b) Cyclometopa. 


Xantho crenatiis Milne Edwards, Crus- 
tacea, Vol. I., p. 396. Coasts of Peru. New 
to Falklands. 

{a) LiTHODEA. 


Paralomis verrucosus Dana, U.S. ExpL 
Exped., XIII., Crust., pt. i., p. ^28. Falk- 
lands. Common in E. portion of Strait of 
Magellan, not further W. than C. Negro. 
Genus taken south and north of tropics, but 
not within tropics. 
{b) Pagurodea. 

Eupagurus comptus White. Peculiar to 
Falklands, and Fuegian region. 

Edotia tuberculata Guerin-Meneville, Iconographie 
du Regne Anhnal de G. Cuvier, T. Ill, Crust., 
p. j^. Habitat: Confined to Strait of Ma- 
gellan and the Falklands. 

Sphceroma gigas Leach, Diet. Sci. Nat, t. 12, 
p. 346 ; Milne-Edwards, Crustacea, Vol. III., 
p. 205. Habitat: Strait of Magellan. Falk- 
lands. Australia. New Zealand. Kerguelen. 
Aucklands (Southern Hemisphere). 

Orchestia chilensis Milne-Edwards, Crustacea^ 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xliu (1898), iV^. 13. 21 

Vol. III., p. 18. Habitat: Mediterranean 
and coasts of Chili ; not previously recorded 
from Falklands. 

Of the seven species of Crustacea in this collection 
of common shore fauna, one is common to the northern 
and southern hemispheres {Orchestia chilensis), two are 
distributed over the temperate portion of the southern 
hemisphere, and four are peculiar to the neighbourhood of 
the Falklands. 

Paralomis. The genus occurs north and south of the 
tropics but not within the tropics; of 3 species, 2 occur in 
moderately deep to deep water, 310-600 fath.; the third, 
P. verrucosus, appears to be a shallow-water form. 

Halicarcinus. The genus appears to be widely and 
universally distributed over the southern portions of the 
three great continents in the southern hemisphere. 

Xantho. Genus cosmopolitan, and fossil. 

Eupagurus. The genus is distributed in north and 
south temperate regions as well as the tropics, but the 
species of this genus appear to be very limited in their 
distribution. The depths vary from o to 700 fathoms. 

Edotia. The distribution of this genus appears to be 
somewhat doubtful. A species, E. bicuspida, occurs in 
the Arctic seas. I have been unable to ascertain if the 
genus is represented in the tropics. 

Sphceronia. The genus appears to be almost univer- 
sally distributed over the temperate and tropical areas, but 
the species appear to have a very limited distribution. 

Orchestia. The genus appears to be cosmopolitan in 
temperate and tropical littoral waters ; the species of this 
genus, like those of other genera in this collection, are 
limited in their distribution. 

Regarding the seven genera represented in this collec- 
tion : three {^Eupagurus, Sphceroma, and Orchestia) are 

22 Pratt, Marine Fauna of the Falkland Islands. 

widely distributed in temperate and tropical waters ; one 
{Xantho) is cosmopolitan ; one {Paralomis) has been 
recorded from the north and south temperate regions, but 
not from the tropics. One {Halicarcinus) is confined to 
the southern hemisphere ; and the distribution of one 
{Edotia) is doubtful. 

The distribution of the genus Paralomis in northern 
and southern temperate seas, but not in the tropics, cannot 
be said to support Murray's view, for I do not think this 
genus has been recorded as occurring fossil. The tendency 
of this genus to retire into deep water might be said to 
support Ortmann's view, but there is not much evidence 
to turn the balance in favour of either one or the other. 

There appears to be no evidence among the repre- 
sentatives of Crustacea in this collection of a passage 
from one temperate zone to the other, along the west 
coasts of America or Africa. 



Boltenia legumen Lesson, Centurie Zoologique 

(1830), p. 149; Ckallenger,Yo\.Yl., Tunicata^ 

p. 88. Habitat: Falklands, and southern 

extremity of South America. 

The genus appears to be specially characteristic of 

north and south temperate seas, but has not, I think, been 

recorded from the tropics. 

Molgula gregaria Lesson = Cynthia gregaria, Cent. 
Zoolog.,'^. 157; Challenger ^Yol.Yl., Tunicata, 
p. 73. Habitat: Limited to Strait of Ma- 
gellan and the Falkland Islands. It appears 
to have been found only in shallow water. 
The genus appears to be almost universally distributed 
over the temperate portion of the southern hemisphere. 

Manchester Memoirs, Vol. xlii. (1898), No. 13. 23 

Coviparison of the cojninon shore fauna of the Falkland 
Islands with that of Britain. 

It is interesting to note that there is a certain 
resemblance between these two faunas, but it is more 
clearly marked in some groups than in others. This may 
be due, to a certain extent, to the great or small number 
of species of the groups represented in the collection. 

Of the 16 species of Bryozoa represented, 6 (of which 
two are cosmopolitan) are also found on our shores. 

Of species belonging to other groups, one {^Sycvn 
ciliatuin) is British. 

All the genera (13) of Bryozoa in the collection are 
represented in the British fauna ; of these, 8 are cosmo- 
politan, the remainder are found only in temperate and 
tropical waters. 

Of the 22 genera belonging to other groups, 15 are 
British, 2 are restricted to the southern hemisphere, 4 are 
found in the southern hemisphere, tropics and northern hemi- 
sphere (Japan) ; the distribution of one iEdotia) is doubtful. 

Of the 24 species, exclusive of the Bryozoa, occurring 
in this collection, 19 have been found in the southern 
hemisphere only ; of these, 7 are more or less uniformly 
distributed over the temperate portion, and 12 (three of 
which are peculiar to the Falkland Islands) have been 
recorded from and about the southern portion of South 
America. Three have been recorded from north and 
south temperate regions only ; one from north and south 
temperate regions and the tropics ; one from tropics and 
southern hemisphere only. 

The evidence gained from a study of the distribution 
of the common .shore fauna of the Falkland Islands, 
points to a near and close relationship, among the majority 
of forms, between the faunas of the temperate portions of 
the three great continents, including the islands in tem- 
perate latitudes of the southern hemisphere. 


















Xantho crenatus 

Eupagurus comptus 
Edotia tuberculata 






Nereis eatoni 

„ kerguelensis 





Sphaeroma gigas 

















26 Pratt, Marine Fauna of the Falklands Islands. 

Fig. I. Lepralia adpressa, var. Busk. Group of zooecia, 
inagnified about 260 diam. 
k, knobbed cell. 

a, knobs. Characteristic of British species. 
J", spatulate avicularium. 
p, pores round margin between furrows. 
Fig. 2. Single cell, magnified aboztt j8o diam. 
C. A., circular avicularium. 
Ch.m., chitinous mandible. 
Fig. 3. Avicularia, magnified about j8o diam. 

a and b are aviciilaria of the ordinary beak-like 

c and d are circtdar avicularia, showing mandible 
in two different positions. 

Fig. 4. Porella tridentata. Portion of colony shozving dis- 
position of zooecia, magnified about 260 diam. 

a, spatidate avicularium, 

b, lateral raised collar, meeting behind in fi 


c, median denticle. 

d, lateral denticles. 

RAy median aviculariztm with rounded mandible. 
Fig. 5. Single cell, magnified about j 80 diam. 

a, spatidate avicularium. 

b, median avicularium with rounded mandible. 

c, median denticle. 

d, two lateral denticles. 
Ov, viced. 

. Ma^rh/'^/^T . Momrir.i V, I Mil 

riau s 

Ulntarr. Bros liU< 




Ordinary Meeting, October 5th, 1897. 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

Dr. C. H. Lees gave an account of Zeeman's further 
researches on the effect of a magnetic field on light, and explained 
the theory of the production of triplets in directions perpendicular 
to the lines of the field. 

Mr. F. J. Faraday suggested that, in view of the enormous 
importance of the question of the duration of the gold supply, 
considered from an economic standpoint in connection with the 
increasing legislative tendency to base all valuations and all 
contracts for long periods ahead on gold, the Council might 
usefully elicit from Professor Suess, of Vienna, an honorary 
member of the Society, and the highest living geological authority 
on the physical formation of the crust of the earth and on the 
deposits of the precious metals, an expression of opinion on the 
character of the Klondike deposits and also on the South 
African deposits according to the latest evidence yielded by the 
development of mining. In Mr. Faraday's opinion, the question 
had a scientific importance in economics equal to that of the 
duration of the coal supply. 

Several members of Council spoke on the subject, expressing 
a fear lest the introduction of a practice of officially soliciting 

ii Proceedings. \October 5th, i8gy. 

papers might have a deterrent effect upon the supply, which had 
hitherto been voluntary, and desiring that Mr. Faraday should 
approach Professor Suess independently on the subject. 
The following paper was read : — 

"A mechanical device for the solution of problems 
in refraction and polarization." By Thomas Thorp. 

In determining the relation existing between the angles of 
incidence and refraction, the experimental apparatus usually 
employed, or at least the simplest form of it, has the character- 
istics shown on Fig. /, in which AB 


Fig. 1. 
is the direction of a ray of light in one medium, say air, incident 
upon the surface of a denser medium C, say water, contain'ed in 
a semi-cylindrical vessel, at B, where it is refracted, and then 
proceeds to D. 

By making AB = BD = i and putting a the angle of incidence 
and /3 that of refraction, the lines AE and DF are the sines of a 
and j8 respectively. 

Now these sines are found to bear the same ratio to each 
other at all angles of the incident ray from the vertical, — different 
media giving different ratios, which are known as refractive 
indices. When the angle of incidence is 90° that of refraction 
will necessarily be less than 90"", and is termed the critical angle. 

From experiments made with this form of apparatus, 
however, very little, if any, insight can be obtained into the actual 
working of the law of refraction as determined by it. B.ecourse 
must therefore be had to other methods. 

October sth, 1 8g'j?[ PROCEEDINGS. 


In Fig, 2, let a ray of light AB be incident upon the surface 
of C, as before, but at one extremity of the^ diameter of the semi- 
cylindrical vessel, instead of at the centre, and let BD be the 

Fig. 2. 
refracted ray. Describe a semi-circle BAF having its diameter 
BF - BE = I and cutting the ray AB in A. Join AF and DE 
and produce AB to G, joining EG. Now as AF and DE are 
normal to AB and BD respectively and EB = BF ; AB and BD 
are the sines of the angles a and /3' respectively. But a is 
equal to the angle of incidence a and /3' to /3, therefore AB ( = BG) 
and BD are also the sines of the angles of incidence and refraction. 

Although incidentally interesting it will be readily seen from 
the figure that the refractive index of a medium is simply the 
time that light takes to travel a distance in the medium which it 
travels in unit time in air, or more correctly in a vacuum. 

It will now be quite evident that if an instrument be 
constructed with BG and BD constant and their intersection 
with their normals through E kept all in the semi-circle, the 
phenomenon of refraction will be exhibited mechanically. 

Some time ago I designed such an instrument which 
fulfilled to some extent these conditions. The principle is 
shown in Fig. j, in which AB is made equal to the refractive 

Fifj. 3, 


Proceedings. \October 5th, i8gy. 

index, AC being unity and constant, B being movable as desired. 
At D is a slide guiding two equal cords of length EA, secured at 
E, C and B. The rods AB and AC terminate in pointers on a 
protractor F. 

By moving the slide D towards or away from A the varying 
angles of incidence and refraction are shown by the pointers. 

Another construction which lends itself to instrumental 
requirements more perfectly, however, is shown in Fig. 4, in 
which BG is the mean proportional between BD and BC. 

Fig. J,. 
In my latest instrument, of which Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic 
representation, the above construction is utilised. 

A is a slide capable of being moved along the diameter of 

Fig. 5. 

October sth, iSpy.] PROCEEDINGS. ' V 

the protractor B. C is a rod of constant length representing the 
incident ray and passing through the centre, D, of the protractor 
and terminating in a pointer C At its other extremity is a 
projection entering a slot in the slide A. E is a rod divided into 
parts in terms of C, representing the refracted ray produced, and 
having the movable projection A' capable of being clamped in 
any desired position on E. G is a pointer normal to F which 
represents the refracted ray. H and I are the normals to C and 
F, the latter being movable. These normals can be adjusted to 
intersect on the diameter of the protractor, and serve to 
demonstrate that the refractive index of a substance is simply a 
measure of the retardation in the velocity of the light in the 

The polarizing angle is shown when the normal G and the 
incident angle pointers are in the same position on the protractor, 
but on opposite quadrants. 

The instrument is particularly adapted for solving approxi- 
mately numerical problems in refraction, as will be seen from the 
following examples. 

1. If the refractive index of a medium is 1*67, the instrument 
gives the critical-angle to be 36^°, and angle of polarization 59°. 

2. If the polarizing angle of a medium is 60^, the instrument 
gives its refractive index 173. 

3. The inner prism of a direct vision spectroscope is required 
to be of angle 90*^ with a refractive index of i'96, that of the 
outer ones being 1*52, required the angles of the outer prisms. 

For refraction at the adjacent surfaces put 
I '96 

= 1*20. 

1-52 ^ 

Set the movable projection to 1*29 and bring refracted-ray 
pointer to 45'', when the incident-ray pointer shows 66^ or a 
difference of 2 1 ^ : therefore refraction at first surface must be 
through this arc (21°). 

Now set the movable projection to 1*52 and bring pointer 
to show a dif!erence of 21°, we find 31 '9° and 5 2 '9°. 
90° - 52-9'^ = 37"i° first angle 
45° + 52*9° = 97*9° second „ 
45° =45^ third „ , 


Proceedings. {October sth, i8gj. 

97- 8" 

Fig. 6. 

Numerous examples of its use can be given, but the foregoing 
will serve to show the use to which the instrument can be put, 
and although its indications will not suffice where great accuracy is 
required still the results are very satisfactory, and in any case I 
cannot but think that it will prove of some educational value in 
affording a better insight into the principles underlying refraction 
than can be obtained from the usual geometrical constructions. 

Professor Lamb mentioned Sir George Airey's model illus- 
trating the refraction of light, and Dr. Lees and Mr. C. L. Barnes 
took part in the discussion of the instrument and the geometrical 
construction which it is designed to illustrate. 

October igth, 1897.] Proceedings. vii 

General Meeting, October 19th, 1897. 

James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Wilfred R. Faraday, LL.B., Ramsay Lodge, Burnage 
Lane, Levenshulme, Mr. William Thomas Rothwell, Heath 
Brewery, Newton Heath, and Mr. Charles Henry Wyatt, School 
Board Offices, Manchester, were elected ordinary members of 
the Society. 

Ordinary Meeting, October 19th, 1897. 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

The death of Mr. James Heywood, F.R.S., who was the 
oldest member of the Society, having been elected in 1833, was 
announced, and on the motion of the President, seconded by 
Professor Osborne Reynolds, a resolution expressing sympathy 
and condolence with the members of the family was carried 

Professor Weiss exhibited some flowering specimens of 
the plant called Dog's Mercury, collected by Mr. F. J. George, 
of Chorley. The Dog's Mercury usually flowers in the early 
spring, but the plant from which the shoots exhibited were 
collected has been observed by Mr. George for thirteen successive 
seasons to flower in the autumn. Sir Joseph Hooker, to whom 
some of these shoots have been sent, was of the opinion that it 
might be regarded as a special form with this autumn-flowering 

The President communicated a paper from Mr. Peter 

viii Proceedings. [November 2nd, i8gy. 

Cameron, entitled " Notes on a Collection of Hymenop- 
tera from Greymouth, New Zealand, with descriptions 
of New Species." 

This paper is printed in full in the Memoirs. 

The President also exhibited, on behalf of Mr. Henry 
Hyde, specimens of Sisymbrium strictissimum L. from the banks 
of the river Mersey, near Stretford. 

Mr. Hyde wrote : " The first time I met 6". strictissimum 
was in June of last year, on the banks of the Mersey at Stretford. 
I went there again this year and found it in three other places, 
one of which was at least a mile from the others in the direction 
of Northenden. Three out of the four specimens found were in 
fruit. Hieracium amplexicaule has been growing on the canal- 
bank at Stretford for years. It is fairly abundant on the buttress 
of the bridge that spans the Mersey, and looks very beautiful 
when in full flower. 

" I found Vicia orobus in June of this year on a road parallel 
with the Bala road at Dolgelly. I found the Carduus on the 
railway embankment near to Patricroft Station." 

Ordinary Meeting, November 2nd, 1897. 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., exhibited a section 
of a spruce trunk which had been completely hollowed by the 
mycelium of a polysporous fungus. The resinous pine-knots, 
however, are left entire, radiating from the centre of the trunk. 
He also pointed out that similar pine-knots had been found in 
the inter-glacial deposit at Darnten, and had been examined 
by him in the Museum at Basle. These pine-knots had been 
considered by Professors Riitimeyer and Schwendauer to be the 
remains of old basket-work or wattle- work and thus to prove the 

{^November 2nd, iSpy.] PROCEEDINGS. ix 

existence of inter-glacial man. They are, however, merely the 
result of the decay of the wood and are not artificial. 

Professor Dawkins also showed under the microscope a 
section of Fardel coal, showing a resinous stem or knot from the 
original carboniferous plant, while the rest had gone to form the 
black substance of the coal. 

Professor Weiss made some remarks on Professor Dawkins' 
exhibit, attributing the destructive action to the fungus Tramefes 
pifit, and explained the manner in which the fungus was able to 
reach and destroy the centre of the tree. 

Professor Weiss then exhibited a specimen of Plowrightia 
7norbosa, the black-knot, on a branch of the cherry, collected in 
Canada, where it has been the cause of considerable destruction 
of cherry trees. 

Professor Weiss also exhibited fructifications of Peziza 
ceruginosa, the green-rot of the oak which he had quite recently 
collected at New Abbey, near Dumfries. 

In the discussion which followed, and which turned mainly 
upon the colouring-matter of the wood-fungi, the President, 
Professor Reynolds, Dr. G. H. Bailey, Dr. F. H. Bowman, and 
Mr. Stirrup took part. Professor Dixon referred to a paper read 
at the British Association Meeting, at Montreal, in 1884. 

Professor H. B. Dixon, F.R.S., described some experiments 
in obtaining photographs of explosion-flames, the first attempts 
having been made abroad, and also some later attempts of his own. 
Slides, showing the course of the explosion flames in tubes, were 
exhibited by the electric lantern, and the character of the 
explosion as indicated by the photographs was remarked upon. 

Professor Reynolds, Professor Lamb, Dr. C. H. Lees, and 
Mr. Gwyther took part in the discussion upon the exhibition. 

X Proceedings. {November! 6t/i, iSgy. 

Ordinary Meeting, November i6th, 1897. 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

Mr. S. Joyce exhibited a pocket form of volt- meter of the 
permanent-magnet class. It is contained in an old-fashioned 
watch-case, the first example having been made by Mr. Joyce in 
1885. The present instrument is wound to read to three volts, a 
reading much required in a cell-tester for users of secondary 
batteries. In order to make the case quite smooth outside, the 
terminals are formed of two spring-chucks contained inside the 
instrument, and capable of gripping any wire from No. 24 to 
No. 18, B.W.G. Instruments have been made reading to 
120 volts total. 

The President communicated a paper by Mr. Peter 
Cameron, entitled " Descriptions of two New Species 
of Mutilla from South Africa." 

This paper is printed in full in the Memoirs. 

The specimens were exhibited at the meeting. 

General Meeting, November 30th, 1897. 

James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Henry Wybrow Freston, Parkfield, Prestwich, and 
Mr. Charles Edmund Stromeyer, Assoc. Memb. Inst. C.E., Chief 
Engineer, Steam Users Association, Manchester, were elected 
ordinary members. 

November 30th, iSgy?^ Proceedings. xi 

Ordinary Meeting, November 30th, 1897. 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

The President announced that the Council had awarded 
the Wilde Gold Medal of the Society for 1898 to Sir Joseph 
Dalton Hooker, C.B., G.C.S.I., F.R.S., in recognition of his 
eminent services to all branches of Botanical Science ; and an 
original Dalton Medal of the Society struck in 1864, for 1898 
to Dr. Edward Schunck, F.R.S., for his remarkable series of 
researches on the natural colouring matters ; and also the 
Premium under the Wilde Deed of Trust for 1898 to Mr. John 
Butterworth, of Shaw, for his paper printed in the last volume of 
the Ma7tchester Memoirs " On some further investigations of 
fossil seeds of the genus Lagenostojna Williamson." The date 
of the meeting for the presentation of the medals and the 
delivery of the Wilde lecture would be announced at a later date. 

Professor Horace Lamb, F.R.S., read a paper '* On waves 
in a medium having a periodic discontinuity of 

This paper is printed in full in the Memoirs. 

Professor Reynolds, Mr. Tristram ?ind Mr. Barnes took part 
in the discussion. 

xii Proceedings. {December^ iSgj. 

Ordinary Meeting, December 14th, 1897. 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

Professor Osborne Reynolds, F.R.S., and Mr. William 
Henry MooRBY, B.Sc.,gave an account of the methods, appliances 
and limits of error in the experimental determination of the work 
expended in raising the temperature of ice-cold water to that of 
boiling water, which they had used in the investigation " On 
the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat," which constituted 
the Bakerian Lecture before the Royal Society in 1897 ; and 
they also shewed lantern illustrations of the engines and apparatus 
designed for the purpose. 

An abstract of this paper will be printed in the Memoirs. 

The President read a paper, entitled : — "Further investi- 
gations into the MoUuscan Fauna of the Arabian 
Sea and the Persian Gulf." 

This paper will be printed in full in the Memoirs, 

Mr, Charles H. Lees, D.Sc, read a paper, entitled: — "A 
Method of Determining the Thermal Conductivities 
of Salts." 

This paper will be printed in full in the Memoirs. 

October nth, iSgy.] PROCEEDINGS. xiii 

\Microscopical aftd Natural History Section^ 

Ordinary Meeting, October nth, 1897. 

Mark Stirrup, F.G.S., President of the Section, 
in the Chair. 

The President gave an address on Finland, recently visited 
by members of the Geological Congress, illustrated by maps 
and rock specimens. The geological structure of pre-Cambrian 
rocks and the present glaciated land-surface were described ; the 
eskers of sand and gravel now used in many instances for lines 
of road, the coast islands, forests of coniferous trees and the 
innumerable lakes all connected by canals forming a network of 
waterways over the whole country. Traces of gold have been 
found in the northern parts. 

Mr. Cosmo Melvill described and exhibited specimens of 
a plant just reported as a native of Great Britain : — namely, 
Stachys alpina L. found by Mr. Cedric Bucknill in a coppice 
on a hill near Wootton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire. 

Mr. Henry Hyde exhibited specimens of Sisymbrium 
strictissimu7?i L., a plant new to England, also of Vicia orobus and 
Hieracium amplexicauie. See Proceedings of the Society^ p. viii. 

A paper by Mr. Peter Cameron, F.E.S., illustrated by 
specimens, was submitted, entitled : — '• A collection of Hy- 
menoptera from Greymouth, New Zealand, with a 
catalogue of the recorded New Zealand species." 

This paper is printed in full in the Memoirs. 

xiv Proceedings. {November 8th, 1897. 

S^Microscopical and Natural History Section?^ 

Ordinary Meeting, November 8th, 1897. 

Mark Stirrup, F.G.S., President of the Section, 
in the Chair. 

Mr. J. Cosmo Melvill exhibited a large collection of 
Alpine plants collected by himself during June and July, 1897, 
in the Ampezzo Thai, S. Tyrol, Austria ; mainly on the 
mountains round Schluderbach, Landro, and Cortina d'Ampezzo 
— all of the magnesian limestone called Dolomite. The 
mountains range in height from 7,500 to 12,900 feet, being 
capped by the Drei Zinnen, Monte Cristallo, Diirrenstein, and 
Croda Rossa. Of these the Monte Cristallo, with its glaciers, is 
the most conspicuouf;, and seems to dominate the entire valley. 
The Croda Rossa is almost inaccessible, and is one of the finest 
of the Dolomite mountains for variety of colours, the red 
rock contrasting with the snowfield below. It has thus acquired 
the local name of the Mount of the Crucifixion. 

Between 400 and 500 species of Phanerogams and Ferns \yere 
gathered, the most striking and local being the Potentilla 
caulescens^ Phyteuma comosum, PcEderota bonarota, Seskria sphcero- 
cephela, Artemisia nitida and others, which specially affect crevices 
in the living Dolomite. The detritus and stony beds of the 
R. Rienz ere it flowed into the Diirren-see, afforded many 
interesting plants, such as Thlaspi rotundifolium, Poa minor, 
P. laxa, Cerastium carinthiacum, Papaver alpinum, Scro- 
phularia hoppei, etc., and the precipitous woods of the Platz 
Wiesen, Eduardfelsen, Schwartzkofel and the Monte Piano, 
abundance of Anemone trifolia. Rhododendron chamcecistus, 
P, hirsutum, Sorbus chamcemespitus, Poly gala chamoebuxus, 
Atragene alpina and Crepis incarnata, while higher up occurred 
the curious Ranunculus hybridus, R. pyrenceus, three species 
of Soldanella, of which S. minima is the most elegant. 

November 8th, iSpy.] Proceedings. xv 

Hormimwi pyreiiaiaun^ Geniiana seven or eight species, verna 
being the most plentiful. Two species of Daphne occurred, one, 
D. c?ieonif?i, at 5,000 to 7,000 feet, the other, D. striata^ more 
alpine. Between Eduardfelsen and the Monte Cristallo Glacier is 
a narrow gorge flanked on each side by vertical precipitous rocks, 
while the stony bed of a mountain stream, issuing from the 
glacier, is between. Beyond this is the most perfect fernery ever 
beheld. The ground is swampy, with a small trickling stream, but 
the growth of Cystopteris montana^ Polystichum lonchitis^ 
Polypodiujii robertia7ium^ and Asplsnium viride is marvellous. 
At a similar place by the Sigmund's Brunnen, off another spur 
of the Monte Cristallo, was found Cystopteris regia Presl. 

Above 7,500 feet the plants assume a thoroughly alpine 
character. Edelweiss is more plentiful than in Switzerland. 
Pri?7iula longiflora, Saxifraga androsacea^ S. sedotdes, Arnica 
montana^ Achillea moschata and clavefinoa^ Sempervivum dolottiiti- 
cujH, Potentilla mi?wna, aurea, nitida (with pink flowers), being 
amongst the more noticeable, as well as many Caryophyllacea. 

In the alpine meadows, near Cortina, below the Tre Croci 
Pass, and at the Platz Wiesen, below the Diirrenstein, occurred 
Gentiana utriculosa, Cineraria alpestris, Cirsium erisithales, 
Orobus luteus, Nigritella angustifolia, Festuca pumila, F. spadicea, 
Myosotis alpestris, Paradisea liliastrum, known commonly as 
St. Bruno's Lily, Scorzonera aristata, Arnica ino?itana, Crepis 
a/pestris, Laserpitium latifolium and very many others. 

In the (comparatively speaking) low land (4,700 ft.) by the 
Schluderbach Hotel occurred Primu la farinosa, Ge?ttiana verna, 
Pyrola rotundfolia, uniflora, Aposeris fcetida, Daphne cneorwn, 
Bellidiastriim viichelii, Biscutella saxatilis most abundant, 
Moehringia viuscosa, polygonoides, Dianthus carthusia7ioruin, the 
local Laserpitium peucedanoides, and several Hieracia. The chief 
trees were Pinus mughus, P. ceinbra and the Spruce P'ir. Dwarf 
Birches and many kinds of Alpine Willow were found up to 
8,500 ft., most of the latter either by the Sigmund's Brunnen, 
near Schluderbach, or on the ascent of the Toblinger Riedel, on 
the way to those three most wonderful peaks, standing alone, 
castellated, l^are, and precipitous, the Drei Zinnen. 

xvi Proceedings. [November 8th, iSgy. 

A few interesting Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and other insects 
were noticed, including Pieris callidice, which affected mountain 
tops, in company with a few Erebice. Only seven species of 
Land Mollusca were seen, of them the alpine form of Arianta 
arbustorum was the most frequent. 

Mr. Thomas Rogers exhibited a small collection of Bryozoa, 
from South Australia, and described the work among this group 
of animals of Mr. Waters, a former resident in Manchester, and a 
member of the Society. 

Mr. J. F. Allen exhibited specimens of Chromium and an 
alloy of manganese and tin, requiring for their production the 
intense heat of the electrolytic furnace ; also bars of various 
sections of manganese bronze obtained by Dick's extrusion 
process, a ram forcing the metal under pressure through openings 
of any desired section. Bars and rails of any length can thus be 
obtained superior to those of the rolling process. The sections 
are fibrous and of much higher tensile strength. 

January nth, i8gS?[ PROCEEDINGS. xvii 

Ordinary Meeting, January nth, 1898. 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of 
the books upon the table. 

Mr. R. F. GwYTHER read a paper " On a General Method 
in determining the Form of the Velocity-Potential of 
Fluid Motion in Two Dimensions across a Channel 
with Straight Sides." 

Professor Lamb, F.R.S., and Dr. C. H. Lees took part in 
the discussion which followed. 

The paper will be printed in full in the Memoirs. 

General Meeting, January 25th, 1898. 

James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President in the Chair. 

Mr. Louis Schwabe, Hart Hill, Eccles Old Road, Pendleton, 
was elected an ordinary member of the Society. 

xviii Proceedings. [January 2^tk, i8g8. 

Ordinary Meeting, January 25th, 1898. 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

The President referred to the loss sustained by the Society 
through the death of Mr. Thomas Ashton, who, since the death 
of Mr. James Heywood, was the oldest member of the Society, 
having been elected in 1837. 

Mr. J. J. AsHWORTH called attention to a paper by Mr. J. 
Smith (brother of the late Dr. Angus Smith) in Vol. XXI. of the 
Society's Memoirs {\'^^<^ " on the origin of colours and the theory 
of light," in which is given a complete description of the colour- 
phenomena seen when a black and white disc is rapidly rotated. 
As the phenomena have been to some extent re-discovered during 
the past few years, and have attracted considerable interest, 
Mr. Ashworth thought it advisable to direct attention to a paper, 
which appeared to have been forgotten, in which the subject is 
treated with great thoroughness. 

The President exhibited specimens of y^gilops^ Triticum, 
and Agropyrum from his herbarium, as bearing upon the subject 
of an enquiry made at a recent meeting of the Society as to the 
origin of wheat, Triticum vulgare Vill. being not supposed to 
have ever been found in a truly wild condition. Mr. Melvill 
particularly pointed out yEgilops ovata L., having a distribution 
over the Mediterranean region of Europe from Portugal to 
Crete, and likewise, according to Boissier {Flora Orientalis, vol. 
V. p. 674), extending to Persia, Egypt, and the Caucasus, North 
Africa, and the Canary Islands. It does not, however, find a 
place in the flora of India, or further East, M. Fabre, of Agde, 
announced some fifty or more years ago that this grass, when 
cultivated, became wheat. In a condition of nature, ^. ovata 
is more fragile, and the glumes and palese possess a larger 

January 2jth, iSgS.] PROCEEDINGS. xix 

number of awns than in the somewhat muticous or short 
awned wheat. We hear that the experiments, carried out under 
the supervision of distinguished botanists and agriculturists, 
both in England and on the Continent, confirmed M. Fabre's 
discovery, and yet now the .-Egilops is not so much considered 
the parent of wheat as a wild Triticum of Asia Minor and Meso- 
potamia, viz. : TriticuiiL mo7iococcu}n L., which Boissier [Flora 
Orientalis^ vol. V. p. 673) also indicates from Greece. It must 
be confessed that, at first sight, this wheat grass has more the 
appearance of the cultivated form, with the more regular spike, 
though longer awned than the cultivated T. vulgare. Another 
cereal, known as T. polonicum^ has, however, long awns ; so, 
indeed, has T. duruni^ with very broad leaves and elongate, hard 

In the just published Flora of India (vol. VII.^ p. 367), Sir 
J. D. Hooker quotes Murray's article in Watts' Dictionary of the 
Economic Products of India^ amongst other references, as to T. 
7?io7iococcum L. being the origin of all wheat cultivated in India. 
Ten varieties are signalised as being cultivated in that country, 
including T. spelta L. and T. composiiwn L. This last has been 
popularly known as Mummy Wheat, but there can be no doubt 
that no seeds found in the Egyptian tombs have germinated. 

The chief point of difference between the genera Triticwn 
SindyEgilops (nmiQd. in Bentham and Hooker's Genera Fiantarum^ 
vol. III., p. 1204) consists in the glumes of the latter never 
being keeled or carinate. T. monococcum in its wild state bears 
a certain superficial resemblance to Hordeiun or Barley ; the 
difference between the two genera is as follows : — 

Triticum L. Hordeiim L. 

Spikelets with two or more Spikelets in threes, the side 

flowers, all perfect. ones usually barren, none 

with more than one per- 
fect flower, 

M. Alphonse de Candolle, in his Origin of Cultivated Plants 
(PP- 354-37o)» gives an interesting dissertation on the origin of 
wheat, and has collated a number of facts well worth perusal, 
the upshot being that he considers all wheats emanated from a 

XX Proceedings. [January 2^th, i8g8,. 

common source, distinguishing wheat from other cereals as that 
grain which, when ripened, detaches itself from the husk readily. 
He subdivides this species into 

{a) Common Wheat. Triticum vulgare Vill. 

{b) Turgid Wheat. T. turgidum and compositum L. 

{c) Hard Wheat. T. durum Desf. 

{d) Polish Wheat. T. polonicum L. 

He points out that Alsfeld {Botan. Zeitung, 1865), having 
examined carefully («), {b) and {c) growing together, was able to 
give their common origin. He considers T. monococcum L. more 
allied to the Spelt, T. Spelta L., these being wheats whose seeds 
when ripe are closely contained in the husk, and not easily detach- 
able from it. As regards Mummy Wheat, De Candolle points out 
that no grains found in the Egyptian tombs have ever been known 
to germinate, and that it is a popular fallacy to suppose that they 
have done so. 

The President aferwards communicated a paper by Mr. 
Peter Cameron, entitled *' Hymenoptera Orientalia, or 
Contributions to a knowledge of the Hymenoptera of 
the Oriental Zoological Region," Part VII. 

The paper will be printed in full in the -Memoirs. 

February 8th, iSpS.] PROCEEDINGS. xxi 

General Meeting, February 8th, 1898. 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

Rev. Arthur Taylor, M.A. (Oxon), Manchester Grammar 
School, was elected an ordinary member of the Society. 

Ordinary Meeting, February 8th, 1898. 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

The President nominated Mr. Frank Southern and Mr. 
Thomas Thorp to be the auditors of the Society's accounts for 
the present session. 

Mr. A. Brothers exhibited and described the latest form of 
Mr. F. E. Ives' photo-chromoscope, called the "kromskop." 
Stereoscopic photographs were shown in which the various 
objects, when viewed through the arrangement of red, blue, and 
green glasses, were seen in all the colours of nature — groups of 
flowers, landscapes, &c., being thus realistically reproduced. 

Messrs. R. H. Jones, B.Sc, and J. Bower, B.Sc, read a 
paper (communicated by Professor Dixon, F.R.S.) "On the 
Instantaneous Pressures produced in Explosion 
Waves," illustrated by diagrams and lantern slides, a discussion 
followed in which Professors Dixon, Lamb, and Reynolds, 
Dr. C. H. Lees, and Mr. R. F. Gwyther participated. 

The paper will be printed in full in the Memoirs. 

xxii Proceedings. {March 8th, i8g8. 

Ordinary Meeting, February 22nd, J898. ' 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

The President announced that Professor Michael Foster 
would deliver the Wilde Lecture before the Society on March 29th. 

The President exhibited an interesting series of distortions 
and hyperstrophical deformities of Planorbis spirorbis L., found 
by Mr. Arthur Stubbs at Black Rock, Tenby. These distortions 
included (i) evolute whorls, (2) various forms of carination, 
(3) sinistral turbinate spirals, and (4} dextral turbinate spirals. 
The causes for such malformations are at present practically 
unknown, but may be traced to the obstructions to the active but 
tender-shelled mollusc caused by duckweed and confervae. 

A discussion on the subject of inversion of vision was after- 
wards participated in by several members. 

Ordinary Meeting, March 8th, 1898. 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

The President announced that the title of the Wilde 
Lecture, to be delivered by Professor Michael Foster, would be 
" On the Physical Basis of Psychical Events." 

Mr. T. Thorp exhibited some celluloid films taken from 
Rowland's gratings of 14,438 lines to the inch. By making use 
of the refractive properties of prisms, the first and second orders 
of spectra are obtained by direct vision. The dispersion is such 
as to easily separate the two D lines, and is practically normal. 

March 22nd, iSgS.] PROCEEDINGS. xxiii 

After demonstrating the action of the grating as appUed to a 
prism, Mr. Thorp suggested a simple form of spectroscope on 
this principle, which could be used for solar prominence 

Mr. F. J. Faraday opened a discussion as to the relative 
mer-its of cane and beet sugar, and whether the effect of the 
sugar bounties is to substitute an inferior for a superior sugar. 
Several members took part in the discussion, the prevailing 
opinion being that, while no difference can be detected chemically 
or physically between the two sugars, cane sugar seems to be 
distinctly superior in its sweetening and preserving qualities. 

Professor fi.LAMB, F.R.S., read a paper "On the Velocity 
of Sound in a Tube, as affected by the Elasticity of 
the Walls." 

The paper will be printed in full in the Memoirs. 

Ordinary Meeting, March 22nd, 1898. 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

The President read a description and exhibited two speci- 
mens of Strombus {co7io?nurex) belutschiensis, just discovered by 
Mr. F. W. Townsend off the Mekran Coast of Beluchistan. 

The description is printed as an Appendix to Mr. Melvill's 
paper on " Further investigations into the Molluscan Fauna of 
the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf," in the Memoirs. 

Professor S. J. Hickson, F.R.S., communicated a paper by 
Miss E. M. Pratt, entitled "Contributions to our know- 
ledge of the Marine Fauna of the Falkland Islands." 

The paper will be printed in full in the Memoirs. 

xxiv Proceedings. {December 6th, i8<^j. 

^^Microscopical and Natural History Section^ 

Ordinary Meeting, December 6th, 1897. 

Mark Stirrup, F.G.S., President of the Section, in the Chair. 

Mr. John Butterworth, F.R.M.S., Shaw, near Oldham, was 
elected an Associate of the Section. 

Mr. J. C. Melvill exhibited forty-three species of Marine 
MoUusca, shortly to be described by him. Twenty-eight were 
from the Mekran Coast and Persian Gulf, collected by Mr. F. W. 
Townsend, and are described in the paper entitled " Further 
Investigations into the MoUuscan Fauna of the Arabian Sea," 
published in the Me^noirs of the Society. The remaining fifteen 
were dredged by Captain E. R. Shopland in the vicinity of Aden, 
and include a most beautiful TellinaiT. manumissa MS.) hitherto 
compared with T. madagascariensis, a. parti-coloured Nassa 
{N. Folychroma), and many other interesting novelties. These 
have been described in the Ann. 6^ Mag. Nat. Hist., March, 
1898, pp. 194-206. 

The President exhibited specimens of silicified wood found 
in Egypt. Similar deposits occur in Auvergne, Arizona, Ireland, 
and elsewhere. The Egyptian deposits are situate in Wadies, 
south of Cairo. The source of the siliceous fluid is not known, 
but it may perhaps have been derived from volcanic districts 
lying to the East. Entire tree-trunks do not occur, only frag- 
ments, broken up possibly by rapid changes of temperature. 

January ijth, i8g8?[ PROCEEDINGS. xxv 

{Microscopical a?id Natural History Section.'] 

Ordinary Meeting, January 17th, 1898. 

Mark Stirrup, F.G.S., President of the Section, in the Chair. 

Mr. Mark L. Sykes, F.R.M.S., Ardwick, was elected an 
Associate of the Section. 

Mr. Charles Bailey exhibited a large number of specimens 
of a floating fern Salvinia nutans Willd., found plentifully in 
ponds round Berlin and generally throughout Northern Europe, 
but not as yet noticed in this country. He described in detail 
the floating leaves, the pendant, submerged, root-like leaves, and 
the fructification. 

Mr. Mark Sykes exhibited several specimens of Termites, 
so-called white ants, recently received from Sierra Leone, also 
their nests, the arrangement and construction of which he 

Mr. J. F. Allen exhibited a number of manganese alloys, 
some of which, after being submitted to a severe strain, had 
recovered their elasticity after a lapse of about three weeks. 

Mr. Peter Cameron contributed a paper on " Hymen- 
optera Orientalia, or Contributions to a knowledge 
of the Hymenoptera of the Oriental Zoological 
Region," Part VII. 

xxvi Proceedings. {February, i8g8. 

{Microscopical and Natural History Section?^ 
Ordinary Meeting, February 14th, 1898. 

John Boyd, Vice-President of the Section, in the Chair. 

Mr. Rogers exhibited a new species of land shell, which had 
recently been discovered in Lord Howe Island by Mrs. Water- 
house, of Sydney, and had now been named Endodonia Water- 
housia by Mr. Hedley, of the Australian Museum. Mr. Rogers 
also showed several new species of land shells from Trinidad, 
which had been recently discovered by Mr. W. Lunt, Assistant- 
Superintendent at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Trinidad. Mr. 
Lunt has been fortunate in adding considerably to the list of 
molluscs hitherto found in that island. 

Mr. Rogers afterwards made some remarks on the habitats 
and geographical distribution of a small British mollusc Achatina 
acicula^ an earth-burrowing mollusc, often found in and about 
ancient burial places, specimens having been found in the 
so-called tear-bottles found in the graves of ancient Greece. It 
has now been found in South Africa. 

The rest of the evening was devoted to the microscopes. . 

{Microscopical and Natural History Section^ 
Ordinary Meeting, March 14th, 1898. 

Mark Stirrup, F.G.S., President of the Section, in the Chair. 

Mr. John Mullen, Oldham, and Mr. W. Stanley, Weaste, 
were elected Associates of the Section. 

Mr. J, F. Allen and Mr. W. R. Scowcroft were elected 

March 14th, ISg8^^ PROCEEDINGS. xxvii 

The President read a paper on " The Composition and 
Structure of Spore- Coals and Bogheads," illustrated by 
hand spedmens and thin sections under the microscope, by 
which the fundamental characters were shown which distinguish 
spore-coals and the class of oil shales known as bogheads. The 
differences which present themselves were shown to be mainly 
due to the original plant organisms of whose fossiHsed remains 
the spore-coals and bogheads were composed. The " better- 
bed " coal of Bradford and the Tasmanite mineral of Tasmania 
were selected as examples of coals owing their special properties 
to spores, or to the reproductive organs of certain cryptogamic 
plants of doubtful origin, but whose probable relationship is 
considered by Sir William Dawson to be with the Rhizocarpese. 
On the other hand, the combustible part of bogheads, such as 
the Torbane Hill mineral of Scotland, the boghead of Autun in 
France, and the kerosene shales of Australia, owed their remark- 
able properties to the vast accumulations of microscpic algae of a 
very low order, and so far as is yet known, without any actual 
Hving representatives. Science is indebted for the latter facts 
to the long-continued investigations into the nature of bogheads 
carried on by Professors Renault and Bertrand in France. 

Mr. Mark Sykes made a short communication on mimetic 
forms among Lepidopterous insects, showing some fine charac- 
teristic specimens of the genus Kalli?7ia, including K. inactus^ 
K. paralekta^ K. albofasciata^ K. philarchus^ and K. Wardii^ 
from N. and S. India, Siam, Java, Ceylon, and the iVndaman 

Mr. Allen exhibited some specimens of an alloy of man- 
ganese and silver. 

Mr. Broadbent described Sarcina, an organism observed by 
him in manure water. 

xxviii Proceedings. \^April pk, i8g8. 

\_Microscopical and Natural History Section^ 

Annual Meeting, April 4th, 1898. 

Mark Stirrup, F.G.S., President of the Section, in the Chair. 

Dr. Booth, Swan Street, Manchester, was elected an Asso- 
ciate of the Section. 

The Annual Report of the Council and the Treasurer's 
Statement of Accounts were submitted and approved. 

The following officers and Council were elected for the Ses- 
sion 1898-99: President, John Boyd; Vice-Presidents, Charles 
Bailey, F.L.S., J. Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., Mark 
Stirrup, F.G.S.; Treasurer, G. H. Broadbent, M.R.C.S.; 
Secretary, T. Sington ; Council, J. F. Allen, W. E. Hoyle, 
M.A., H. Hyde, F. Nicholson, F.Z.S., T. Rogers, C. H. 
Schill, W. R. Scowcroft. 

Mr. Broadbent described some observations made by him 
on Vorticellse, their life-work and mode of attachment. 

Mr. Butter worth described and exhibited an apparatus 
for observing the development of low forms of aquatic life, con- 
sisting of a circular metal plate with a rim, containing several 
layers of flannel, kept well moistened, covered with a glass shade, 
under which is a zinc frame with trays for the brass or glass 
animalculse troughs or slips. With this apparatus the objects to 
be studied can be watched day by day for weeks, the daily 
changes being easily noted. 

Mr. Stirrup exhibited zircons, garnets, and sapphires occur- 
ring in the volcanic rocks of Le Puy, Haute Loire, France. 
Those shown were found on Mont Mezen. They also occur 
in volcanic rocks, near the Rhine, at Andernach. 

Mr. T. Rogers exhibited a number of fresh-water shells col- 
lected from mud flats at Loando, Africa, all the specimens being 
sinistral. They included three species of Melodomus from Zan- 
zibar, Zululand, and the Quanze River, Angola, S. W. Africa 
respectively. The species of Melodomus are nearly allied to 
those of Paludina and Ampullaria. 

Maixh 2gth, i8g8?[ Proceedings. xxix 

Special Meeting, March 29th, 1898. 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

The meeting was specially convened for the presentation of 
the Wilde and Dalton Medals and of the premium, and for the 
delivery of the Wilde Lecture for 1898. There was a large 
attendance of members and friends. 

The President, in his opening remarks, referred to the fact 
that last year, when the Wilde Medal was presented for the first 
time, Dr. Schunck stated at length the particulars of the generous 
benefactions of Mr. Wilde, and said that it was, therefore, not 
necessary to again speak of these except to express their con- 
tinued sense of indebtedness to Mr. Wilde. The Wilde Medal 
for this year had been awarded, by the unanimous vote of the 
Council, to Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, G.C.S.L, C.B., F.R.S. 

In presenting the Wilde Medal for 1898 to Sir Joseph 
Hooker, the President spoke as follows : — 

"The name of Hooker has been associated with botanical 
progress during nearly the whole of the present century. Sir 
William Jackson Hooker, the father of Sir Joseph, had been 
appointed, in 1820, Regius Professor of Botany at Glasgow 
University, and, in 1844, was made Director of Kew Gardens, 
which post he held until his death in August, 1865, being 
succeeded by his son, who continued to hold the office for more 
than twenty years. But Sir Joseph is also known to fame as a 
traveller. His first journey, early in the forties, was to the Ant- 
arctic regions, including visits to New Zealand, the Auckland and 
Campbell Islands, the Strait of Magellan, and the Falkland 
Islands. The southernmost shores of Australia, particularly 
Tasmania, were also explored, the results being embodied in the 
Floras of Tasmania and New Zealand^ and the Botany of the 
Antarctic Voyage. A few years later, in 1848, in company with 
Mr. Thomson, he essayed a comprehensive botanical journey to 
India, the first fruits of which were his delightful journals of the 
Himalayan region, and the beautiful work on the Rhododendrons 

XXX Proceedings. {March 2gth, i8g8. 

of the Sikkim Himalaya, likewise the first volume (all published) 
of a Flora of India. This was never finished in its present form, 
but his magnum opus, completed late last year in seven volumes, 
on the Flora of India, will remain for all time a memorial of its 
author. He might exclaim with Horace : ' Exegi monumentum 
aere perennius.' The twentieth century is hardly likely to improve 
upon the nineteenth in respect of Systematic Botany, and I think 
Sir Joseph is happy in having lived during a period in which such 
wonderful investigations and discoveries were possible. I would 
also like to mention the Index Kewensis, completed during the 
last decade of this century, a catalogue, arranged alphabetically, 
of all known phanerogamic plants, the idea of which, inaugurated 
by Charles Darwin, had, at his expense, been so well carried 
out by Mr. Daydon Jackson, under the auspices of Sir Joseph 

Sir Joseph Hooker, in replying, said the great honour which 
the Society had conferred upon him by the award of the Wilde 
Medal was rendered doubly grateful by the fact that Manchester 
held a place amongst his very earliest botanical reminiscences. 
He was born a muscologist, and very early — in the first decade 
of the eighty years that had passed over him — he was a collector 
of mosses. He was stimulated in the pursuit by a book in his 
father's library bearing the title of "Musci Britannici," by Edward 
Hobson, of Manchester. Later on, when still in his teens, he 
aided a young Glasgow botanist in collecting specimens for a 
work he had in preparation on the lines of Hobson's. Man- 
chester, indeed, was famous as a school of muscologists in the 
first half of the century, and he need not recall to their memory 
the names of John Nowell and Richard Buxton as forming, with 
Hobson, a celebrated trio, distinguished for their critical know- 
ledge of British mosses. A well-remembered Manchester friend 
of his early youth was Thomas Glover, of Smedley Hill, an 
excellent botanist and entomologist. Mr, Glover invited him to 
Smedley Hill to see his beautiful collection of insects and rare 
garden plants, and, though this was 65 years ago, he noticed that 
the latter suffered a good deal from the city smoke. His 

March 2gtk, i8g8.'\ PROCEEDINGS. xxxi 

next visit to Manchester, after an interval of a dozen years 
or more, was to examine in the Museum some coal fossils 
for the Geological Survey of Great Britain, to which institution 
he was for a short time attached. Still later he had the 
pleasure of the friendship of Mr. Binney, who asked his 
assistance in investigating the flora of the coal measures. But 
of all his Manchester fellow-botanists there was none to whose 
friendship and correspondence he looked back with greater 
pleasure than to that of the famous palaeo-botanist and accom- 
plished naturalist Professor Williamson. It was indeed a privilege 
to be consulted by Professor Williamson, and to be kept informed 
of the progress of the wonderful collection he was making and 
illustrating with a disinterested zeal that overcame all obstacles. 
The magnificent series of papers on the organisation of the fossil 
plants of the coal measures which Professor Williamson presented 
to the Royal Society was unrivalled for the wealth of material 
they contained on that subject. As further examples of the 
influence of the Manchester school of botany, if he might so call 
it, he mentioned the names of the Rev. the Hon. W. Herbert, 
at one time Dean of Manchester, and the late Mr. Clowes, of 
Broughton. In concluding, Sir Joseph said that in accepting 
this gratifying assurance of the Society's sympathy for his labours 
he was far fiom regarding it as solely personal. No man could say 
that his merits, be they what they might, were all his own. For 
his own part, he could claim to have had a persistent love of 
knowledge for its own sake from his earliest years, but that 
would have availed him little had he not felt from the first the 
guiding hand of a parent who had himself attained eminence, 
and who, by example, precept and encouragement, kept him to 
his purpose, launched him in the fields of exploration and 
research, and liberally supported him as occasion required. He 
accepted the medal as a tribute to his father's memory as much 
as to his own exertions. 

The President then presented to Dr. Edward Schunck, 
Ph.D., F.R.S., the Dalton Medal — this being the first occasion 
on which this medal has been presented — and said that Dr. 

xxxii Proceedings. {March 2gth, i8g8. 

Schunck might be called the "father" of the Society. He had 
been a member for 56 years, and had held the office of President 
four times. He had contributed most important papers on 
various dyes and colouring matters, and it was for these and the 
life-long services he had given for the advancement of science 
that the Council had awarded him the medal. 

In his reply, Dr. Schunck said that his labours had been 
confined to a very small department of chemistry, but a depart- 
ment which was very important. He would like very much, if he 
could, to add to these labours, but he was afraid that at his age 
it was hardly possible to do important work, and no dojibt many 
would say that it was better that he should not attempt it. He 
had two or three irons in the fire, but whether he would ever 
take them out he did not know. 

In handing the Wilde Premium for 1898 to Mr. John 
BuTTERWORTH, F.R.M.S., the President stated that it had been 
awarded by the Council in recognition of the excellent work done 
by Mr. Butterworth, more especially in regard to the flora of the 
coal measures. , 

Mr. Butterworth expressed his thanks to the Society for 
the honour it had done him, and said that he had worked for 
nearly thirty years with the late Professor Williamson, and had 
contributed materials for a considerable portion of the memoirs. 
He regretted that in his early days he had not had the ad- 
vantages of systematic instruction ; with him it had been a case 
of the night school and the solitary candle. He had pursued 
the study of geology purely for the love of it, and had found 
great enjoyment among the flora of the coal measures. 

This brought the first part of the proceedings to a close. 
The members then adjourned to the Library, where the Wilde 
Lecture, " On the Physical Basis of Psychical Events," 
was delivered by Professor Michael Foster, M.A., Sec. R.S. 
At the conclusion of the Lecture, a hearty vote of thanks 
was accorded to Professor Foster, on the motion of the 
President, seconded by Professor Lamb, F.R.S. 
The Lecture is printed in full in the Me7noirs. 

April §th,i8g8?[ PROCEEDINGS. xxxiii 

Ordinary Meeting, April 5th, 1898. 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

Mr. Brothers communicated a note on stereoscopic and 
pseudoscopic vision, with the object of eliciting views as to 
whether, when the stereoscopic effect of stereoscopic pictures 
is seen without the use of an instrument, the effect can be said 
to be caused by "squinting." 

A discussion followed, in which opinion was divided as to 
whether squinting was the correct definition of the cause. It 
was held that for true stereoscopic vision the axes of the eyes are 
constrained to be parallel, and that the term squinting applied 
more properly to the crossing of the axes which produces the 
inverted stereoscopic appearance. In both cases, there is an 
unnatural strain if that constitutes squinting. 

Mr. F. J. Faraday communicated a paper by Professor 
SuEss, of Vienna, on " The New Gold Discoveries." 

The paper is printed in full in the Memoirs. 

Mr. \V. E. HoYLE described a bone supposed to be the 
pelvic bone of a whale. 

Mr. H. Bolton read a paper entitled : "The Palaeontology 
of the Slates of the Isle of Man," and exhibited several 
specimens to illustrate it. After a critical summary of previous 
literature, the author described the occurence of characters of 
certain worm-burrows and castings, graptolites, and the impres- 
sion of a trilobite. It was shown that, notwithstanding the work 
of geologists for nearly a hundred years, not more than half-a- 
dozen species of fossils from slate are yet known, and that these 
are not sufficient of themselves to determine the stratigraphical 
position of the Slates, which is, therefore, still uncertain. 

Mr. Bolton was of opinion that the specimens he exhibited 

xxxiv Proceedings. [April igth, i8g8. 

and described indicated an horizon between the Lingula Flags 
and the Arenig Series. 

The paper will be printed in full in the next volume of the 

Annual General Meeting, April 19th, 1898. 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Annual Report of the Council and the statement of 
accounts were presented, and it was resolved : — " That the Annual 
Report, together with the statement of accounts, be adopted, and 
be printed in the Society's Proceedings.''^ 

On the motion of Mr. Charles Bailey, seconded by Mr. 
Nicholson, it was resolved : — " That the system of electing 
Associates of the Sections be continued during the ensuing 

The following members were elected officers of the Society 
and members of the Council for the ensuing year : — 

President: James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S. 

Vice-Presidents : Osborne Reynolds, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. ; 
Arthur Schuster, Ph.D., F.R.S. ; Charles Bailey, F.L.S.; 
W. H. Johnson, B.Sc. 

Secretaries : R. F. Gwyther, M.A. ; Francis Jones, F.C.S. 

Treasurer : J. J. Ashworth. 

Librarian: W. E. Hoyle, M.A., M.Sc. 

Other Members of the Council : Harold B. Dixon, M.A., 
F.R.S. ; Horace Lamb, M.A., F.R.S. ; Francis Nicholson, 
F.Z.S. ; J. E. King, M.A. ; R. L. Taylor, F.C.S. ; F. J. 
Faraday, F.L.S. 

April igtJi, i8g8?\ Proceedings. xxxv 

Ordinary Meeting, April 19th, 1898. 
James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the members were voted to the donors of the 
books upon the table. 

Mr. Charles Bailey exhibited some living plants of 
Jacquin's oxlip {Primicla elatior\ which he had gathered ten 
days ago in a wood on Mrs. Rayment's estate at Tindon End, 
near Thaxted, Essex. He pointed out its peculiar distribution 
in England — where it is confined to an area within the triangle 
formed between St. Neots in Huntingdon, Stowmarket in Suffolk, 
and Bishop Stortford in Hertfordshire — and explained the 
botanical characters which separate it from the primrose and 
cowslip. Mr. Miller-Christy in his very interesting paper, read 
before the Linnean Society last November, refers to the strong 
scent of the oxlip, but Mr. Bailey in the large number of plants 
he examined last w^eek in Essex, was rather struck with the 
absence of odour in the oxlip, especially compared with the 
cowslip or primrose. With it he exhibited a flower-scape, from 
a root which he brought some years ago from Gloddaeth, near 
Llandudno, which was a natural hybrid between the cowslip and 
the primrose, and which flowered every spring in his garden. 
Such hybrids generally pass for the true oxlip ; and they are 
not infrequent in districts where both parents occur; in the 
neighbourhood of Manchester he had found this spurious oxlip 
at Ashley, at Mobberley, and in several places in Derbyshire. 

xxxvi Annual Report of the Council. 

Annual Report of the Council, April, 1898. 

The Society began the session with an ordinary membership 
of 161. During the present session 7 new members have joined 
the Society ; 9 resignations have been received, and the deaths 
have been 7, viz. : Rev. G. H. G, Anson, M.A. j Mr. Thomas 
Ashton, LL.D. ; Mr. William Grimshaw ; Mr. Peter Hart ; Mr. 
James HeeHs ; Mr. James Heywood, F.R,S., F.G.S. ; and Mr. 
John Ramsbottom, M.Inst.C.E. This leaves on the roll 152 
ordinary members. The Society has also lost 4 honorary 
members by death, viz. : Francesco Brioschi ; Professor Victor 
Meyer, Ph.D.; Professor Julius von Sachs, Ph.D., For. Mem. 
R.S. ; and Professor E. J. Stone, M.A., F.R.S. Memorial 
notices of these gentlemen appear at the end of this report. 

The Treasurer commenced the year with a balance in 
favour of the Society of ^375. 4s. 34d. (including £,(iTi. 4s. 2d., 
balance of the Wilde Endowment Fund), and reports that the 
total balance, including the Wilde and Joule Funds, and not 
including the amount still owing by the Natural History Fund, 
in hand and at the bankers, at the close of the year; is 
;^236. los. 7d. 

The state of the floor of the old Tea Room, above the 
Meeting Room, has for years been so unsatisfactory as almost to 
preclude the use of the room, and the renewal of the floor could 
not have been long delayed without danger. The constant 
growth of the library has also made the provision of additional 
bookcases a matter of almost immediate urgency. The floor 
has, therefore, been relaid in so substantial a manner that it will 
now carry the weight of bookcases, and the room will constitute 
a material addition to the space which can be used for library 

The re-cataloguing of the library has been continued during 

Annual Report of the Council. xxxvii 

the session, 6,063 volumes having been catalogued, stamped, 
and pressmarked, 5,537 of these being serials, and 526 separate 
works. The latter belong to the following branches of science: 
Astronomy, Botany, and Medicine. There have been written 
2,016 catalogue cards; 1,400 for serials, and 616 for separate 
works. The total number of volumes catalogued to date is 
8,744, for which 3,290 cards have been written, and for these 
latter a cabinet has been purchased, which now stands in the 
Secretaries' room. 

The shelf list, which was commenced last session, has been 
continued, and will prove useful to members as a subject-index 
to the separate works. 

During the session, 234 volumes have been borrowed from 
the library, as compared with 124 volumes in the previous 
session, and it is hoped that, as the cataloguing progresses and 
affords increased facilities for quickly finding any work required, 
members will make still further use of the valuable collection of 
books possessed by the Society. 

Especial attention has been paid to the completion of sets, 
where possible, with the result that 189 volumes or parts have 
been obtained which render 32 sets complete, whilst 210 volumes 
have been acquired which partly complete 37 sets. Of this 
total of 399 volumes, 155 were purchased (including 76 
volumes of the A7inales de CJiimie et de Physique and 48 volumes 
of the American Journal of Science)^ the remainder being pre- 
sented by the respective societies publishing them. 

Slightly less binding has been done than last session, 363 
volumes having been bound in 301, whilst 17 volumes have 
undergone repair. There are about 4,000 volumes in the library 
still unbound, which number is constantly being added to, so 
that in order to overtake the arrears of binding within ten years, 
and to provide for the annual increase in the library during that 
time, it will be necessary to bind about 800 volumes, at an 
approximate cost of about ^100, each year. 

xxxviii Annual Report of the Council. 

During the three months January-March, 1898, a record has 
been kept of the accessions to the Hbrary, showing that, during 
that period, 261 serials and 11 separate works were received, a 
total of 272 volumes. The donations during the session (exclu- 
sive of the usual exchanges) amount to 68 volumes and 120 
dissertations ; and 9 books have been purchased (in addition to 
the periodicals on the regular subscription list). 

The Society has arranged to exchange publications with the 
following : Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland ; 
Universite de Lyon ; Goteborgs Stadsbibliotek ; Kansas Univer- 
sity Quarterly^ Lawrence ; Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis ; 
and the Queensland Museum, Brisbane. 

The undermentioned periodicals have been added to the 
list of those subscribed for by the Society : — Natural Science 
(London) ; Proceedings of the Malacological Society (London) ; 
Science Progress (London) \ Zooiogische fahrbiicher (Jena) ; 
Journal fiir Ornithologie (Leipsic) ; Mathematische Annalen 
(Leipsic) ; American Journal of Scie?tce (New Haven) ; and The 
Auk (New York). 

The printing of the list of serial publications referred to in 
the last report has been delayed owing to the decision of the 
Council to make a catalogue of the scientific serials available in 
Manchester, as far as lists can be officially obtained, with an 
indication of the libraries in which they are to be found. The 
negotiations have made considerable progress. 

The Council appointed the Assistant Secretary and Librarian 
to represent the Society at the second International Library 
Conference, which met in London in July last, and was attended 
by a large number of delegates from Great Britain and abroad. 

The Council has awarded : — 

The Wilde Medal for 1898 to Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, 
G.C.S.I., C.B., F.R.S., in recognition of the eminent services he 
has rendered to all branches of botanical science ; 

A Dalton Medal (struck in 1864) to Dr. Edward Schunck, 
F.R.S., for the remarkable series of researches on the natural 

Anmial Report of the Cotincil. xxxix 

colouring matters with which he has enriched Chemistry, and 
in appreciation of the life-long services which he has rendered, 
in particular, to the advancement of science in Manchester; 

The Wilde Premium for 1898 to Mr. John Butterworth, 
F.R.M.S., for his memoir read before the Society on "Some 
further investigation of fossil seeds of the genus Lagenostoma 
(Williamson) from the lower coal measures, Oldham," in con- 
tinuation of his researches in the structure of fossil plants of the 

Professor Michael Foster, Sec.R.S., was appointed to deliver 
the Wilde Lecture. 

The Council arranged that the Medals should be presented 
and the Wilde Lecture delivered on Tuesday, March 29th, 

Professor Francesco Brioschi was the author of many highly 
original investigations in Pure Mathematics and Analytical 
Mechanics. He was associated with Hermitein the development 
of the Theory of Invariants founded by Boole, Cayley, and 
Sylvester, and made notable contributions to the Theory of Equa- 
tions and to Solid Geometry. He held many important scientific 
posts ; in addition to his official position as Director of the Milan 
Polytechnic, he was editor of the Amiali di. Matematica; and the 
great veneration in which he was held by his colleagues in Italy is 
shewn by the fact that he was made President of the Accademia 
dei Lincei in 1884, and thereafter regularly re-elected at the expi- 
ration of each quadrennial period. He was a Senator of the 
Kingdom of Italy, and at various times did work of a more or less 
ofificial character in connection with the Budget, the organisation 
of the railway system, and the Department of Public Instruction. 
He died on December 13th, 1897, at the age (almost) of 73 
years. He had been an honorary member of our Society since 1892. 

A highly appreciative account of his scientific labours 
appeared in the Comptes Rendits for December 27, 1897, from 
the pen of his friend and collaborateur, Hermite. H. L. 

xl Animal Report of the Council. 

By the death of Victor Meyer, ihe Society loses one of its 
most distinguished honorary members, and science one of its 
greatest teachers and discoverers. He died young — he was not 
quite forty-nine — and it might have been hoped that there were 
many years of work still before him, but his health broke down, 
and, worn out with pain and insomnia, he committed suicide 
on August 8, 1897. 

Victor Meyer began his chemical studies under Bunsen, at 
Heidelberg, and continued them under Baeyer, at Berlin. He 
held appointments successively at Stuttgart, Zurich, Gottingen, 
and finally, at Heidelberg, where he succeeded to the chair of 
Chemistry on the retirement of Bunsen. 

It is impossible here to give details of his investigations, 
which began about 1870, and were continued till his death ; it 
must suffice to mention some of the most important. He dis- 
covered nitro-ethane and its homologues, and by acting on these 
bodies with nitrous acid, he obtained nitrolic acid and pseudo- 
nitrols. Ten years later he found that iso-nitroso compounds 
are formed by the action of hydroxylamine on aldehydes and 
ketones, and that this reaction is of general application. 

In 1882, Meyer discovered in ordinary benzene a new con- 
stituent, to which he gave the name thiophene ; and, in 1888, 
he was able to publish, under the title of " Die Thiophen-gruppe," 
a very complete account, not only of this interesting body, but 
of many of its derivatives. Mention must also be made of his 
discovery of the oximes and of the group of bodies obtained 
from the hypothetical iodonium hydroxide. 

Lastly, but certainly not least in importance, is Victor Meyer's 
work on vapour density, and the simple methods he devised for 
making that important determination. The earlier methods 
were direct — a certain volume of the vapour was obtained and 
its weight ascertained, or a definite weight of a substance was 
vaporised, and the volume occupied by the vapour ascertained — 
but they were liable to error, and difficult to execute. It was 
reserved for Victor Meyer to show how much easier it was to 
make the method indirect — to volatilize a definite weight of the 

Annual Report of the Council. xli 

substance in a suitable apparatus and measure the volume of air 
it displaced. The advantages of the new method were speedily 
recognized, and its use is now universal. It falls to the lot of 
comparatively few chemists to invent an apparatus or discover a 
process which is adopted in every laboratory ; this is certainly 
the case with Liebig and with Bunsen, and to their honoured 
names must be added that of Victor Meyer. F. J. 

By the death of Julius Sachs, on May 29th, 1897, one of 
the most ardent workers in Botanical Science has been lost. 
Not only have his labours largely enriched our knowledge of 
Plant Physiology, which he had made his special study, but his 
infectious enthusiasm for this branch of Botany has caused enor- 
mous advances to be made by those Botanists who were privileged 
to work under his stimulating guidance. Among these are 
numbered most of the Vegetable Physiologists both of England 
and the Continent, including such men as Francis Darwin, Vines, 
Marshall Ward, Brefeld, Pfeffer and Reinke. Born in 1832, in 
Breslau, Julius Sachs received from his father, an engraver, 
considerable encouragement for the development of his artistic 
faculties, and his early training in drawing and painting stood 
him in good stead in afterUfe. His enthusiasm for Natural 
History, however, was kindled by his intercourse with the sons 
of the physiologist Purkynje, with whom he went out collecting 
plants for the herbarium which he commenced while at school. 
Later on, when Purkynje was appointed to the University of 
Prague, he engaged Sachs as his draughtsman. His connection 
with Purkynje no doubt determined the direction of his subse- 
quent work, and, after having taken his degree at Prague, he 
established himself there as lecturer in Vegetable Physiology — a 
branch of Botany which it was usual at that time to dismiss with 
a very few words. Largely owing to Sachs's labours, however. 
Vegetable Physiology is now so extensive a subject that it forms 
a very considerable portion of the study of Botany. 

From Prague Sachs proceeded to Tharandt in 1859, to 
^\T)rk out the agricultural bearings of Vegetable Physiology. He 

xlii Annual Report of the Council, 

then lectured successively at Bonn and Freiburg, and finally 
was called to the University of Wiirzburg, where he established 
himself definitely, in spite of many tempting offers from the 
Universities of Munich, Berlin, and Vienna. 

It is with Wiirzburg that Sachs's name will always be 
associated, and it is here that most of that work was done which 
made Sachs the founder of Modern Vegetable Physiology. 

His first publication, summing up the older experiments in 
Plant Physiology, with the incorporation of the results of his own 
researches, was the Handbuch der Experimental-Physiologie der 
i^«;20^;2, published, in 1865, as the 4th volume of Hofmeister's 
Handbuch der physiologischen Botanik. 

Then followed his well-known Lehrbuch der Botanik^ which 
rapidly passed through four editions, and was translated into 
English and several other languages. 

In 1875 appeared the Geschichte der Botanik, an admirable 
example of what a history of science should be, and which shows 
his critical faculty at its best. This, as well as his Lectures on 
the Physiology of Plants, was translated into English. His 
numerous papers are characterised by the trenchant criticism of 
his opponents, and by the clear and concise language which he 
employed in the skilful unfolding of any new results obtained by 
his carefully thought-out experiments. 

Sachs was elected an honorary member of this Society on 
April 30th, 1872. A complete list of his papers will be found at 
the end of the excellent biographical notice, by Professor Goebel, 
in volume 84 of Flora. F. E. W. 

Edward James Stone was born in London on February 
28th, 1 83 1. His early education was frequently interrupted 
owing to ill health, and his systematic education really began 
when he entered King's College, London, at the age of twenty- 
one. In his twenty-fourth year he entered Queen's College, 
Cambridge, and was fifth Wrangler in 1859. 

In i860, Mr. Stone was appointed First Assistant at the 
Greenwich Observatory, where he remained ten years. In 1870, 

Annual Report of the Council. xiiii 

he obtained the appointment as Astronomer Royal at the Cape 
Observatory, which he held till, in 1878, he was appointed 
Radcliffe Observer at Oxford. 

In the positions which Mr. Stone held he devoted himself 
assiduously to problems of the astronomy of position, and espe- 
cially to meridian observations. As evidence of his industry, the 
Royal Society Catalogue of Sciejitific Papers contains the titles of 
92 of his papers antecedent to 1883. 

It is not here possible to discuss his work at length ; fuller 
notices will be found in the Motithly Notices of the Royal Astro?io- 
mical Society (vol. 58, p. 143), and in the Proceedings of the Royal 
Society (vol. 62, p. x.). 

Mr. Stone was elected an honorary member of the Society on 
April 17th, 1894. 

Mr. Stone's death took place, from cardiac failure during an 
attack of pneumonia, on May 9th, 1897. Only a week previously, 
during a visit to North Wales to fish (a pursuit of which he had 
always been very fond), his boat had been upset, and, to avoid a 
chill, he rowed quickly a distance of two miles to his hotel. It 
was supposed that he unfortunately overstrained his heart, and 
that the accident was the cause of his fatal illness. 

On the day before his death he was at the Observatory, 
making arrangements for trial observations, preparatory to 
observing the total solar eclipse in India in 1898. 

The Ven. George Henry Greville Anson, M.A., third 
son of General Sir William Anson, was born on July 19, 1820. 
he received his education at Eton, Charterhouse, and at 
Exeter College, Oxford, where he graduated in 1843. He was 
ordained the same year, and appointed to a curacy at Leeds 
Parish Church under his future father-in-law. Dr. Hook. Here 
he remained for three years, when he was nominated by his 
eldest brother, the late Sir J. W. H. Anson, to the incumbency 
of St. James's, Birch-in-Rusholme, which he held until his death. 
In 1848 he was appointed examining chaplain to Dr. Prince Lee, 
then Bishop of Manchester, and, on Bishop Eraser's nomination 

xliv Annual Report of the Council, 

to the See in 1870, was appointed Archdeacon in succession to 
Dr. Durnford. Bishop Fraser's regard for him was further shown 
by his offering the Archdeacon, in 1882, a residentiary canonry 
in the Cathedral, which was accepted. He did not hold the 
office long, however, for the death of Canon Gibson, in 1884, 
left him no alternative but to give up Birch Rectory and take the 
rectory of St. Matthew's, Campfield, or to resign his canonry. His 
strong family associations with Birch inclined him to the latter 
course, and six years later (in 1890) he also resigned the arch- 
deaconry, being of the opinion that the duties of the office 
required a younger man. 

Archdeacon Anson was a governor of the Hulme Trust 
Estates, a feoffee of Chetham Hospital and Library, and was also 
interested in the St. Mary's Home, Rusholme (which he founded), 
in the Manchester Southern Hospital, and in St. Mary's Hos- 
pital. He married, in 1848, Augusta Agnes, eldest daughter of 
Dr. Hook, who survives him. He was elected a member of this 
Society on January 22, 1861, and was always interested in its 
proceedings, though of late years he was seldom seen at the 
meetings. His death took place at Winchester on February 8, 
1898, the remains being brought to Manchester and interred in 
Birch churchyard. 

Thomas Ashton, LL.D., who died at his residence, Ford 
Bank, Didsbury, on January 21st last, was elected a member of 
the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, August 
nth, 1837. Mr. Ashton was well-read in many subjects, and 
in full sympathy with both literary and scientific men. An inte- 
rest in philosophical as well as in historical studies had remained 
to him, perhaps from his Heidelberg days ; and the pleasure 
which he took in the conversation of the late Professor Huxley, 
when his guest at Ford Bank, in 1870, is vividly remembered by 
those who saw them together. But his field of action lay else- 
where than in the world of letters and science, though he was 
brought into close contact and connection with it through his 
.services to higher education. Of these the most conspicuous 

Annual Report of the Council. xlv 

consists in the leading part taken by him in extending, and placing 
on a basis of permanent efficiency, a Manchester institution 
which, before the close of his career, had taken the foremost place 
among English University Colleges of the Victorian type. When, 
in 1892, Mr. Ashton received the Freedom of the City of Man- 
chester — the only public honour which he ever accepted — his 
services to educational progress were justly placed in the fore- 
front of the record of the benefits conferred by him on his native 

Born at Hyde, in 18 18, as the descendant of an old and 
wealthy Lancashire family of manufacturers, Mr. Ashton from his 
early manhood onwards closely engaged in the business of the 
great industrial house of which he was ultimately to become the 
head. But from an early date he found ample opportunities 
both for the exercise of a pohtical activity, of which it is sufficient 
to say here that he came to be recognised, during a period of 
many years, as one of the leaders of his party in the North of Eng- 
land, and for exertions on behalf of the welfare and progress of 
the population at large, as well as of those sections of it with 
which he was brought into personal relations as an employer of 
labour. He was one of the most active members of the Cotton 
Famine Relief Committee of 1862, and was identified with the 
success of the Arts Treasures Exhibition of 1857. He was 
afterwards the first deputy - chairman of the Art Gallery 
Committee of the Corporation, and was well known as a 
private collector of remarkable judgment. For several years 
he held the Chairmanship of the Governing Body of Hulme's 
Charity, to the reconstitution of which his own efforts had 
largely contributed, and the Treasurership of the Manchester 
College (now at Oxford). He was also an active member 
of the Governing Bodies of the Manchester Grammar School 
and other institutions, among which he took a special interest 
in the progress of the Technical School at Hyde. He was for 
many years a Justice of the Peace and Deputy Lieutenant for 
Lancashire, and in 1884, held the office of High Sheriff of the 

xlvi Annual Report of the Council. 

With the Owens College Mr. Ashton first- became closely 
associated in 1867, when at the instance of Professor (now Sir 
Henry) Roscoe, F.R.S. he consented to become Chairman 
of the Committee then appointed for the extension of the 
College. The work of his Committee was completed in seven 
years, during the course of which it achieved the re-building 
of the College on a new site and scale, the entire reorgan- 
isation of its constitutional and administrative system, involving 
protracted Parliamentary proceedings, an extraordinary develop- 
ment of its instruction in class rooms and laboratories, and 
something like a trebling of its financial resources. Mr. Ashton, 
besides being one of the most liberal of the benefactors of the 
reconstituted College, with which he helped to bring about the 
incorporation of the Manchester School of Medicine, was one of 
the most energetic and sagacious members of its governing body, 
and remained a working member of its Council -during the rest of 
his life. He had an important share in the transactions which, 
in 1880, resulted in the foundation of the Victoria University, 
which, without his advice and encouragement, would have 
remained an academic dream. In 1895, the University had 
the satisfaction of conferring upon Mr. Ashton its honorary 
degree of Doctor of Laws. The College possesses no outward 
memorial of his long and unwearying labours on its behalf, 
with the exception of a copy of the First Folio Shakspere placed 
as a tribute to his services in the Christie Library by Mr. Edward 
Donner, a member of the Council. But his name is unlikely to 
be forgotten in the College of which he was the Second Founder, 
in the University into the conception of which he entered with 
invaluable readiness, or in the City where he was for many years 
looked up to as an example, than which this age has known no 
better, of a true Manchester man. 

Mr. Ashton married, in 185 1, Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. 
S. S. Gair, of Liverpool, who survives him. His eldest son, 
Mr. Thomas Gair Ashton, is M.P. for the Luton division of 
Bedfordshire. His second son, Mr. Mark Ashton, died in 1895, 
His eldest surviving daughter is the wife of the Right Hon. 
James Bryce, M.P. A. W. W. 

Annual Report of the Cotincil. xlvii 

William Brockbank was born in St. John Street, in this 
city, in 1830, which year saw the opening of the Manchester and 
Liverpool Railway, in the construction of which his father had 
been largely concerned, building the bridge over the Irwell 
and supplying the hurdles upon which the line was carried over 
Chat Moss. At his father's house young Brockbank met Dixon, 
Locke, and other engineers, which gave his mind a bent which 
led his father to have him apprenticed to his cousin, Mr. Thomas 
Carrick, then a well-known Manchester surveyor. In 1853, a 
partnership was entered into, under the style of Carrick and 
Brockbank ; the firm was largely engaged in railway surveys, and 
the staki?ig out of new lines ; the firm also made the surveys of 
the Manchester Corporation Waterworks, as well as the greater 
part of the plans (now in the Town Hall) of the completed 
works, including the Thirlmere Parliamentary Surveys, in which 
the leading share was taken by Mr. T. Silk Wilson, who had 
become a partner in the firm ; Mr. Brockbank, in the meanwhile, 
had retired from it and was devoting his attention to his large 
and increasing business as metal merchant in Manchester and 
Birmingham, which became very considerable ; but, like many 
other very busy men, he found time to benefit the culture and 
comfort of those with whom he was brought in contact. 

A descendant of a family who joined the Society of Friends 
on its foundation by George Fox, Mr. Brockbank took an active 
interest in their welfare. He had an important share in the 
initiation and founding of Dalton Hall, a hall of residence in 
connection with the Owens College, in Victoria Park, which was 
opened in 1882, and has since served as a model for several 
other halls of residence in connection with other provincial 
colleges. The scheme for such an institution was formulated by 
Mr. Brockbank, and was carried on experimentally in Lloyd 
Street, Greenheys, as the Friends' Hall, and its success led to 
the larger undertaking in Victoria Park, which has more than 
answered the expectations of its founders. 

Mr. Brockbank ha4 a very strong individuality, his imposing 
figure and presence, massive handsome head, and his courteous 

xlviii A^tnual Report of the Council. 

but decisive method of speaking, will not readily be forgotten by 
those who came in contact with him. He appears to have early 
acquired a taste for scientific pursuits, especially in geology and 
horticulture, his first paper in the Proceedings^ dating back to 
1859, and that of 1861 deal with metallurgical subjects. From 
1864 a succession of geological papers appeared, but these only 
represent a very small part of the varied information he collected, 
more especially the extensive series of water-colour sketches with 
which he illustrated his notes, which combined much artistic 
merit, with the careful draughtsmanship of a surveyor. His 
artistic instincts enabled him to form a very interesting collection 
of modern English art, many examples of which were exhibited 
at the Manchester Jubilee Exhibition. When the writer was 
associated with Mr. Brockbank in 1890, in working out the 
details of the Levenshulme railway cuttings, the results of which 
is published in the Society's Memoirs^ he was struck with the 
fertility of resource he exhibited on various occasions, as for 
instance, when a strange granite boulder occurred in the railway 
cutting, he wrote to all the postmasters in Cumberland and 
Westmoreland in the neighbourhood of granite bosses, to kindly 
ask a local quarryman to send samples of the granites of the 
district, enclosing a suitable recompense ; in several cases this 
plan was most successful in producing specimens. He was much 
interested in glacial geology, and rescued several important 
erratics from destruction ; one was placed in the area around the 
Friends Meeting House at St. Helens, many others he had placed 
in his beautiful garden at Didsbury. In this garden also were 
preserved samples of all the different limestones met with in the 
Levenshulme railway cutting, and several specimens of the old 
wooden water pipes, that originally distributed water to Manchester. 
To the botanist and the horticulturist the garden was of the 
greatest interest. In it he raised the beautiful double daffodil 
from seeds saved from double daffodils of previous growth. Here 
also he carried on a most interesting series of experiments with 
the crossing of various species of saxifrages with very remarkable 
results. His garden was an object of interest and pleasure. 

Annual Report of the Council. xlix 

not only to the initiated, but to more humble members of society, 
such as the boys employed on the Levenshulme railway con- 
tract, who were invaluable in collecting fossils from the Permians, 
to whom he gave a tea in his gardens to their infinite delight. 
Each boy collected his store of fossils day by day, and a cart 
was sent down every week for them ; but the results w^ere not 
so satisfactory as Mr. Brockbank and the writer had anticipated, 
through a collector with a carpet bag playing the part of the 
white bears in the Arctic cachees. 

In following up a scientific matter to its source, Mr. Brock- 
bank neither studied his time, or inconvenience, or money, when, 
with the business aptitude that characterized him, he saw there 
was an obvious chance of a successful result. He joined the 
Society in 1855. He was also a Fellow of the Geological Society, 
the Linnean Society, and the Glacialists' Association, of which 
latter he was a Vice-President. His death took place on 
September 18th, 1896. C. E. De R. 

List of Papers read before the Society: — 

[Note on Titanium from Iron Furnaces.] Proceedings^ i. (1859), p. 99. 
[Notes on the Bessemer Process of manufacturing Steel.] Proceedings^ ii. 

(1861), pp. 146 and 153. 
On the Discovery of the Bones of the Mammoth {Elephas primigenius) in a 

Fissure of the Carboniferous Limestone at Waterhouses, near 

I^ek. Proceedings, iv. (1864), pp. 46-50. 
Notes on a Section of Chat Moss, near Astley Station. Proceedings^ v. (1866), 

pp. 91-95. 
[On Haematite Iron Deposits.] Proceedings, vii. (1867), pp. 59-61. 
The Haematite Iron Ore Deposits of Whitehaven ; Notes on the Aldby 

Limestone, Cleator Moor. Proceedings, viii. (1868), pp. 51-56. 
Notes on the Effects of Cold upon the Strength of Iron. Proceedings^ 

X. (1871), pp 77-86. 
[Notes on a Specimen of Mineral Wool, and on a Mode of Utilising Slag.] 

Proceedings, xi. (1872), pp. 78-79. 
Notes on supposed Glacial Action in the De[)osition of Hematite Iron Ores 

in the P'urness District. Proceedings, xii. (1873), PP- 58-65. 
[Note on Specimens of Iron manufactured by the old Bohemian process 

from Hematite Ores in the South of Europe.] Proceedings, xii. 

(1873), pp. 72-73. 
Notes on the Victoria Cave, Settle. Proceedinos, xii. (1873), PP* 95-^03' 

1 Annual Report of the Council. 

[On Granites from Ravenglass and CriffeL] Proceedings, xv. (1876), pp. 

On the Levenshulme Limestone : A Section from Slade Lane eastwards. 
[1883.] Memoirs, Ser. 3, viii. (1884), pp. 125-132 ; abstract in 
Proceedings, xxii. (1883), pp. 61-65. 
[On the late Dean Herbert's Illustrations of Flowers.] Proceedings, xxv. 

(1885), pp. 43-46. 
The Levenshulme Limestones. Memoirs and Proceedings , Ser. 4, iii. (1890), 

pp. 209-211. 
Notes on Seedling Saxifrages grown at Brockhurst [Didsbury] from a single 
scape oi Saxifraga Macnabiana. Memoirs and Proceedings, Ser. 4, 
ii. (1889), pp. 227-230. 
[Notes on the Discovery of Estheria miniita var. Bi-odieana in the Lower 
Keuper Sandstone of Alderley Edge.] Memoirs and Proceedings, 
Ser. 4, iv. (1890), pp. 12-13 ^"^^ 31-32- 
[Note on a Cutting of Boussingaultia baselloides .^ Memoirs and Proceedings , 

Ser. 4, iv. (1890), pp. 13-15. 
On the Entomostraca and Annalida in the Levenshulme Mottled Limestone. 
Memoirs and Proceedings, Ser. 4, iv. (1890), pp. 47-52. — Supple- 
mentary Note, pp. 353-356. 
On the Occurrence of the Permians, Spirorbis Limestones, and Upper Coal 
Measures at Frizington Hall, in the Whitehaven District. Memoirs 
and Proceedings, Ser. 4, iv. (1891), pp. 418-426. 
On the Permians of the N.W. of England. Discovery of two Plant 
Beds in the St. Bees Sandstone, at Hilton, Westmorland. Memoirs 
and Proceedings, Ser. 4, v. (1891), pp. 66-76, plates 2-4. 
On the Artificial Coloration of Flowers. Memoirs and Proceedings^ Ser. 4, 

v. (1892), pp. 142-144. 
Notes on Glacier Moraines in Cumberland and Westmorland. Memoir's and 
Proceedings, Ser. 4, ix. (1893), PP- ^95-205, plates 4-6; abstract in 
Proceedings, x. (1870), pp. 19-25. 

Papers written conjointly :— 

On the Liassic and Oolitic Iron Ores of Yorkshire and the East Midland 
Counties. By Edward Hull and William Brockbank. Pro- 
ceedings, \. {1^66), ^^. II 9- 1 22. 

Notes on the Geological Section exposed in the Railway Cutting from 
Levenshulme to Fallowfield. By William Brockbank and C. E. 
DE Range. Memoirs and Proceedings, Ser. 4, iv. (1890-91), pp. 
282-300, 339-352, plate 5. 

William Grimshaw was born at Church Kirk, four miles 
from Blackburn, in the parish of Wh alley, Lancashire, on January 
24, 1824. Church Kirk may be spoken of as the original home 
of the gteat calico-printing industry of the county, the father of 

Annual Report of the Council. \{ 

the first Sir Robert Peel having early erected a printworks there, 
which was speedily followed by the establishment of many of the 
most famous printing and Turkey-red dyeing works in the same 
locality. Indeed, it may be said that most of the printworks of 
the district were either direct offshoots of the works at Church 
Kirk, or were founded by men who were trained there. With 
this industry William Grimshaw was destined to be intimately 
associated, first as a workman and eventually as a drysalter and 
colour merchant on his own account in Manchester. Born in 
very humble circumstances, Grimshaw's early life was extremely 
hard, affording scanty opportunities for education in those days. 
While still a youth, however, he obtained employment at the 
Belfield Printworks, with which Dr. Edward Schunck, F.R.S., 
was then connected. Many years after, on his election, February 
7, 1888, as a member of the Manchester Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society, Mr. Grimshaw expressed to the present writer 
his special pleasure on entering an institution with which Dr. 
Schunck had been so long and prominently associated, as it was 
to Dr. Schunck's efforts for the intellectual advancement of the 
workmen under his control at Belfield, by means of personal 
instruction, that Grimshaw attributed his own success in life. 
Whenever, in these recent years, there was a prospect of " the 
Doctor" presiding at the Society's meetings, or taking part in its 
proceedings, Mr. Grimshaw was certain to be found in his place 
as an attentive listener. Dr. Schunck has been good enough to 
give the writer of this notice an account of the Belfield period 
of Grimshaw's life. " I first knew William Grimshaw," he writes, 
"as an apprentice in the 'colour-shop' of the printworks with 
which I was connected. I found him an intelligent youth and 
one of remarkably open, ingenuous demeanour, in fact, decidedly 
superior to the average youth of his class. Generally speaking, 
the men working in the colour department of a printworks are 
more intelligent than others, from the fact, I suppose, of their 
meeting with phenomena which call for explanation from an 
inquiring mind. Well, I formed a small class — I don't think 
there were more than 14 — for reading and study, all of them 

lii Annual Report of the Council. 

being employed in the works in some capacity or other. The 
plan was for each attendant to have a copy of the text-book, and, 
after reading a paragraph or two, an experiment was introduced 
in illustration. I look back with pleasure to the hours spent 
with these honest fellows — they were so genial and unceremonious. 
I always thought it strange, however, that Grimshaw should 
attribute his success in after life to the time so spent ; no doubt 
he was riglit, but it only proves again, what has often been said, 
that for successful growth an appropriate seed and a congenial 
soil conjoined are requisite. After my connection with the Bel- 
field Printworks had ceased, I lost sight of Grimshaw, and did 
not see him again for many years. When we met again, he had 
attained a position very much superior to that of a working- 
man." Dr. Schunck adds : — " Grimshaw's case shows again 
what a large measure of intelligence, energy and moral fibre the 
best of our working-men possess. It is on such qualities widely 
distributed amongst her sons that the greatness of this country 
has been built up." When he had attained affluence, Mr. Grim- 
shaw developed strong tastes for horticulture, and for pictures 
and bric-a-brac^ the latter passion being largely encouraged by 
his long acquaintance with his attached friend, the late Mr. 
George Freemantle, the well-known musical critic. His collection 
of paintings by old and modern masters, of pottery and of 
specimens of Japanese art-workmanship was a very remarkable 
one. But he was much more than a collector; he had a true 
thirst for knowledge of the history and qualities of every article 
he purchased ; and by diligent reading and study acquired an 
amount of information, and a judgment which impressed all 
who met him, and were truly extraordinary in one who had had 
such few opportunities for culture in early life. As a director 
of the Manchester Aquarium, Mr. Grimshaw was associated with 
the late Mr. Charles Moseley in a vigorous attempt to maintain 
that institution as a means of promoting the study of natural 
history in Manchester. He was also a member of the Council 
of the Royal Institution of Manchester, before the transfer of the 
building and collections to the Manchester Corporation. For many 

Annual Report of the Cotincil. liii 

years he was a member of the Executive Committee of the 
Certified Industrial Schools of Manchester, and was specially 
active in that capacity in the management of the Girls' Industrial 
School at Sale, He was also active as a member of the Music, 
Electric Lighting, and Gardens Committee in connection with 
the highly successful Royal Jubilee Exhibition (1887) in Man; 
Chester. He gave generous support and assistance in the arrang- 
ments for the " mammoth" meeting of the British Association 
in Manchester in the same year, and took a not less cordial and 
helpful part in promoting the movement for a memorial of Joule 
in Manchester, which resulted in the fine statue, by Alfred 
Gilbert, now in the Town Hall. The catholicity of his tastes is 
further evidenced by the fact that he was an equally well-known 
figure at Halle's Concerts and at the County Cricket Ground on 
match days. To his latest years, Mr. Grimshaw continued to 
have that "open, ingenuous demeanour" which Dr. Schunck 
observed in him as a youth, and a consistent and peculiarly 
attractive earnestness of spirit. When struck by the malady 
which terminated his life, he faced the inevitable with quiet 
courage and resignation, remarking that he had no reason to 
complain of the length of years allotted to him ; and he con- 
tinued almost to the end to visit his club daily, mainly, it 
appeared, for the purpose of distributing amongst his friends 
nosegays — which he carried inside his hat — from his own garden. 
He died at his residence, Stoneleigh, Sale, on March 14, 1898, 
and was buried at Brooklands. F. J. F. 

Peter Hart was born at Orford, near Warrington, on June 
6th, 1834. In the village school he received a plain education, 
and he there came under the notice of Mr. William Beamont, 
first Mayor of Warrington, a well-known solicitor and antiquarian, 
and, what was then rare, an enthusiastic educationalist. 

Through this gentleman, Peter Hart, at the age of 10, 
obtained a situation in a solicitor's office at Tarporley, and he 
was subsequently employed in Mr. Beamont's own office at 

liy . A nniial Report of the Council. 

In the interval between these periods, young; Hart had been 
for a short time at the Chemical Works of Messrs. Tennants, at 
Ardwick, Manchester, where his father, William Hart, assisted 
Dr. James Young, F.R.S., in the management. In 1849, he 
finally relinquished law and returned to the Chemical Works, 
After spending a short time in the office he was, to his intense 
satisfaction, drafted into the laboratory. 

He took up chemistry enthusiastically and attended night 
classes at the old Mechanics' Institute, in Cooper Street, under 
Dr. Allen, and read diligently the chemical books in the library 
attached to Tennants' laboratory. " Graham," " Turner," and 
"Brande" were his oracles, and he often said in after life that if 
he did not acquire as much from them as he ought, he found 
out at least " how little he knew and how much there was to 
be known." The innate modesty of the man comes out in this 
typical expression. 

In 1847 and the following years, came Young's great dis- 
covery of the shale oil process, experiments in which were con- 
ducted at Ardwick. In connection with this, in 185 1, it was 
necessary to make some tons of solid caustic soda from liquid 
caustic. This is probably the earliest record of the manufacture 
of solid caustic soda in England. William Gossage was at this 
time experimenting (upon the concentration of vitriol) at the 
Ardwick works, and subsequently devoting his attention to the 
manufacture of caustic soda, took out his well-known patent 
in 1853. 

In the year 1852, Young left Messrs. Tennants' to exploit 
his shale oil process, and Peter Hart became chemist to the 
worTis, at the age of eighteen, acting under his father who became 

The next year he pubHshed his first original paper "On a 
new method of estimating Tin in Native Peroxide of Tin Ore," 
in a periodical called The Chemist. 

The tin compounds in those days were the mordants on 
which the dyers and printers mainly relied, the aniline colours 
not having been yet invented, the animal and vegetable kingdoms 

Annual Report of the Council. Iv 

supplied the basis of their colours. Numerous and mysterious 
were the names under which tin mordants were sold, " oxy- 
muriate," " sulphomuriate," " purple spirits," " blue spirits," 
" scarlet spirits," " double muriate," and so on, there being in 
many cases a good deal more difference in the name than in the 
chemical composition of the substance. 

About this time, in connection with this subject, he carried 
out important technical improvements in the manufacture of 
stannate of soda. 

From this time forward Peter Hart was constantly engaged 
in original work of one kind or another, either in elaborating 
and improving the processes of manufacture carried on in the 
chemical works of Messrs. Tennants and elsewhere, or in 
improving or originating methods of analysis. 

It is characteristic of him that, although his original papers 
are fairly numerous, yet the amount of work which he did in 
following out his ideas was very great indeed compared with the 
length of his communications. His results were presented com- 
plete and fully digested, a paper of a few pages representing 
generally months of work and perhaps the study of a year or two. 

His genius was essentially practical and simple. Unnecessary 
elaboration was a bete noir to him. Unless he had satisfied 
himself beyond all possibility of doubt, and had actually used a 
new method of analysis continuously, and satisfactorily, he was 
very diffident about troubling the chemical world with it. 

His method for the estimation of chromium in chrome ore is 
given by Fresenius in the fourth edition of his Qua?ititative 
Analysis. It consists in successive fusion with borax, carbonate 
of sodium, and nitrate of potassium, and was subsequently 
modified by Dittmar. 

In i860, when the noted Dictionary of Applied Chemistry 
was published, he, at the request of Sheridan Muspratt, wrote 
the article on "Sulphuric Acid Manufacture," a sufficient 
testimony to the fact that he was recognized as one of the leading 
technologists in his own subjects. In connection with the 
manufacture of sulphuric acid, in 1865 he devised an apparatus 

Ivi Annual Report of the Council. 

for the rapid determination of sulphur dioxide in chamber gases. 
In 1 85 8, a description of similar apparatus was given by F. Reisch, 
but it was more complicated and less suitable for removal from 
place to place. Davis devised an apparatus similar to that of 
Hart at a later date. 

Peter Hart's connection with this Societ)' began in 1862, 
when he was elected a member. He communicated several 
papers to the Society, the first being in 1867 " On the occurrence 
of Sulpho-cyanates in Gas Mains," in which was pointed out the 
great distance from the source at which this substance is 
often found in the mains and pipes, often at the distance of a 
mile. A year later he patented a method for recovering the 
nitrous gases from vitriol chambers, but the invention of the 
Glover Tower superseded his idea. 

The principle of the anemometer for strong or weak drafts, 
described by Hart at the meeting of this Society on April 5th, 
1870, has received recognition from Dr. Hobson, in The Chief 
Alkali Inspector's Repot t for that year, and from other authorities, 
although Swan in the Transactions of the Neivcastle Chemical 
Society subsequently, in 1871, published an account of an 
anemometer of his own construction, which involves the same 
principle as that of Hart. 

Original papers were communicated to this Society at 
intervals until he joined the Society of Chemical Industry, since 
then most of his papers have been read before the latter 
Society, which is more directly concerned with his province of 

In 1866, a serious accident happened at Messrs. Tennants' 
works to Mr. Hart, senior, which resulted in his death, and the 
management and full control of the works then devolved on his 
son Peter. Since the death of the subject of this memoir one of 
his sons again occupies a similar post, so that three generations 
of the same name have now been associated with these works. 

In 1885, the situation of the Ardwick works of Messrs. 
Tennants had, by the growth of the city, become too confined, 
and their removal to the present site in Clayton threw upon Peter 

Annual Report of the Council. Ivii 

Hart the duty of the entire reconstruction of a large modern 
chemical works. It is needless to say that under his capable 
superintendence a fine, well equipped establishment was speedily 

In 1887, in connection with the concentration of sulphuric 
acid he made some very interesting and valuable researches into 
the protective action of a coating of gold on the platinum vessels 
used in this process. Heraeus carried this out practically in 
1891. {/our. Soc, Che??i. Ind., 1891, pp. 460, 773). He was 
one of the earliest members of the Society of Chemical Industry 
when it was established in Manchester, and after being a member 
of the Committee for many years, was elected Vice-Chairman 
of the Manchester Section in 1897. 

Being educated in the old school of chemistry, Peter Hart 
grew up under the old system of notation and nomenclature, and 
remained wedded to them. He always "thought" in the 
grain-decem-Fahrenheit system and the old equivalents, though 
of course his recent papers were translated before publication 
into the modern system. 

After about 50 years of work, his health began to fail in the 
early part of 1897, and, suffering a relapse in May, he died on 
the 30th of that month at his residence Gransmoor, Fairfield. 

Apart from the loss to technical and practical chemistry, the 
removal of Peter Hart from the midst of those who knew him, 
came as the loss of a friend and comrade, and left a blank which 
will not soon be filled. The bright geniality of his presence, 
his never failing quaint humour, the direct simplicity and 
kindliness of his nature, secured affection for him where many 
are fated to be content with respect. 

Appearances he scorned, the inner nature of a man was what 
appealed to his sympathy, and opinion and advice were 
tendered as freely as they were received by him. "I have 
scarcely known anyone who could not teach me something " he 
once remarked to the writer of this memoir, and this was 
typical of his attitude to the youngest student of science as to 
her most famous veteran. 

Iviii Annual Report of the Council. 

The writer acknowledges gratefully the value of the assist- 
ance of Mr. Peter Hart's sons in revising this brief memoir. 
A list of published papers is appended. 

1853. A new method of estimating Tin in native peroxide of Tin Ore. 

The Chemist, Vol. 4, 1853, p. 337. 

1854. On the estimation of Tin. Chem. Gaz.,^o\. 12, 1854, p. 176. 

,, On an Anhydrous Persulphate of Iron. Chem. Gaz.^ Vol. 12, p. 350. 

1855. Description of a new Gas-Furnace. Chem. Gaz.^Y(A. 13, p. 175. 

,, Estimation of Chromium Sesquioxide in Chrome Ore. Chem. Gaz., 
Vol. 13, p. 458. This method is given in Fresenius' Quantitative 
Analysis, 4th Ed., p. 387. 
1859. Researches on a method of Nitrous Vitriol estimation, by the reaction 
with Urea. Chem. Gaz,, Vol. 17, p. 172. Quoted in Muspratt's 
Dictionary of Chemistry. 
,, A modification of Fresenius' and Wills' apparatus adapted to thie 
estimation of Limestone. Chem. Gaz., Vol, 17, p. 174. 
i860. Article on Sulphuric Acid manufacture in Muspratt's Dictionary of 
Applied Chemistry. 
,, Article on the Explosive Properties of Mercuric Oxalate. Chem. 
News, Vol. 2, p. 46. 
1865. An apparatus for the rapid determination of Sulphur Dioxide in 
Chamber Gases. 

1867. Method for the estimation of Nitrous Acid in Nitrous Vitriol. 

,, Note on the occurence of Sulphocyanide of Ammonium in Gas Mains. 
Proc. Manch. Lit, and Phil. Soc, Vol. 7. pp. 9 — 10. 

1868. Patent for the utilizing of the Nitrous Vapours from Sulphuric Acid 

Chambers. (Superseded by the Glover Tower which came into 
general use. ) 

1869. The rapid determination of Free Oxygen. Chem, News, Vol. 19, 

p. 253 ; Proc. Manch. Lit. and Phil. Soc, Vol. 8, pp. 188 — 190. 

1870. Description of a new Anemometer. Proc. Manch. Lit. and Phil. 

Soc, Vol. 9, pp. 152—4 ; Chem. News, Vol. 21, p. 200. Lunge's 
Sulphuric Acid and Alkali, ist Ed., Vol. I, p. 331. 

1 88 1. A Sulphuretted Hydrogen Apparatus. Pi-oc Manch. Lit. and Phil, 

Soc, Vol. 20, pp. 96—98. 

1882. Estimation of Free and Combined Acid in the Residual Liquor of 

Chlorine Stills. Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind., Vol. i, p. 308. 
,, Estimation of Chlorine existing as Hypochlorite and Chlorate in 
Bleaching Liquors. {Ibid.) 

1884. On the Concentration of Sulphuric Acid. Jour. Soc Chem. Ind. ^ 

Vol. 3, p. 355. 

1885. Patent — method of Sulphurous Acid production for Bisulphite 

1887. Estimation of Sodium Hydrate and Carbonate in Commercial Soda 
Ash. Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind., Vol. 6, p. 347. 

Animal Report of the Council. lix 

1887. Method of cooling water for technical purposes. Ibid, p. 711, 
1892. Patent — manufacture of Ferric Sulphate for sewage purposes. 

1895. Treatment of Zinc Ores and Complex Ores containing Zinc. Jour, 

Soc. Chem. Iiid., Vol. 14, p. 544. 

1896. A feed-water heater for technical purposes. Jotir. Soc. Chem. Ind., 

Vol. 15, p. 252. 

H. G. 

James Heelis. — In a large commercial centre like Man- 
chester whose inhabitants are, broadly speaking, all workers, 
there must be many who have not the necessary leisure to 
develope to the full the talents with which they have been 
endowed bv nature. Such persons look forward to the time 
when they can sever their connection with business and devote 
the autumn of their lives to the pursuit of the literary and 
scientific subjects which they can only follow in a dillettante 
fashion in their busier years. 

Such a man was the late James HeeHs, whose premature 
death in March last at the early age of 55 is to be deplored, not 
only from its happening far from his friends and from his home, 
but also from its coming at the very commencement of the 
period of leisure which he had earned by a business career of 
nearly 40 years. 

Born in 1843, the sixth and youngest son of Stephen Heelis, 
formerly a well-knowm Solicitor of this city, James Heelis 
received the rudiments of his education at the Grammar School 
at Sandbach, in Cheshire, from which he was taken in 1861, at 
the age of 18, to be articled to his father. He was admitted a 
Solicitor in 1866, and in 1868, on the death of his brother, 
Thomas Heelis, he was taken into his father's firm. From this 
time until his retirement from business at the beginning of 1897, 
his life was almost wholly absorbed with his professional work, 
in the conduct of which his great abilities were widely recognised. 

Outside the sphere of his business, James Heelis was em- 
phatically one of those whose education is never completed ; 
who never cease to cultivate and develope the tastes and talents 
which they possess, and who add to a discriminating choice of 
subjects a thoughtful and attentive appreciation of what they read. 

Ix Annual Report of the Council. 

Mr. Heelis was elected a member of the Society in 1873, 
and though unable to devote himself to original research, he was 
keenly interested in scientific subjects, and kept in touch with 
the latest discoveries of the day. A voracious reader with a 
retentive memory, his spare time was occupied with the assimi- 
lation of a store of knowledge, the variety and scope of which 
was remarkable. 

At all times fond of travel, the first few months of his 
emancipation from business were occupied with a tour in India; 
and it was on a second tour in the East a few months later that 
he fell a victim to dysentery at Yokohama. A. A, G. T. 

James Heywood, M.A., F.R.S., the last surviving brother 
of the late Sir Benjamin Heywood, died at his residence in 
Kensington Palace Gardens, London, on October 17, 1897. He 
was born at Everton on May 28, 18 10, being the fourth and 
youngest son of Mr. Nathaniel Heywood and of Ann, daughter 
of Dr. Thomas Percival, one of the founders of this Society. His 
early education was received in Manchester, and continued later 
at Bristol (under the Rev. Lant Carpenter), Edinburgh and 
Geneva. He then entered Heywoods' Bank in Manchester, but, 
in 1829, after the death of his uncle Mr. B. A. Heywood who 
had bequeathed him considerable property, he withdrew and 
entered Trinity College, Cambridge. In the Mathematical 
Tripos of 1833 his name appeared among the Senior Optimes, 
but, being a nonconformist, he did not graduate on account 
of the religious test then enforced. This serious impediment he 
was in later years the main instrument in removing by promoting 
the Cambridge University Reform Bill, which was passed in 
1856, and under which he proceeded to the degree in 1857. For 
some years he represented North Lancashire in the House of 
Commons, and was a liberal in politics. 

Mr. Heywood was greatly interested in matters relating to 
the spread of education, and was one of the founders of the 
Manchester Athenaeum, of which he was the first president, and 
laid the foundation stone of the building. A marble medallion 

Annual Report of the Council. Ixi 

of him by John Adams Acton was placed in the newsroom of 
the Athenaeum in 1881. It forms one of a group of three, the 
others representing Richard Cobden and WilHam Langton, who 
were associated with him in founding the institution. 

Mr. Heywood was one of the Trustees of the Owens College 
by the terms of John Owens' Will, and was, for some years, 
the president of Manchester New College. For several years when 
that institution was seated in Manchester, he maintained at his 
own expense a lecturer in Civil Engineering in connexion with 
the secular side of the College, the lectures being delivered in a 
room in his own house in Mosley Street. He was nominated 
by the Crown to the Senate of the University of London, and 
there advocated the regulations allowing women to take degrees 
in that University. 

His scientific work was mainly statistical, and the list of 
his communications to the Statistical Society is a long one. He 
also wrote on the South Lancashire Coal District, and was 
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, February 7, 1859. He was, 
with E. W. Binney, H. M. Ormerod and G. W. Ormerod, one of 
the founders of the Manchester Geological Society, and accom- 
modated its collections in his house in Mosley Street, situated 
where the Clarendon Club now stands, until they were transferred 
to the ground floor of the left wing of the Museum of the 
Natural History Society in Peter Street. During a long and 
active life, he held the positions of President of the Statistical 
Society and of the Economic Section of the British Association, 
and Chairman of the Royal Historical Society, and was a 
member of the first Council of the Chetham Society. 

Mr. Heywood married, in 1853, Anne, daughter of John 
Kennedy of Ardwick and widow of Albert Escher of Ziirich, 
who died in 1872, and by whom he had one daughter. At the 
time of his death, Mr. Heywood was the " father " of the Society, 
the date of his election as a member being April 26, 1833. 

John Ramsbottom, born at Todmorden on September 
nth, 18 14, owed his success to his natural aptitude and industry, 

Ixii Annnal Report of the Council. 

and to the opportunities wisely afforded him by his father, who 
owned a steam-driven cotton mill, and not to a systematic early 
education. He had constructed many machines in his father's 
workshop, and had invented the weft fork or weft stopper, which 
is still essential for the high speed of looms, before, in 1829, he 
came to Manchester and entered the service of Messrs. Sharp, 
Roberts and Co. His industry and ability attracted the notice 
of Mr. C. F. Beyer, who, in 1842, recommended his appointment as 
locomotive superintendent of the then Manchester and Birming- 
ham Railway. In 1 85 7, he followed Mr. Trevithick as locomotive 
superintendent at the Crewe Works, and, in 1862, he obtained 
the control of all the locomotive works of the Company which 
were then concentrated at Crewe. His inventions in the con- 
struction and working of locomotives are too numerous to 
mention here ; the best known are his device for enabling loco- 
motives to pick up water from a trough on the permanent way, 
and the well-known type of express engine in use on the London 
and North- Western line. Thirteen papers in the Proceedings of 
the Institute of Mechanical Engineers contain the details of his 
inventions. He retired from the service of the London and 
North- Western Railway Company, owing to ill health, in 187 1, 
but, his health being again established, he became consulting 
engineer at the Horwich Works of the Lancashire and Yorkshire 
Railway Company in 1883, and was elected a director of that 
company in 1885. Mr, Ramsbottom was also a director of the 
firm of Messrs. Beyer, Peacock and Co., and his name is asso- 
ciated with that of Mr. Beyer in connection with the Engineering 
Department of the Owens College. He was a Governor of the 
Owens College and a generous contributor to the funds of that 
institution, apart from his connection with the Department of 

Mr. Ramsbottom was elected a member of the Society on 
February 7th, 1854. He died on May 20th, 1897, being in his 
eighty-third year. 

Treasurer's Accounts. Ixiii 

Note. — The Treasurer's Accounts of the Session 1897-98 
of which the following pages are summaries, have 
been endorsed as follows : — 

April 1 8th, 1898. Audited and found correct. 

We have also seen, at this date, the certificates of the following 
Stocks held in the name of the Society, viz., £1,22^ Great Western Railway 
Company5% Consolidated Preference Stock, Nos. 12,293, 12,294, and 12,323 ; 
^258 Twenty years' loan to the Manchester Corporation, redeemable 25th 
March, 1914 (No. 1564) ; ;!^3,ooo Gas Light- and Coke Company [London] 
Certificate No, 47,544, Ordinary A Consolidated Stock, Transfer No. 73,627, 
th July, 1895 'y ^"^^ the Deeds of the Natural History Fund and of the 
Wilde Endowment Fund, as well as the deeds conveying the land on which 
the Society's premises stand, and the Declaration of Trust. 



Treasurer's Accounts. 



y. J. Ashworth, Treasurer, in Account with the 

at ;^i. IS, od. 

Subscriptions ; 

I at £2, 2s. od. 

I ,, ,, 

3 >. 

3 „ 

8 ,, 

27 >. 

109 .» » 

I ») >» 

7 at £\. IS. od. 

3 „ ;^2. 2S. od. 

To Cash in hand, April ist, 1897 
To Members' Subscriptions : — ■ 
Half Subscriptions, 1894-95, 
„ 1896-97, 

„ 1892-93. 

„ 1893-94, 

, 1894-95, 

,* 1895-96, 

„ 1896-97, 

„ 1897-98, 

,, 1898-99, 

To Wilde Endowment Fund :— 
Balf Subscriptions, 1897-98, 
Subscriptions, 1897-98, 

Admission Fees 
To Donation : — 

G. A. James Rothney, Esq. 

To Contributions from Sections : — 

Microscopical and Natural History Section, 1897- 
Physical and Mathematical Section, 1897-98 . . 
To Use of the Society's Rooms : — 

Transfer from Wilde Endowment Fund, 1897-98 

To Sale of Publications . . 

To Dividends : — 

Natural History Fund 

Joule Memorial Fund 
To Income Tax Refunded :— 

Natural History Fund 

Joule Memorial Fund 

To Bank Interest 

£ s. d. 

6 6 

6 6 

16 16 

56 14 

228 18 









59 4 2 

7 9 TO 

o 10 
5 o 

£ s. d. 

334 19 

26 5 

50 o o 
16 6 xo\ 

66 14 o 

2 5 10 
T 19 o 

1898. — April I. To Cash in Williams Deacon and Manchester & Salford Bank, and in hand 




£ s. d. 

To Balance from 1896-97 . . . . 63 4 2 

To Dividends on ;63,ooo Gas Light and Coke Company (London) Ordinary (A) Stock . . . . 369 15 o 

To Remission of Income Tax, 1897 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 12 15 o 

To Bank Interest . . o 12 10 

;^446 7 o 

To Dividends on ;^i,i25 Great Western Railway Company's Stock 

To Remission of Income Tax, 1897 

To Balance against this Fund, April ist, 1898 


£ s. d. 
59 4 2 

2 o 10 
93 II 10 

;^I54 16 10 


To Balance, April ist, 1897 

To Dividends on ;^258 Loan to Manchester Corporation 
To Remission of Income Tax 1897 


£ s. d. 
23 o 2 

7 9 10 


£zo 15 o 

Treasurer's Accounts. 



Sociely.from ist April, i8g7, to 31st March, i8g8. 

By Balance of "Wilde Endowment Fund, transferred to District Bank 
By Charges on Property :— 

Chief Rent (Income Tax deducted) 

Income Tax on Chief Rent 

Insurance against Fire 

Repairs to Building, &c 

By House Expenditure :— 

Coals, Gas, Electric Light, Water, Wood, &c 

Tea, Coffee, &c.. at Meetings 

Cleaning, Sweeping Chimneys, &c 

By Administrative Charges :— 

Housekeeper .. .- •• ■• •• .--^^ 

Postages, and Carriage of Parcels and of " Memoirs 

Stationer^-, Cheques. Receipts, and Engrossing 

Printing Circulars, Reports, &c. 

Legal Charges 

Miscellaneous Expenses .. 
By Publishing :— 

Honorarium for Editing the " Memoirs," 1897-8 

Printing " Memoirs and Proceedings" 

Binding " Memoirs " -• •• 

Wood "Engraving and Lithography (except Natural History Plates) 
By Library : — 

Books and Periodicals (except on Natural History) 

Library Appliances 

Binding Repairs 

Expenses of Delegate to Library Conference 

By Natural History Fund : — 

(Items shown in the Balance Sheet of this Fund) 

By Joule Memorial Fund :— 

(No expenditure this session.) 
By Balance at Bank 
,, ,, in Treasurer's hands 

FUND, 1897-1898. 

By Assistant Secretary's Salary, April, 1S97, to March, 
By Maintenance of Society's Library :— 

Periodicals (to complete sets) 

Binding Books in Library 

Catalogue Cabinet 

By Decorating and Electrical Repairs 
By Gold Medal and Engraving Medals 

By Wilde Premium 

By Honorarium to Lecturer . . 

By Transfers to the Society's Funds : — 

Subscriptions of Members 

Entrance Fees 

Use of Society's Rooms 

By Cheque Book 

By Balance, April ist, 1897 .. 

FUND, 1897-1898, 

By Balance against, April 1st, 1897 .. 

By Natural History Books and Periodicals 

By Plates for Papers on Natural History in " Memoirs 

FUND, 1897-1898. 

(No Expenditure this Session) 
By Balance, April ist, 1698 .. 


£ s. d. 







12 9 8 


13 17 6 

75 5 I 



24 5 5, 

12 11^ 

5 10 4 




62 8 

38 9 10 

7 16 4^ 

II 19 


7 4 3 





120 6 


II 4 6 




45 15 

3 5 9 


5 14 II 







186 II 7 







£ s. d, 





78 14 2 

38 7 9 














13 13 

12 12 


76 5 


£ s. d. 

38 tS 3 
97 5 7 
18 18 o 

;^iS4 16 10 

£ s. d. 

30 15 o 

£30 15 o 

Ixvi Microscopical and Natural History Section. 

Annual Report of the Council of the Microscopical 
and Natural History Section. 

The Council have much pleasure in stating that the 
Session 1897-98 has been an exceedingly successful one, a large 
number of very interesting and valuable papers and exhibits 
having been brought to the meetings. 

Several new Associates have been elected, who have added 
great strength to the Section, and have made valuable con- 
tributions to the proceedings, whilst, on the other hand, no 
resignations have been received. 

The papers and exhibits brought to the meetings have 
generally been more than there was time to read and examine, the 
principal contributions being by the President, Messrs. 
Melvill, Bailey, Cameron, Butterworth, Sykes, Rogers, 
Hyde, Allen, and Broadbent. 

With the increase in the number of Associates your Council 
have every reason to look forward to the next session with 

The Council. Ixvii 





( Corrected to September 30th ^ i8g8.) 

Jil resident. 










W. E. HOYLE, M.A., M.Sc, M.R.C.S. 

ODf the QToundl 




J. E. KING, M.A. 



Ixviii Ordinary Members. 


Date of Election. 

1870, Dec. 13. Angell, John, F.C.S., F.I.C. 6, Beaconsfield, Derby Road, 

Withington, Manchester. 
1896, Jan. 21. Armstrong, Frank. The Rowans^ Harboro' Grove, 

Harbord' Road, Ashion-on-Mersey, Cheshire. 
1895, ]^^^ 8' Armstrong, Geo. B. Clarendon, Sale, Cheshire. 

1887, Nov. 16. Ashworth, J. Jackson. 39, Spring Gardens, Manchester. 

1865, Nov. 14. Bailey, Charles, F.L.S. Ashfieid, College Road, Whalley 
Range, Manchester. 

1888, Nov. 13. Bailey, G. H., D.Sc, Ph.D. Owens College, Manchester. 

1888, Feb. 7. Bailey, Alderman Sir W. H. Sale Hall, Sale, Cheshire. 

1895, Jan. ^' Barnes, Charles L. , M.A., 10, Nelson Street, Chorlton-on- 

Medlock, Manchester. 

1894, Jan. 9- Beckett, J. Hampden, F.C.S. Corbar Hall, Buxton. 

1896, April 14. Behrens, George B. The Acorns, 4, Oak Drive, Fallow- 

field, Manchester. 

1895, Mar, 5. Behrens, Gustav, Holly Royde, Withington, Manchester. 
1868, Dec. 15. Bickham, Spencer H., F.L.S. Undei-down, Ledbury. 

1896, April 14. Bindloss, James B. Elm Bank, Eccles, Lanes. 

1896, April 28. Bolton, Herbert, F. R. S.E. 94, Dickenson Road, Rusholme, 

1861, Jan. 22. Bottomley, James, D.Sc, B.A., F.C.S. 220, Lower 

Broughton Road, Manchester. 
1896, Oct. 6. Bowman, F. H., D.Sc, F.R. S.E. Mayfield, Knutsford, 

1896, Feb. 18. Bowman, George, M.D. S^^, Stretford Road, Old Traprd, 

1875, Nov. 16. Boyd, John. Barton House, Didsbury Park, Didsbury, 


1889. Oct. 15. Bradley, Nathaniel, F.C.S. Sunnysiae, Whalley Range, 

1894, Mar. 6. Broadbent, G. H. , M. R. C. S. 8, Ardwick Green, Manchester. 
1896, Nov. 17. Broderick, Lonsdale, F.C.A, Somerby, Wilmslozu, 

1 86 1, April 2. Brogden, Henry, F,G..S, M.Inst.M.E. Hale Lod^e, 

Altrincham, Cheshire. 
1889, April 16. Brooks, Samuel Herbert. Slade House, Levenshulme, 

1844, Jan. 23. Brooks, Sir William Cunlifife, Bart, M. A. Bank, 92, Kijtg 

Street, Manchester. 
i860, Jan. 24. Brothers, Alfred, F.R.A.S. j2>. King Street, Manchester. 
1886, April 6. Brown, Alfred, M.A., M.D. Sandycroft, Highzr Brouqh- 

ton, Manchester. 

Ordinary Members. Ixix 

Date 0/ Election. 

1846, Jan. 27. Browne, Henry, iM.A. (Glas.), M.R.C.S. (Lond.), M.D. 

(Lond.) The Gables, Victoria Park, Manchester. 
1889, Jan. 8. Brownell, T. W., F.K.A.S. 64, Upper Brook Street, 

Manchester . 
1889, Oct. 15. Budenberg, C. F., M.Sc, M.Inst.M.E. Bowdon Lane, 

Marple, Cheshire. 
1872, Nov. 12. Burghardt, Charles Anthony, Ph.D. 35, Fountain Street, 

1896, Nov. 3. Burke, John, B.A. Owens College, Manchester. 

1894, Nov. 13. Burton, Wm., F.C.S. llie Hollies, Clifton Junction, near 


1893, Jan. 10. Chadwick, W. I. 26, King Street, Manchester. 
1854, April 18. Christie, Richard Copley, M.A., Ribsden, tiear Bagshot, 

1895, April 9. Claus, Wm. H. 31, Mauldeth Road, Fallow field, Man- 

1895, April 30. CoUett, Edward Pyemont. 7, Wilbraham Road, Chorlton- 

cutn- Hardy, Manchester. 
1884, Nov. 4. Corbett, Joseph. Town Hall, Salford. 
1895, April 30. Cornish, James Edward. Stone House, Alderley Edge, 

1859, Jan. 25. Coward, Edward, Assoc.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E. Heaton 

House, Heaton Mersey ^near Manchester. 

1895, ^ov. 12. Crossley, Wm. J., M.Inst.M.E., Openshaw, Ma?ichester. 

1896, Nov. 3. Crowther, J., A.R.S.M. Technical School, Swansea. 
1876, April 18. Cunliffe, Robert Ellis. Halton Bank, Pendleton, Man- 

1853, April 19. Darbishire, Robert Dukinfield, B.A., F.S.A. i, St. James's 
Square, Manchester. 

1895, April 9. Dawkins, Wm. Boyd, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Geology. 

Owens College, Manchester . 

1894, Mar. 6. Delepine, Sheridan, M.D., Professor of Pathology. Owetts 
College, Manchester. 

1879, Mar. 18. Dent, Hastings Charles, F.L.S., F.R.G.S. 20, Ihurloe 
Square, London, S. W. 

1887, Feb. 8. Dixon, Harold Bailey, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Che- 
mistry. Owens College, Manchester. 

1896, Oct. 20. Drey, Oscar. Carill Drive, Falloiv field, Manchester. 

1883, Oct. 2. Faraday, F. J., F.L.S., F.S.S. Ramsay Lodge, Slade 
Lane, Levemhulme, Manchester. 

1897, Oct. 19. Faraday, Wilfred B., LL.B. Ramsay Lodge, Slade L^ane, 

Levenshtili/ie, Manchester. 

Ixx Ordinary Members. 

Date of Election. 

1895, April 30. Flux, A. W., M.A., Professor of Political Economy. 57, 

Parsonage Road, Withington, Manchester. 
1897, Nov. 30. Freston, H. W. 6, St. Paul's Road, Kersal, Manchester. 

1886, Feb. 9. Gee, W. W. Haldane, B.Sc. Technical School, Princess 
Street, Manchester. 

1896, Nov. 17. Gordon, Rev. Alexander, M.A. Memorial Hall, Albert 

Square., Manchester. 
1 88 1, Nov. I. Greg, Arthur. Eagley, near Bolton. 

1897, Jan. 26. Grossman, J., Ph.D. Harpurhey Chemical Works, 

Harpurhey , Manchester. 
1875. Feb. 9. Gwyther, Reginald F., M.A., Fielden Lecturer in Mathe- 
matics, Owens College, Manchester. 

1890, Feb. 18. Harker, Thomas. Brook House, Fallow field, Manchester. 

1895, Nov. 12. Hartog, Philippe Joseph, B.Sc, F.C.S., Demonstrator m 

Chemistry. Owens College, Manchester. 
1890, Nov. 4. Heenan, H., M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E. Manor House, 
Wilmslow Park, Wilinslow, Cheshire. 

1890, Mar. 4. Henderson, H. A. Eastbourne House, Chorlton Road, 


1896, Nov. 17. Henderson, John, B.Sc. Ash Villa, Marple, Cheshire. 
1889, Jan. 8. Heywood, Charles J. Chaseley. Pendleton, Manchester. 

1895, Mar. 5. Hickson, S. J., M.A., D.Sc.,F.R.S., Professor of Zoology, 

Oivens College, Manchester. 
1884, Jan. 8. Hodgkinson, Alexander, M.B., B.Sc. i2>, St. fohn Street, 

1896, Nov. 3. Hopkinson, Edward, D.Sc, M.Inst.C.E. Oakleigh, 

Timperley, Cheshire. 
1889, Oct. 15. Hoyle, William Evans, M.A., Keeper of the Manchester 
Museum. Owens College, Manchester. 

1896, Nov. 17. Jacob, Edwin. 64B, Hamilton Terrace, London, JV. (V. 
1870, Nov. I. Johnson, William H., B.Sc. 26, Lever Street, Manchester. 
1896, Oct. 20. Jones, A, Emrys, M.D. 10, St. John Street, Manchester. 
1878, Nov. 26. Jones, Francis, F.R.S.E., F.C.S., Manchester Grammar 

1 89 1, Nov. 17. Joyce, Samuel, Electrical Engineer. Latchford House, 

Greenheys Lane, Manchester. 
1886, Jan. 12, Kay, Thomas. Moorfield, Stockport, Cheshi?'e. 
i89i,Dec. I. King, John Edward, M.A., High Master, Manchester 

G}-am?fiar School. 
1895, Nov. 12. Kirkman, W. \V. The Grange, Timperley, Cheshire. 

1893, Nov. 14. Lamb, Horace, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Mathematics, 
6, Wilbraham Road, Fallowfield, Manchester. 

Ordinary Members. Ixxi 

Date of Eleciipii. 

1890, Nov. 4. Langdon, Maurice Julius, Ph.D. 15, Dickinson Street^ 

1884, April 15. Leech, Daniel John, M.D., Professor of Materia Medica. 

Oxvens College^ Manchester. 
1895, ^"^o^- 12. Lees, Charles Herbert, D.Sc, Demonstrator in Physics. 

Owens College^ Manchester. 

1895, ^^^'■- 5- Levinstein, Ivan. Wilbraham Road, Fallowfiela, 

1857, Jan. 27. Longridge, Robert Bevv-ick, M.Inst. M.E. Yew Tree House , 

Tabley, Kmitsford, Cheshire. 
1870, April 19. Lowe, Charles, F.C.S. Sunimerfield House, Reddish, 

Stockport, Cheshire. 

1896, Nov. 3. Lynde, James Henry, M.Inst. C.E. Bnckland, Ashton-on- 

Mersey, Cheshire. 

1866, Nov. 13. McDougall, Arthur, B.Sc. Fallowfield House, Fallowfield, 

1859, Jan. 2S. Maclure, Sir John William, Bart., M.P., F.R.G.S. 

Whalley Range, Manchester. 

1875, Jan- 26. Mann, John Dixon, M.D., F.R.C.P. (Lond.), Professor of 

Medical Jurisprudence. 16, St. John Street, Manchester . 
1896, Oct. 20, Massey, Leonard F. Openshaw, Manchester. 
1864, Nov. I. Mather, William, M.Inst-C.E., M.Inst. M.E. Iron Works, 

1873, Mar. 18. Melvill, James Cosmo, M.A., F.L.S. Brook House, 

Preslwich, Lanes. 
1896, Nov. 3. Milligan, William, M.D. Westbourne, Wilmslov) Road, 

Rusholme, Manchester. 
1881, Oct. 18. Mond, Ludwig, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. Winnington Hall, 

Northwich, Cheshire. 

1894, Feb. 6. Mond,Robert,M.A.,F.C.S. Winnington Hall, Northwich, 


1873, Mar. 4. Nicholson, Francis, F.Z.S. 84, Major Street, Manchester. 
1889, April 16. Norbury, George. Hillside^ Prestwich Park, Prestwich, 

1862, Dec. 30. Ogden, Samuel. 10, Mosley Street West, Manchester. 
1884, April 15. Okell, Samuel, F. R.A.S. Overley, Langham Road, 

Boiudon, Cheshire. 

1876, Nov. 28. Parry, Thomas, F.S.S. Grafton House, Ashton-under-Lyne. 

1895, ^'o^- 12. Pennington, James Dixon, B.A., M.Sc. 254, Oxford Road, 

1892, Nov. 15. Perkin, W. II. jun., Ph.D., F.R.S., Professor of Organic 

Chemistry. Oivens College, Manchester. 
18S5, Nov. 17. Phillips, Henry Harcourt, F.C.S. 183, Moss Lane East, 


Ixxii Ordinary Members. 

Date of Election, 
1888, Feb. 21. Ree, Alfred, Ph.D., F.C.S. Guildhall Chambers, Lloyd 

Street^ Manchester. 
1869, Nov. 16. Reynolds, Osborne, LL.D., M.A., F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E., 

Professor of Engineering, Owens College. Ladybarn 

Road, Fallozvfield, Manchester. 
1880, Mar. 23. Roberts, D. Lloyd, M.D., F.R.S.E., F.R.C.P. (Lond.). 

Ravenswood, Brought on Park, Manchester. 
1864, Dec. 27. Robinson, John, M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E. Westwooa 

Hall, Leek, Staffs. 
1897, Oct, 19, Rothwell, William Thomas. Heath Brewety, Newton 

Heath, near Manchester. 

1893, Mar. 21. Schill, C. H. 117, For tlattd Street, Manchester. 

1896, Nov. 17. Schmitz, Hermann Emil, B.A., B.Sc. Manchester Gram- 
mar School. 

1842, Jan. 25. Schunck, Edward, Ph. D., F.R.S., F.C.S. I<:ersal, Man- 

1873, Nov. 18. Schuster, Arthur, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., Professor of 
Physics. Owens College, Manchester. 

1898, Jan. 25. Schwabe, Louis. Hart Hill, Ecclts Old Road, Pendleton, 

1895, Nov. 12. Shearer, Arthur. 36, Demesne Road, Alexandra Park, 

1890, Nov. 4. Sidebotham, Edward John. Erlesdene, Bowdon, Cheshire. 

1890, Jan. 21. Sidebotham, James Nasmyth, Assoc. M.Inst.C.E. Park- 
field, Groby Place, Altrincham, Cheshire. 

1886, April 6. Simon, Henry, M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E., Lawnhursi, 
Didsbury, Manchester. 

1895, Nov. 12. Southern, Frank, B.Sc. Burnage Lodge, Levenshulnie , 


1896, Feb. 18. Spence, David. Pine Ridge, Buxton. 

1896, April 14. Stanton, Thomas E., M.Sc. 23, Kelvin Grove, Princes 

Park, Liverpool. 
1894, Jan. 9. Stevens, Marshall, F.S.S. Bolton Lodge, Eccles, Lanes. 

1894, Nov. 13. Stirrup, Mark, F.G.S. High Thorn, Stamford Road, 

Bowdon, Cheshire. 

1897, Nov. 30. Stromeyer, C. K., M.Inst.C.E. Steam Users'' Association, 

9, Mount Street, Albert Square, Manchester. 
1892, Nov. 29. Swindells, Rupert, M.Inst.C.E. Wilton Villa, The Firs, 
Bowdon, Cheshire. 

1895, April 9. Tatton, Reginald A., Engineer to the Mersey and Irwell 

Joint Committee. 44, Mosley Street, Manchester. 

1898, Feb. 8. Taylor, Rev. Arthur, M.A. (Oxon.). /^^, Egerton Road, 

Withington, Manchester. 

Ordinary Members. Ixxiii 

Date 0/ Election, 

1893, Nov. 14. Taylor, R. L., F.C.S., F.I.C. Central School, Whitworth 

Street, Manchester. 
1873, April 15. Thomson, William, F.R.S.E., F.C.S., F.I.C. Royal 

Institution, Manchester. 
1896, Jan. 21, Thorburn, William, M.D., B.Sc. 2, St. Peter s Square, 

1889, April 30. Thornber, Harry. Rookjield Avenue, Sale, ChesJme. 

1896, Jan. 21. Thorp, Thomas. Moss Batik, Whitefield, near Manchester- 

1897, Jan. 26. Tristram, James Floyd, M.A., B.Sc. 180, Princess Road, 

Moss Side, Manchester. 

1879, Dec. 30. Ward, Thomas. WadebrooJz House, Northwich, Cheshire. 

1873, Nov. 18. Waters, Arthur William, F.G.S. Sunny Lea, Davos Dorf, 

1892, Nov. 15. Weiss, F. Ernest, B.Sc, F.L.S., Professor of Botany, 
Owens College. 4, Clifton Avenue, Fallowjield, Man- 

1895, April 9. Whitehead, James. Linfield, Fidshaw Park, Wilmsloiv, 

1859, Jan. 25. Wilde, Henry, F.R.S. The Hurst, Alderley Edge, 

1859, April 19. Wilkinson, Thomas Read. Vale Bank, Knutsford, 


1888, April 17. Williams, Sir E. Leader, M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E. 

41, Spring Gardens, Manchester. 

1896, Dec. I. Wilson, George, M.Sc. Owens College, Manchester. 

1889, April 16. Wilson, Thomas B. Mellor, 7iear Marple, Cheshire. 
i860, April 17. Woolley, George Stephen. Victoria Bridge, Salford. 

1896, Jan. 21. Wordingham, Charles Henry, A.M. Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E. 

Hazelhurst, Urviston Lane, Stretford, Manchester. 
1863, Nov. 17. Worthington, Samuel Barton, M.Inst.C.E. M.Inst.M.E. 

Mill Bank, Bowdon, and 37, Princess Street, Manchester. 
1865, Feb. 21. Worthington, Thomas, F.R.I.B.A. 46, Brown Street, 

1895, Jan. 8. Worthington, Wm. Barton, B.Sc, M.Inst.C.E. 2, Wilton 

Polygon, Cheethaui Hill, Manchester. 

1897, Oct. 19. Wyatt, Charles H. Chelford, Cheshire. 

N.B. — Of the above list the following have compounded for their 
subscriptions, and are therefore life members : — 
Bailey, Charles, F.L.S. 
Bradley, Nathaniel, F.C.S. 
Brogden, Henry, F.G.S. 
Johnson, William H., B.Sc 
Lowe, Charles, F.C.S. 
Worthington, Wm. Barton, B.Sc. 

Ixxiv Honorary Members. 


Date of Election, 
1892, April 26. Abney, W. de Wiveleslie, Capt. R.E., C.B., F.R.S. 

Rath77iore Lodge^ Bolton Gardens South, S. Kensington^ 

London, S. W, 
1892, April 26. Amagat, E. H., For. Mem. R.S., Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. 

(Acad. Sci.), Honorary Professor, Faculty of Sciences, 

Lyons. 34, Rtie St. Lambert, Paris^ 
1894, April 17. Appell, Paul, Membre de I'lnstitut, Professor at the 

Faculty of Sciences. Paris. 
1887, April 19. Armstrong, Wm. George, Lord, C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., 

F.R.S. Newcastle-on - Tyne. 
1892, April 26. Ascherson, Paul F. Aug., Professor of Botany, Berlin. 

1892, April 26. Baeyer, Adolf von, For. Mem. R. S., Professor of Chemistry. 

I, Arcisstrasse, Munich. 
1886, Feb. 9. Baker, Sir Benjamin, K. CM. G., F.R.S. z. Queen' s Square 

Place, Westminster, S. W, 
1886, Feb. 9. Baker, John Gilbert, F.R.S., F.L.S. Royal Herbarium, 

1895, April 30. Beilstein, F., Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry, 8th Line, 

N. 17, St. Petersburg, W.O. 
1886, Feb. 9. Berthelot, Marcellin, For. Mem. R.S., Membre de I'lnstitut. 

Professor of Chemistry. Paris. 
1892, April 26. Boltzmann, Ludwig, Professor of Physics. K. K. Univer- 

sitdt, Vienna. 

1886, Feb. 9. Buchan, Alexander, M. A., LL.D., F.R.S. 42, ^^rz^^'i^^Te/, 

i860, April 17. Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm, Ph.D., For. Mem. R.S., For. 
Assoc. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.), Professor of Chemistry. 

1888. April 17. Cannizzaro, Stanislao, For. Mem. R.S., Corr. Memb. 

Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.), Prof, of Chemistry. University 
of Rome. 

1889, April 30. Carruthers, William, F.R.S., F.L.S., late Keeper of 

Botanical Dept., British Museum. Central House, 
Central Hill, London, S.E. 
1866, Oct. 30. Clifton, Robert Bellamy, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., Prof, 
of Natural Philosophy, Oxford. New Museum^ Oxford. 

1887, April 19. Cornu, Professor Marie Alfred. For. Mem. R.S., Membre 

de I'lnstitut. Ecole Poly technique, Paris. 
1892, April 26. Curtius, Theodor, Professor of Chemistry. Kiel. 

Hofiorary Members. Ixxv 

Date of Election. 

1892, April 26. Darboux, Gaston, Membre de I'lnstitut, Professor at the 

Faculty of Sciences. 36, Rue Gay Lussac, Paris. 
1 886, Feb. 9. Dawson, Sir John William, C.M.G., M. A., LL.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. McGHl College, Montreal. 

1894, April 17. Debus, H. ,Ph. U., F.R.S. Of^Schlangenvoeg, Cassel,Hessen, 


1888, April 17, Dewalque, Gustave, Professor of Geology. University of 

1892, April 26. Dohrn, Dr. Anton. Zoological Station, Naples. 
1892, April 26. Dyer, W. T. Thiselton, C.M.G., C.I.E., M.A., F.R.S., 

Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Keiv. 

1892, April 26. Edison, Thomas Alva. Orange, N.J. , U.S.A. 

1895, April 30. Elster, Julius, Ph.D. 6, Lessingstrasse, Woljenhiittel. 

1889, April 30. Farlow, W. G., Professor of Botany. Harvard College, 

Ca//ibridge, Mass., U.S.A. 
1889, April 30. Flower, Sir William Henry, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., 

Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.). 26, Stanhope 

Gardens, Sonth Kensington, London, S. W. 
1889, April 30. Foster, Michael, M. A. , M.D., LL.D., Sec. R.S., Professor 

of Physiology. Trinity College, Cambridge, 
i860, April 6. Frankland, Sir Edward, K.C.B., Ph.D., M.D., LL.D-, 

D.C.L., V.P.C.S., F.R.S., For. Assoc. Inst. Fr. 

(Acad. Sci.) The Yews, Reigate Hill, Reigate, 

1892, April 26. Friedel, th., D.C.L., Membre de I'lnstitut, Professor at 

the Faculty of Sciences. 9, L\.ue Michelet, Paris, 
1892, April 26. Fiirbringer, Max, Professor of Anatomy. Jena, 

1892, April 26. Gegenbaur, Carl, For. Mem. R.S., Professor of Anatomy. 
57, Leopoldstrasse, Heidelberg. 

1895, April 30. Geitel, Hans. (3, Lessingstrasse, Wolfenbiittel. 

1892, April 26. Gibbs, J. Willard, For. Mem. R.S., Professor of Mathe- 
matical Physics, Yale University. Newhaven, Con- 
necticut, U.S.A. 

1894, April 17. Glaisher, J. W. L., Sc.D., F.R.S. Trinity College, 

1894, April 17. (iouy, A., Professor at the Faculty of Sciences. Lyons, 

1894, April 17. Guldberg, Cato M., Professor of Applied Mathematics. 
Christiana, Norway. 

1894, April 17. Harcourt, A. G. Vernon, F.R.S., Lee's Reader in 
Chemistry, Christ Church. Cowley Grange, Oxford. 

1894, April 17. Heaviside, Oliver, F.R.S. Bradley Viexu, Newton Abbots, 


Honorary Members. 

Date of Election. 
1892, April 26. 

1892, April 26. 
1888, April 17. 

1892, April 26. 

1892, April 26. 

1869, Jan. 12. 

Hermite, Ch., LL.D. (Edin.), For. Mem. R.S., Membre 

de rinstitut. 2, Rue de la Soxbonne, Paris. 
Hill, G.W. West Nyack, N. K, U.S.A. 
Hittorf, Johann Wilhelm, Professor of Physics. Polytech- 

nicum^ Mi'mster. 
Hofif, J. van't, Ph.D., For. Mem. R.S., Professor of 

Chemistry. Amsterdam. 
Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton, G.C.S.L, C.B., F.R.S. 

Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci. ) Stinningdale ^ Berks, 
Huggins, Sir William, K.C.B., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., 

F.R.A.S., Corr. Mem. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.) 90, Upper 

Tulse Hill, Brixton, London, S. W 

1851, April 29. Kelvin, William Thomson, Lord, G.C.V.O., M.A., 

D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. , F.R S.E., For. Assoc. Inst. 

Fr. (Acad. Sci.), Prof, of Nat. Phil, in Univ. of 

Glasgow. 2, College, Glasgow. 
1892, April 26. Klein, Felix, Ph.D., For. Mem. R.S., Corr. Memb. Inst. 

Fr. (Acad. Sci.), Professor of Mathematics. 3, Wilhelm 

Weber Strasse, Go t tinge n. 
1894, April 17. Konigsberger, Leo, Professor of Mathematics. Heidelberg. 

1895, April 30. Lacaze-Duthiers, F.J. Henri de. For. Mem. R.S., Membre 

de rinstitut, Prof, a la Sorbonne. 7, Rue deVEstrapade, 

1892, April 26. Ladenburg, A., Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry. 3, Kaiser 

Wilhelm Strasse, Breslau. 
1887, April 19. Langley, S. P., For, Mem. R.S. Smithsonian Institution, 

Wash ington , U.S.A. 
1894, April 17. Lie, M. Sophus, For. Mem. R.S., Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. 

(Acad. Sci.), Professor of Mathematics. 33, Seeburg 

Strasse, Leipsic. 
1892, April 26. Liebermann, C, Professor of Chemistry. 29, Matthdi- 

Kirch Strasse, Berlin. 
1887, April 19. Lockyer, Sir J. Norman, K.C.B., F.R.S., Corr. Memb. 

Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.) Science School ^ Kensington, 

London, S. W. 
1889, April 30. Lubbock, Sir John, Bart., M.P., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 

15, Lombard Street, London, E.G. 

1892, April26. Marshall, Alfred, ScD., F.R.S., Professor of Political 
Economy. Balliol Croft, Madingley Road, Catnbridge. 

1892, April 26. Mascart, E. E. N., For. Mem. R.S., Membre de I'lnstitut, 
Professor at the College de France. 176, Rue de 
V Universite , Paris. 

Honorary Members. Ixxvii 

Date 0/ Klcction. 

1889, April 30. Mendeleeff, D., Ph.D., For. Mem. R.S. .SV. Pelcrsburo. 

1895, April 30. Mittag-Leffler, Gosta, D.C.L. (Oxon.), f^or. Mem. R.S., 

Professor of Mathematics. DJiirsho/in, Stockholm. 
1892, April 26. Moissan, H., Membre de I'lnstitut, Professor at the 

Ecole Superieure de Pharmacie. 7, Rue Va?i(jiie/iu, 

1894, April 17. Murray, Sir John, K.C.B., LL.D., D.Sc, F.RS. Chal- 

Uuger Lodge, Wardie, Edinburgh. 

1S94, April 17. Neumayer, Professor G., Director of the Seewarte. 

1S87, April 19. Newcomb, Simon, For. Mem. R.S., F'or. Assoc. Inst. Fr. 

(Acad. Sci.), Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy. 

J oil us Hopkins University, Balti'uore, U.S.A. 

1894, April 17. Ostwald, W., Professor of Chemistry. 2/3, I.inuSstrasse, 

1892, April 26. Perkin, W. H., LL.D., Ph.D. F.R.S. The Chestnuts, 

Sudbury, Harrow. 
1894, April 17. Pfeffer, W., For. Mem. R.S., Professor of Botany. 

Botanisches Institute Leipsic. 
1892, April 26. Poincare, H., Yox. Mem. R.S., Membre de I'lnstitut, 

Professor at the Faculty of Sciences. 63, Rue Clatide 

Bernard, Paris. 

1892, April 26. (Quincke, G. H., For. Mem. R.S., Professor of Physics, 
60, HatiptstrassCy Heidelberg. 

1892, April 26. Raoult, F. M., Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.), Dean 

of the Faculty of Sciences. 2, Ruedes Alpes, Grenoble. 
1849. Jan. 23. Rawson, Robert, F.R.A.S. Havant^ Hants. 
1886, Feb. 9. Rayleigh, John William Strutt, Lord, M.A., D.C.L. 

(Oxon.), LL.D. (Univ. McGill), F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.) Titling Place, 

With am, Essex. 
1897, April 27. Roscoe, Sir Henry Entield, B.A., LL.D., D.C.L., F. R.S., 

F.C.S., Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.). 10, 

Bramham Gardens, Wetherby Road, London^ S. IV. 
1889, April 30. Routh, Edward John, Sc.D., F.R.S. Newnham Cottage, 

1894, April 17. R<jwland, Henry A., For. Mem. R.S., Corr. Memb. Inst. 

Fr. (Acad. Sci.), Professor of Physics, /ohns Hopkins 

University ^ Baltiviore, U.S.A. 


Honorary Members. 

Date of Election. 

1889, April 30. Salmon, Rev. George, D.D., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., 

Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.) Provost's House, 

Trinity College^ Dublin. 

1894, April 17. Sanderson, J. S. Burdon, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., Regius 

Professor of Medicine. Oxford. 

1892, April 26. Sharp , R. Bowdler, LL.D. British Museum {Natural 
His..ory), Crovnvell Road, London^ S. W. 

1892, April 26. Solms, H. Graf zu. Professor of Botany. Sirassburg. 

1869, Dec. 14. Sorby, Henry Clifton, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. Broom- 
field, Sheffield. 

185T, April 29. Stokes, Sir George Gabriel, Bart., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., 
F.R.S., F.C.P.S., Corr. Mem. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.), 
Lucasian Professor of Mathem. Univ. Cambridge. 
Lensjield Cottage, Cambridge . 

1886, Feb. 9. Strasburger, Eduard, D.C.L., For. Mem. R.S., Professor 
of Botany. Bonn. 

1895, April 30. Suess, Eduaid, Ph.D. For. Mem. R.T., Corr, Memb. Inst. 

Fr. (Acad. Sci. ), Professor of Geology. 9, Africanei'gasse, 

1868, April 28. Tait, Peter Guthrie, xM. A., F.R.S.E., Professor of Natural 

Philosophy, Edinburgh. 38, George Sqiiaj-e, Edinburgh. 
1895, April 30. Thomson, Joseph John, M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S., Professor of 

Experimental Physics. 6, Scrope Terrace, Cambridge. 
1894, April 17. Thorpe, T. E., Ph.D., F.R.S. Laboratory, Somerset 

House, London, W.C. 
1894, April 17. Turner, Sir William, M.B., D.C.L., P^.R.S., Professor 

of Anatomy. 6, Eton Terrace, Edinburgh. 
1886, Feb. 9. Tylor, Edward Burnett, D.C.L. (Oxon.), LL.D. (St. And. 

and McGill Colls.), F.R.S , Keeper of University 

Museum. Oxford. 

1894, April 17. Vines, Sidney Howard, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., Sherardian 
Professor of Botany. Headington Hill, Oxford. 

1894, April 17. Waage, P., Professor of Chemistry. Christiania, Norway. 
1894, April 17. Warburg, Professor E. Physikalisches Institut, Neue 

Wilhelmstrasse, Berlin. 
1894, April 17. Ward, H. Marshall, Sc.D., F.R.S., Professor of Botany. 

Cooper'' s Hill, Englefield Green, Surrey. 
1894, April 17. Weismann, August, Professor of Zoology. Freiburg-i.-B. 
1892, April 26. Wiedemann, G. H.,For. Mem. R.S., Corr. Memb. Inst. Fr. 

(Acad. Sci.), Prof, of Physics. 35, Thalstrasse, Leipsic. 
1889, April 30. Williamson, Alexander William, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 

Corr. Mem. Inst. Fr. (Acad. Sci.) High Pitfold, 

Shottermill, Haslemere, Surrey. 

Honorary JMcinbcis. Ixxix 

Date of Elixtioi. 

1886, Feb. 9. Voung, Charles Augustus, Professor of Astronomy. 
Princeton College, N.J., U.S.A. 

[8SS, April 17. Zirkel, Ferdinand, For. Mem. R.S., Professor of Mineralogy. 

University of Leipsic. 
[895, April 20, Zittel, Carl Alfred von, Professor of Palaeontology' and 

Geology. University of Munich. 


Date 0/ Election. 

1866, Jan, 23. De Caligny, Anatole, Marquis, Corr. Mem. Accad. Sci. 
, Turin, Soc. Agr. Lyons, Soc. Sci. Cherbourg. Liege. 

1850, April 30. Harley, Rev. Robert, Hon. M.A.(Oxon.),F.R.S.,F.R.A.S., 
Hon. M.R.S. Queensland. Kosslyn, Westbonme Road, 
Forest Hill, London, S.E., and The Allien mini Club, 
London^ S. W. 

1882, Nov. 14. Herford, Rev. Brooke. 91, Fitzjohn^s Avenue, Hanipstead, 
Londoti, N. W. 

1859, Jan. 25. Le Jolis, Auguste-Fran9ois, Ph.D., Archiviste-perpetuel 

and late President of the Soc. Nat. Sci. Cherbourg. 

1857, Jan. 27. Lowe, Edward Joseph, F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.G.S., Mem. 

Brit. Met. Soc. ShireneTvton Hall, near Chepstow^ 


Ixxx Azvards of Medals and Premiums. 

Awards of the Wilde Medal under the conditions of the 
Wilde Endowment Fund. 

1896. Sir George G. Stokes, Bart, F.R.S. 

189;. Sir William Huggins, K.C.B., F.R.S. 

1898. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, G.C.S.I., C.B., 

Award of the Dalton Medah 
1898. Edward Schunck, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Awards oj the Premium under the conditions of the Wilde 
Endowment Fund. 

1897. Peter Cameron. 

1898. John Butterworth, F.R.M.S. 

T. SowLEK AND Sons Limited, Cannon Street, Manchester. 

Vol. 42 : Part I. 







Memoirs :— 

I. Notes on a Coljection of Hymenoptera from Greymouth, 
New Zealand, with descriptions of New Species. By 
Peter Cameron pp. 1—53. 

II. Description of two New Species of Mutilla from South Africa. 

By Peter Cameron pp. 1—3. 

III. On Waves in a Medium having a Periodic Discontinuity of 

Structure. By Horace Lamb, M. A., F.R.S. - pp. 1—20. 

Proceedings pp. i.— xvi. 


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Bashforth (F.)— A Mathematical Treatise on the Motion of Projectiles, and 
Supplement. 1873-81. 

Tables of remaining velocity . . . of . . . projectiles, &c. 2 pts. 1871-72. 

Batavia.— Magnetisch en Meteorologisch Observatorium,— Wind and Weather 
... in the East Indian Archipelago. 1897. 

Brussels.— Academic Royale des Sciences de Belgique. Reglements . . . 
concernant les tcois classes. 1896, 

Notices biographiques et bibliographiques. Ed. 4. 1897. 

Observatoire Royal de Belgique. Houzeau (J. C.) et Lancaster (A.). 

Bibliographic generale de I'Astronomie. Vol. I, pt. 2. 1889. 

Budapest. — Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia. Munkacsi (B.) Vogul nepkoltesi 

gyujtemeny. Kot. 4. 1897. 
Icones selectae hymcnomycetum Hungariae. Pt. i. 1873. 

Calcutta.— Asiatic Society of Bengal. Grierson (G. A.). The Ka§miracabdamrta, 

&c. Pt. I. 1897, 
Cambridge. — Adams Memorial Committee. The Scientific Papers of J. C. Adams. 

Vol. I. (1896.) 
University Press. — Collected Mathematical Papers of A. Cayley. 

Vol. 13. 1897. 
Christiania. — Universitet. . Caspari (C. P.).— Briefe, Abhandlungen und Pre- 

digten, &c. 1890. 

Barth (J.). Norronskaller. 1896.' 

Schjott (P. O.). Samlede philologiske Afhandlinger, 1896. 

Dade (L.) Symbolae ad historiam ecclesiasticam, &c. 1888. 

Copenhagen.— Kongeligt Nordisk Oldskrift-Selskab. Nordiske fortidsminder. 

Hefte3. 1897. 
Foster (Prof. M.)— A Text Book of Physiology. 7th edition. Parts. 1897. 

Haarlem.— HoUandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen. GEuvres completes 
de C. Huygens. Tome VII. (1897.) 

Koloniaal Museum. Greshoff (M.). Nuttige Indische Planten. Aflev. 4, 


[ Continued on page j of wrapper. 

Hague.— Koninklijke Instituut van Ingenieurs. Gedenkboek uitgegeven ter 
gelegenheid van het vijftigjaarig bestaan. 1847-1897. (1897.) 

Johnson (W. H.) — Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. 1892, pt. i ; 1893, pt' 2 ; 
1895, pt. I ; 1897, pt. I. 

Kiel. — Universitat. Dissertations. 

Leeds.— Philosophical and Literary Society. The Collection of Ancient 
Marbles at Leeds. By E. L. Hicks. 1890. 

Lund.— Universitet. Lunds Universitet. 1872-1897. Af E. Tegner. 1897. 

Mexico. — Secretaria de Fomento. La Fumagina y el Pulgon de los Cafetos, &c. 

Sanchez (P. C.) and Rangel (M.). Informe acerca de los temblores en 

la cuidad de Tehuantepec, 1897. 

Barcena(M.). Ensayo practice de repoblacion de Bosques. 1897. 

Middelburg. — Zeeuwsch Genootschap. Fokker (M.). Zelandia illustrata. 
2^ verfolg. 1897. 

Hollestelle (A.). Geschiedk. Beschrijv. van Tholenen omslreken. 1897. 

Schiaparelli (G.) — Rubra Canicula. Pt. 2. 1897. 

Osservazioni astrouomiche . . . del Pianeta Marte. Memorie 5. 1897. 

Sheffield. — University College. Papers printed to commemorate the incorporation 
of the . . . College. 1897. 

Upsala. — Universitet. Festskrift. 1897. 


Boulenger (G. A.)— The Tailless Batrachians of Europe. Pt. i. 1897. 

Harvey (W. H.) and Sonder (O. W.)— Flora Capensis. Vol. VII., pt. i. 1897. 

Hooker (Sir J. D.)— Flora of British India. Vol. VII., pts. 23 and 24. 1897. 


Vol. 42 : Part IL 






Memoirs :— 

IV. Further investigations into the Molluscan Fauna of the 
Arabian Sea, Sea of Oman, and Persian Gulf, with 
descriptions of Thirty-nine species. (Addendum : Des- 
cription of a new Strombus from the Mekran Coast of 
Beluchistan. By James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S. 
Plates I and 2 - - _ pp. i — ^o. 

V. On a Method of Determining the Thermal Conductivities 
of Salts, with some results of its application. By 
Charles H. Lees, D.Sc. pp. 1—4. 

Proceedings pp. xvii.— xxviii. 


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Benson (D. E.).—Hutton (C). A Course of Mathematics. Ed. 3. Vol 2. 1801. 
Hutton (C). A Treatise on Mensuration. Ed. 2. 1788. 

Cambridge. — University Press. The Collected Mathematical Papers of A. Cayley. 
Supplementary vol. 1898. 

Gilson (G.). Recherches sar les Cellules secretantes. Mem. III. 1898. 

Leeds. — Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. Lees (F. A.). The Flora of Yorkshire. 

London. — Meteorological Office. Quarterly Current Charts for the Pacific 
Ocean. 1897. 

Rainfall Tables of the British Islands, 1866- 1890. 1897. 

Madison. — State Historical Society of Wisconsin. The State Historical Society 
of Wisconsin. The Story of its Growth, etc. 1898. 

Munich. — K. Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften.— Dyck (W.). Ueber 
die wechselseitigen Beziehungen zwischen der reinen und der angewandten 
Mathematik. 1897. 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. — North of England Institute of Mining and Me- 
chanical Engineers. An Account of the Strata of Northumberland, etc. 
U— Z. 1897. 

Washington. — Smithsonian Institution. — Goode ( G. B. ). The Smithsonian 
Institution, 1846-1896. 1897. 

And the usual Exchanges and Periodicals. 

Vol. 42 : Part III 







Memoirs :— 

VI. On the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat. By Osborne 

Reynolds, M.A., F.R.S., and W. H. Moorby, M.Sc. pp. 1—54. 

VII. On the Instantaneous Pressures produced on the Collision 
of Two Explosion Waves. By R. H. Jones, B.Sc, and 
J. Bower, B.Sc. Plate 3 pp. 1—7. 

VIII. On a General Method of determining the Form of the 
Velocity- Potential of Fluid- Motion in Two Dimensions 
across a Channel with Straight Sides. By R. F. 
Gwyther, M.A. - pp. 1—6. 

IX. On the Velocity of Sound in a Tube, as affected by the 
Elasticity of the Walls. By Horace Lamb, M.A., 
F.R.S. pp. I— 16. 

X. The New Gold Discoveries. By Eduard Suess, of 

Vienna - - pp. i — 9. 


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Hongkong.— Observatory.— Doberck (W,). The Law of Storms in the Eastern 
Seas. 1898. 

Johnson (W. H.). — ^Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. Name-Index to 
Vols. 1—50. 

Rome. — Ministro della Istruzione Pubblica. Le Opere di Galileo GaHlei. 
Vol. 7.. 1897. 

Strasburg.— Kaiser Wilhelms Universitat. [37 Dissertations.] 

Turin. — Osservatorio Centrale ... in Moncalieri. Boffito (G.). ' Per la 
Storia della Meteorologia in Italia. 1898. 


Boulenger (G. A.). The Tailless Batrachians of Europe. Part 2. 1898. (Ray 

And the usual Exchanges and Periodicals. 

Vol. 42: Part IV. 







Memoirs :- 

XI. Hymenoptera Orientalia, or Contributions to a knowledge 
of the Hymenoptera of the Oriental Zoological Region. 
Part VII. By Peter Cameron. Plate 4. - - pp. 1—84. 

XII. On the Physical Basis of Psychical Events, (The Wilde 

Lecture.) By Professor Michael Foster, Sec. R.S. - pp. 1—46. 


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Cambridge.— University Press. Catalogue of 14464 Stars between 24° 15^ 
and 30° 57' of North Declination 1855 for the epoch 1875 • • • By 
A. Graham, 1897. 

Christiania. — Universite Royale de Norvege. — Den norske privatrets laere 
om Vildfarelsens . . . ved N. Gjelsvik. 1897. 

Om Skadeserstatning for retmaessige handlinger efter norsk ret, ved 

N. Gjelsvik. 1897. 

Om Vildfarelse og dens Indflydelse efter norsk Privatret pa en 

Retshandels Gyldighed. Af F. Stang. 1897. 

Om Erstatnijig for Liv . . . Af F. Stang. 1897. 

Fauna Norvegiae. Bd. i. Phyllocarida og Phyllopoda, ved G. O. 

Sars. 1896. 

Fairley (T.). — On the Water Supplies of Yorkshire. 1898. 

Gegenbauer (C). — Vergleichende Anatomie der Wirbelthiere. Bd. i. 1898. 

Hannover. — Naturhistorische Gesellschaft. Katalog der systematischen 
Vogelsammlung des Provinzial-Museums in Hannover. 1897. 

Verzeichnis der im Provinzial-Museum . . . vorhandenen Saugetiere. 

Katalog der Vogelsammlung aus der Provinz Hannover. 1897. 

Flora der Provinz Hannover . . . Zusammengestellt von W. Brandes. 


Harvey (W. H.) and Sender (O. W.).— Flora Capensis. Vol. VII. pt. 2. 

And the usual Exchanges and Periodicals, together with the following 

Buffalo. — Society of Natural Sciences. Bulletin. 

Cape Town.— South African Museum. Annals. 

London.--" Science Abstracts." 

New York. — American Mathematical Society. Bulletin. 

Sydney.— Linnean Society of New South Wales. Proceedings. 

Vol. 42: Part V. 







Memoirs : — 

XIII. Contributions to our knowled^^e of the Marine Fauna of the 

Falkland Islands. By Edith M. Pratt. Plates ■ pp. 1-26. 

Proceedings pp. xxix.— xxxv. 

Annual Report of the Council : With Obituary Notices of F. Brioschi, 
V. Meyer, J. von Sachs, E. J. Stone, G. H. G. Anson, T. Ashton, 
W. Brockbank, W. Grimshaw, P. Hart, J. Heelis, J. Heywood, 
and J. Ramsbottom pp. xxxvi. — Ixii. 

Treasurer's Accounts pp. Ixiii.— Ixv. 

Report of Microscopical and Natural History Section - - - p. Ixvi. 

List of Council and Members of the Society p. Ixvii. 

List of the Awards of the Wilde and Dalton Medals and of the Premium p. Ixxx. 

Title Page and Contents for Volume. 


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Amsterdam. — Koninklijke Akaderaie van Wetenschappen. — Laus Mitiae. 
Carmen praemio aureo ornatum. 1898. 

Black (W. G.) — A Short History of . . . the Manchester Royal Infirmary 
from . . . 1752 to 1872. By Dr. F. Renaud. 1898. 

Budapest— Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia. — Magyarorszag Tortenelmi Fold- 
rajza. By D. Csanki. Kotet 3. 1897. 

Colenso (W.). — A Maori-English Lexicon. 1898. 

Frankfort-on-the-Main, — Senckenbergische Naturforschende Geselischaft. — 

Katalog der Reptilien-Sammlung im Museum, Teil 2. 1898. 
Gorlitz. — Oberlausitzische Geselischaft der Wissenschaften.— Codex diplo- 
maticus Lusatiae Superioris II. Heft 3. 1898. 

London. — Institution of Civil Engineers. — Report of Committee on the Thermal 

Efficiency of Steam- Engines. 1898. 

Patent Office. — Catalogue of the Library. Vol. i. Authors. 1898. 

Royal Geographical Society. — Antarctic Exploration : a plea for a 

national expedition. By Sir Clements R. Markham. 1898. 
Manchester Museum. — Handy Guide. 2nd ed. 1897. 

General Guide to the Contents. 2nd ed. 1893. 

Descriptive Catalogue of the Embryological Models. 1891. 

Catalogue of the Hadfield Collection of Shells. Pts. i — 3. 1895 — 97* 

The Nomenclature of the Seams of the Lancashire Lower Coal-measures. 1898. 

Supplementary List of Type and Figured Specimens. 

Mexico.— Instituto Geologico. — Expedicion cientifica al Popocatepetl. By J. G. 
Aguilera and E. Ordonez. 1895. 

Newcastle. —Literary and Philosophical Society — Lectures delivered to the 
. . . Society. . . 1898. 

And the usual Exchc. ■'<^es and Periodicals^ together with the following 

Chicago. — " Astrophysical Journal." 
Mexico. — Instituto Geologico. Boletin. 
Montevideo. — Museo Nacional. Anales. 

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